SOMMARIO: 1. Laicità e dualità del potere – 2. Geopolitica della laicità, suoi significati – 3. L'elemento popolare – 4. Il ruolo del civis-fidelis della tradizione classica nei regimi democratici - 5. Distinzione degli ordini e neutralità religiosa.
Four Annotations Concerning the Principle of Secularism (laicità): General Conclusions
Both at national and international level, the lowest common denominator of various principles of secularization (in French laïcité) is the separation - distinction between State law and religious law, which includes the distinction between different assignments of these two spheres. That is in reality the central-essential aspect of the principle of secularization, which also represents the solid ground for every normative models as well as geographic horizon in what is called the Western legal system. One could identify the historical roots of that principle in a specific period – that lasted form the I to IV centuries – from which the “sinfonia” (symphony) between sacerdotium and imperium developed (especially until the 1054 a.C.). Given these roots, from time to time the concrete life of nations and their laws have been able to affirm the famous conceptions – we all know – identifying the crucial characteristics of secularization. And this also gives us the solid basis for understanding the future conceptions of secularization. Nowadays, in the context of European Union the religious nomoi groups, the philosophical organizations as well as all human categories (like women) – that in the past era were subjected to gender and racial discriminations – hold the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; which includes freedom to change religion or belief . In this sense, we may identify an “European principle of secularization”, also understanding its evolution.