SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. The Vertical and Horizontal Influences - 3. Atheism, laïcité and Church - 4. Atheism, laïcité and Islam - 5. Today’s Popular Sources of Atheism - 6. Conclusion.
ABSTRACT: With this article, the Author outlines the legal issues involving the atheism in France, analysing them in the light of the principle of laïcité. France has a long history of criticism of religion. Many philosophes of the Enlightenment, for example, have provided the classical writings in this field. In this sense, they were able to aliment two major streams of thought of the magmatic French atheism: one is based on the horizontal influences arising from the effect of increasing worldwide travel with the discovery that people do not necessary share the same views and beliefs about the nature of human being; the other is centred on vertical arguments bubbling up from the past in a very form of scepticism and realism. With its multi-faceted and articulated view, the French atheism has also been promoted by a number of movements devoted to arguing the case for non-belief and for its political expression in laïcité. In this manner, the Author tries to demonstrate that, since the Great Revolution and during the long history of the French constitutional system, laïcité de combat and atheism has been influencing each other in a constantly shifting process of mutual adaptation.
SOMMARIO: 1. Le norme sulla Santa comunione dei fedeli celiaci - 2. Le recenti linee guida emanate su richiesta di Papa Francesco - 3. Il pane mere triticeus come insostituibile elemento dell’Eucarestia - 4. La fonte della liturgia cattolica sul divieto dell’uso di ostie gluten free come materia eucaristica: il pane dell’ultima cena - 5. Il glutine come parte del pane eucaristico - 6. Il fedele celiaco e la Santa comunione tra ostie a basso contenuto di glutine, comunione sub sola specie vini e comunione spirituale - 7. L’uso di organismi geneticamente modificati (OGM) nell’Eucarestia e la genuinità della materia eucaristica - 8. Conclusioni.
GMO and low gluten host. The communion of the celiacs faithful: an open question
ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten in susceptible individuals. Currently, there is no specific medical treatment for celiac disease. The only treatment for this disorder is lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet. Catholic Church affirmed that bread, to be valid material for the Eucharist, must be made of wheat, must contain enough gluten for breadmaking and must be free of foreign matter. In order to meet the needs of those who suffer from the celiac disease, it has introduced the validity of low gluten. The Circular Letter issued at the request of Pope Francis has not changed the Holy Communion of the celiac faithful. Nevertheless, the document also decided that Eucharistic matter made with OGM could be considered valid matter. The Roman rite finds its theological source in the elements of Eucarist by Jesus instituted in the Last Easter Supper. The sources, however, do not indicate the matter of the bread offered at the Last Supper. So can we say that it was really made of wheat? The solution to this enigma is very important. In fact, it could open up new horizons on Eucharistic matter and on the validity of the gluten free hosts.
Summary: 1. Introduction - 2. Constitutional project of ecclesiastical politics and cultural resistance to a correct interpretation of the fundamental provisions of freedom - 3. Secularity of the legal system, religious pluralism and human freedoms.
ABSTRACT: The problems that derive from the growing multicultural and multi-religious characterization of our society raise a number of questions regarding the difficulties encountered in identifying rules of coexistence that could be genuinely respectful of the ideal and spiritual dimension of the human person. In particular, it is in question the ability of the system of bilateral agreements between the State and the religious organizations to really enhance the individual religiosity, which is constitutionally protected in its instrumentality for the promotion and growth of the human being. Several doubts also concern the discretionary and political selection, exercised by public authorities, of religious organizations deserving an access to bilateral regulation of relationships. In a more and more plural and heterogeneous social reality, the exclusion from the special legislation of the newly established spiritual groups in the country does not seem to be respectful of a neutral and correct interpretation of the constitutional dictate.
SOMMARIO: 1. I precedenti e le premesse per un cambio di prospettiva - 2. Il “discernimento” delle convinzioni dei soggetti sulla nullità del proprio matrimonio alla luce del paradigma della discontinuità nella continuità - 3. L’indagine giuridico-pastorale propedeutica all’introduzione dei giudizi sulla nullità del matrimonio - 4. La predisposizione di un ambiente processuale favorevole al vaglio delle “prove di coscienza” - 5. Gli apparati giudiziari al servizio delle convinzioni di coscienza delle parti - 6. L’intento di non turbare le convinzioni di coscienza dei conviventi in buona fede e il ruolo delle direttive extra-giudiziali sul possibile ricorso a soluzioni epicheietiche.
The convictions of the spouses on the validity of marriage: incidences on the process
ABSTRACT: The trial reforms introduced by the present Pontificate and the emanation of the Apostolic Exhortation ‘Amoris Laetitia’, in respect of the criterion of “graduality” that inspires the itinerary of the “Church in exit” traced by Pope Francis, do not bring substantial novelty about how “to discern” the convictions of the parties on the validity of marriage. They put into effect, nevertheless, a change of perspective, or rather a different point of view from which to consider these convictions, while still respecting the declarative nature of the nullity judgments, as distinct from legal and pastoral directives on possible epikeia solutions.