Sommario: 1. Società democratica e simboli religiosi - 2. La delibera di Giunta e l’ordinanza del Tribunale. La delicata sovrapposizione delle esigenze di riconoscibilità e di identificazione - 3. La sentenza di secondo grado. Il primato assiologico della pubblica sicurezza - 4. Sicurezza percepita e insicurezza dei diritti - 5. Conclusioni.
The ʻAnti-veilʼ Ruling of Lombardy Executive Committee and the New Paradigm of Public Security
ABSTRACT: On 10 December 2015, Lombardy Executive Committee approved a ruling which forbids the access to some public facilities to people who wear types of clothing aimed at covering the face. This ruling, whose object is to prevent any dangers that could affect public security, risks to discriminate Muslim women who wear an integral veil for religious reasons. With a controversial judgement, the Milan Court of Appeal confirmed the legitimacy of the provision. Contrarily to the opinion of the Court, this essay aims at proving that the Regional ruling couldn’t effectively get through a proportionality test, given the excessive intensity of the prohibition. In addition, other doubts are risen by the meaning of public security expressed by the provision.
SOMMARIO: 1. La decretazione senza legge sul coronavirus - 2. Le disposizioni sulla libertà di culto - 3. Il limite della tutela della salute e l’inconferenza delle discipline pattizie - 4. Il bilanciamento delle specifiche misure - 5. Il rapporto laico tra Stato e confessioni religiose: un’icona.
The freedom of worship in coronavirus times
ABSTRACT: The state of emergency by coronavirus drove the italian government to legislate by means of decrees without law, that provided strong limits to constitutional rights as, among others, the freedom of worship. Particularly they banned masses coram populo in the churches and on occasion of funeral service in order to safeguard the health care. This paper aims to demonstrate that the Concordat beetween State and Church, well as the accords with other fellowships, is another matter with regard to a higher collective interest, constitutionally protected, like the halth care. The paper points out, moreover, how the adopted measures are reasonable and proportionate and, finally, the new leadership, respecting the secular order, held in this aspect by the italian Church, following the prints of pope Francis.
SOMMARIO: 1. Le “nuove” obiezioni di coscienza nelle società multiculturali. Il rifiuto dell’obbligo vaccinale - 2. Religioni e vaccini - 3. La situazione negli altri Paesi, in particolare il caso degli USA - 4. L’obbligo vaccinale in Italia - 5. È configurabile il diritto all’obiezione di coscienza rispetto alle vaccinazioni obbligatorie?
The Refusal of Mandatory Vaccinations for Conscientious Reasons. A Comparative Overlook
ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the possibility to design a new shape of conscientious objection : the refusal of mandatory vaccinations due to religious or ideological reasons. Some religions are against vaccines because of the ingredients they contain. In other cases the refusal to be vaccinated is based on the idea that only God can protect health. The legislatures of some Countries recognize the conscientious objection to mandatory vaccinations. The paper focuses the topic in a comparative perspective, paying attention to the italian and european context.
SOMMARIO: 1. Il Regolamento UE 2016/679 e i dati di natura religiosa: un nuovo percorso normativo da analizzare - 2. Dalla legge n. 675 del 1996 al d.lgs. n. 196 del 2003: l’affermarsi delle “autorizzazioni generali” per il trattamento dei dati sensibili da parte delle confessioni religiose - 3. Le novità introdotte dal Regolamento europeo n. 679 del 2016 per il trattamento dei dati di natura religiosa e il mancato riferimento alle “autorizzazioni generali” - 4. Il d.lgs. n. 101 del 2018 e l’adeguamento italiano alla normativa comunitaria del 2016: il recupero delle “autorizzazioni generali” - 5. Il ruolo del Garante e la conferma parziale della legittimità dell’autorizzazione generale n. 3 - 6. Un nuovo ruolo per i responsabili del trattamento dei dati di natura religiosa: privacy by design, compliance normativa e tutela dell’autonomia delle confessioni religiose.
General Authorizations to process of sensitive data by churches. Considerations on recent reforms in theme of privacy
ABSTRACT: The Regulation (EU) 2016/679 – so-called GDPR - has resulted in a significant reform of the Italian system for the protection of personal data and crystallized in Legislative Decree no. 196 of 30 June 2003. The GDPR, which focuses on principle of accountability and the concepts of privacy by design and privacy by default, has rethought, in particular, the category of data in which those of a religious nature were inserted basing their discipline on a general prohibition of treatment and provided that churches, associations or religious communities can dictate and apply their own internal legislation in this field, provided that it complies with the community provisions of the regulation. Before entry into force of the GDPR, the processing of religious data was mainly linked to the provision by the Guarantor Authority for the protection of personal data of a General Authorization - No. 3 - which allowed religious confessions to process the data of their members. This system has been questioned in part by the GDPR and then re-read by Legislative Decree no. 101/2018, which confirmed the value of the General Authorization n.3 in the framework of a peculiar system of guarantees.
SOMMARIO: 1. Il diritto di libertà religiosa tra rendicontazione sui diritti umani e Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 2. Libertà religiosa, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights e RSI - 3. Libertà religiosa e standard nazionali: brevi osservazioni sul Piano d’Azione Nazionale (PAN) 2014-2016 sulla Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa e 2016-2021 su Impresa e Diritti Umani - 4. Valori religiosi e valori laici nella Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 5. Dall’RSI all’accountability: la rendicontazione sui diritti umani negli enti religiosi ETS e nell’Impresa sociale.
Religious freedom and Corporate Social Responsibility
ABSTRACT: International standards on Business and Human Rights and on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) define a system of rules currently in use to combat human rights violations in contemporary industrial societies. On the basis of these rules, governments adopt the so-called National Action Plans (NAPs), which also Italy has recently adopted. In this context, the protection of religious freedom plays a fundamental role as part of the range of needs of modern intercultural societies. This paper in this respect is divided into two parts. The first part investigates the role of religious freedom in international standards on Business and human rights and in the NAPs, paid attention to the Italian National Action Plans. The second part on the other hand, deals with the theme of accountability on human rights in the Italian non-profit area. In this context, the processes of accountability also involve entities who operate by expressing a certain tendency or religious aims. These entities can have a specific interest in the accountability on human rights because through the adherence to the so-called systems of Non-Financial Reporting (NFR) clearly reaffirm the values of the religious cultures of which they are the direct expression.
Il carattere eccezionale della “circoscritta area”, in cui la Corte costituzionale ha affermato la non punibilità di chi aiuta al suicidio o, meglio, assiste una persona nel morire, risalta nitidamente al cospetto dell’assenza di limiti dell’area individuata allo stesso fine dal BundesVerfassungsGericht (BVG) con una sentenza pubblicata molto di recente. Benché perciò non sia possibile in questa sede il commento approfondito che la decisione meriterebbe, si possono prendere, tuttavia, almeno alcuni appunti comparativi. (segue)
SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Brief Remarks on the Notion of Halal - 3. The Interests at Stake in Halal Certification - 4. Actors and Instruments Involved in Halal Certification - 5. The Constitutional Regulation of the Religious Factor and Its Impact on Halal Certification - 6. Halal Italia and the 2010 Inter-Ministerial Convention - 7. Conclusion.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to examine the Italian experience with halal certification and, in particular, the case of Halal Italia. After some brief preliminary remarks on the notion of halal, I will examine the general context of halal certification, by focusing on the interests at stake and on the actors and instruments involved. Next, I will take into account the impact of the constitutional regulation of the religious factor on halal certification. Finally, my analysis will turn to the trademark Halal Italia and the 2010 Inter-Ministerial Convention.
SOMMARIO: 1. Prospettive - 2. Duplice dovere - 3. Questioni I - 4. Questioni II - 5. L’accesso visto da Strasburgo - 6. Poteri pubblici e spazi pubblici - 7. Accesso pluralistico: regola ed eccezione.
Public spaces and religion
ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the legal issues related to the presence of religion in public spaces. The thesis is that it is necessary to consider the various issues (religious building, religious symbols in public buildings etc.) on the basis of the public character of the space. In this way it becomes possible: a) to compare the various issues; b) identify the tasks of public authorities, which must make spaces available to religion and must not discriminate access to spaces. However, there are exceptions to the rule necessary to protect children in classrooms.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: ambiti e obiettivi della ricerca - 2. Il diritto penale nel paradigma dell’ecologia integrale quale espressione del principio della misericordia - 3. La funzione della pena secondo Papa Francesco: i principi generali - 4. La pena di morte e la sua inconciliabilità con il Vangelo - 5. L’ergastolo come “pena di morte nascosta” e la tortura come “peccato mortale” - 6. Conclusioni.
The Function of Punishment in the Teachings of Pope Francis
ABSTRACT: This article analyses the doctrine about the function of punishment and the criminal justice system in the teachings of Pope Francis. The reflection about punishment is understood in the light of the principles of the Mercy of God and the Integral ecology. The central idea is represented by the concept of reparative justice. Particularly, it will be take in consideration the questions of death penalty, life sentence and torture, and - in the conclusions - a brief comparative analysis with the Italian legal justice system.
SOMMARIO: 1. Alto valore ecclesiale dello status di chierico sposato - 2. L’obbligo del celibato e le eccezioni - 3. Le norme speciali relative al clero cattolico orientale sposato, in Occidente - 4. Le norme speciali relative all’ordinazione di pastori protestati convertitisi al cattolicesimo - 5. La normativa della Chiesa antica - 6. La disciplina delle Chiese ortodosse.
Priesthood and celibacy in the Catholic Church.
ABSTRACT: In this period there is discussion about the possibility of abolishing the obligation of celibacy for the Catholic clergy of Latin rite in order to increase their vocations. Some exceptions to this obligation have already been foreseen by the regulations of previous Roman popes for specific cases, aimed at promoting the conversion of Protestant pastors to Catholicism. Canon 373 of the Code of Law of the Eastern Churches states that "must be held in honor the status of clerics united in marriage sanctioned over the centuries by the practice of the early Church and the Eastern Churches", opening up to a re-evaluation of the uxorato clergy. This study aims to recall what is happening today in Eastern Catholic Churches, the exceptions made against Protestant pastors in the Latin Church, as well as the legislation in force in the ancient church, maintained, in substance, in the Orthodox Churches.