ABASTRACT: This contribution introduces the special issue and focuses on the content of its first section, including contributions by Javier Martínez-Torrón (and related comments by Pierluigi Consorti), Maksymilian Hau, Valerio D’Alò, Giuseppina Scala and Matteo Giannelli.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1. The coronavirus crisis: a tragedy and an opportunity - 2. Demanding governments’ accountability - 3. The conditions for legitimate restrictions on freedom of religion or belief - 4. The significance of equality and State’s neutrality for the protection of religious freedom - 5. Advantages of dialogue and cooperation between State and religion - 6. Support and doubts in the reaction of religious communities to governmental measures - 7. Final remarks.
ABASTRACT: This article explores peculiarities of the COVID-19 pandemic in comparison to other health crisis experienced in the past. Each character is thoroughly examined in the article. The article focuses on four thematic areas: the legal regulation of the fight against coronavirus; the equality of treatment of religious freedom in relation to other fundamental rights; the cooperation between the State and religious communities; and the reactions of religious communities to governmental measures. The article argues that rather than raising new questions, COVD-19 has forced us to deal with familiar questions under unprecedented circumstances. In this frame, time has played a central role as a factor to be taken into account to scrutinize the legitimacy of measures introducing severe limitations to fundamental rights and freedoms. Finally, the article claims that from a legal perspective, the experience of the past months reveals that, especially in times of crisis, we need a scrupulous respect for the requirements of the rule of law, including a strict accountability and transparency from governments, and putting especial emphasis on the protection of fundamental rights, among which is freedom of religion or belief.
The key issue that emerges from the reports of Martínez-Torrón can be summarised in one question: “can religious freedom be guaranteed in exceptional circumstances?”.
The immediate answer is just: “yes, it can”. Clearly, we must be able to find proper ways to do that, while bearing in mind that it is not only a question of verifying whether it is possible to do so, because protecting religious freedom is not just an option among many others, but it is an unavoidable necessity.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1. Introduction - 2. The existing model of Coronavirus restrictions and its impact on freedom of religion - 3. Towards a new model of restriction - 4. Advantages of the new model of restrictions - 5. Safeguarding compliance with restrictions - 6. Conclusions.
ABSTRACT: The topic of the article is to evaluate legal measures aimed to stop the spread of the coronavirus that limited religious rights. The restrictions are assessed from the perspective of its effectiveness in preventing infection as well as its proportionality. The argument is that proportionality of the restrictions depends on their effectiveness, which in turn should be evaluated in the light of current pandemic situation, which includes vaccination level and scientific knowledge on coronavirus transmission. Consequently, two kinds of restrictions are distinguished: premises-oriented and activities-oriented. The former focuses mainly on the capacity of the church premises and not so much on the activity of the gathered, whereas the latter pays attention to the activates of the worshippers, including religious practices. Given the epidemiological effectiveness and the balance between protecting public health and religious freedom, activities-oriented restrictions are identified as a proper model of restrictions.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1. Premise - 2. Italy: the relevance of the possibility of satisfying religious feeling through the alternatives offered by computer tools - 3. Germany: the non-belonging of the public exercise of worship to the Wesensgehalt of the right to religious freedom - 4. France: the suspension of religious ceremonies as a “serious and manifestly unlawful interference” with religious freedom - 5. United States of America: the participation in religious services as the “heart of the First Amendment’s guarantee of religious liberty” - 6. Concluding remarks.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to examine the position and the scope of the right to religious freedom in the case law of the national courts of some European and non-European countries, which are called upon to establish the legitimacy or otherwise of the balancing realized by the emergency regulation against Covid-19 between this interest and the equally important one of health. Such evaluations, essentially conducted by the judges using the principle of proportionality (as well as that of reasonableness), betray, in fact, in the phase of verification of the adequacy of the measure (so-called Verhälntismäßigkeit im engeren Sinne) the identification of the sphere of intangibility within the right, removed from further balancing. The systems taken into consideration for this purpose are the Italian, German, French and American ones, identified as significant expressions of different regimes of relations between the State and religious denominations, and, therefore, tending to a different overall attitude of the State towards religious experience.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1. Introduction - 2. The Protection of Religious Freedom within the Swedish Constitutional Framework - 3. Sweden as a sui generis Legal Order within Europe during the Pandemic and the Specificity of the Measures adopted to counter Covid-19 - 4. Religious Freedom in Sweden during the Covid-19 Pandemic. A Subordinated Protection based on a Trust-Oriented Response - 5. The Legal Culture of ‘Trust’ in the State as the Grounds for the ‘Respectful Collaboration’ of Religious Communities.
ABSTRACT: The Covid pandemic has an enormous impact on individual rights. This is true also for the freedom to manifest one’s religion and Sweden represents an exceptional case study because the strategies the Swedish Government has adopted to limit the spread of the virus are distinct from those adopted in other European countries. The article will first analyse Swedish constitutional provisions with reference to the protection of religious freedom. Second, the article will offer some examples concerning the distinguishing features of the measures adopted by the Swedish Government. Third, attention will be dedicated to the analysis of the conduct of the Church of Sweden and of other religious communities with regard to the governmental decisions to counter Covid-19. The main argument of this article is that the concept of ‘Trust’ can both justify the responses of the religious communities and be used in the broader perspective of the upcoming legislative reforms regarding religious communities.
TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1. Introduction - 2. The Italian constitutional framework and the principle of pactional bilaterality - 3. Restrictions on worship after the first phase of the pandemic - 4. The impact of the Protocols on the system of sources of Ecclesiastical law - 5. Conclusions. From bilateralism to “loyal cooperation”?
ABSTRACT: This contribution presents an investigation through the legal sources on which the restrictions on worship were imposed with the aim of verifying whether, and how, the normative management of the pandemic affected the bilateralism that characterizes relations between the State, the Catholic Church, and the various religious denominations. The main point of reference for the analysis will be the contents of the decree-laws, the Prime Ministerial Decrees (DPCM) and their annexes and the aim is to verify, in the context of the peculiar Italian ecclesiastical policy, the differences in treatment between the Catholic Church, religions with an agreement and religions without an agreement.
ABSTRACT: This contribution introduces the second section of the special issue, including contributions by Silvia Baldassarre, Simone Gianello and Paolo Zicchittu, Greta Pavesi (and related comments by Marco Croce and Marcello Toscano).
1 - La seconda sezione ospita tre contributi e due riflessioni a commento di tali contributi. I tre contributi sono accomunati da una metodologia vòlta a comparare l’esperienza vissuta da diversi ordinamenti per ciò che concerne l’impatto delle risposte alla crisi sanitaria sull’esercizio della libertà religiosa. Seppure gli ordinamenti selezionati dai vari Autori e dalle varie Autrici siano in parte diversi, così come lo sono gli esiti cui approdano le diverse analisi, vi sono altrettanti significativi punti di convergenza (uno sopra a tutti è l’inaspettata omogeneità di reazioni in ordinamenti ispirati a modelli di laicità tradizionalmente eterogenei).
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. L’adozione delle misure di contenimento tra uguale tempestività e diversità procedurale - 3. Sostanziale uniformità dei provvedimenti - 4. Reazioni diverse alle misure restrittive da parte dei gruppi religiosi e delle associazioni filosofiche non confessionali - 5. Osservazioni conclusive.
Freedom of worship in the time of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Standard of protection in Italy, France and Belgium
ABSTRACT: the contribution intends to analyze, through a comparative key, the operational strategies adopted by the Belgian, French and Italian governments and the responses of religious groups affected by the restrictive measures of freedom of worship. The choice of these three States - Belgium, France, Italy - is motivated by the specificity of their models of relations between the State and the religious phenomenon; it allows a perspective view able to offer constructive food for thought. The analysis does not claim to be exhaustive, since the pandemic situation is, unfortunately, still evolving, which makes crisis management policies susceptible to sudden changes and adaptations.
SOMMARIO: 1. Le ragioni di una comparazione - 2. Il caso italiano: una breve cronistoria normativa - 3. Primi appunti giurisprudenziali per un corretto “bilanciamento” - 4. Verso un accomodamento ragionevole - 5. Il paradigma francese e l’opera di bilanciamento del Conseil d’État - 6. Alcune considerazioni in termini di bilanciamento fra libertà di culto e tutela della salute - 7. Minime notazioni di sistema a mo’ di conclusione.
The "perils" of religious freedom at the time of the pandemic: an impossible balance? Comparative remarks between Italy and France
ABSTRACT: The essay aims to analyze the measures adopted in the Italian and French legal systems to regulate the exercise of religious freedom during the Covid-19 emergency. The analysis is conducted by observing the various regulatory provisions in the light of the balancing test and the principles of proportionality and reasonableness. This way, the paper will try to verify the overall strength of the constitutional system in times of crisis and the protection of fundamental rights during an emergency.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. “Breve durata” delle restrizioni e proporzio-nalità: l’interpretazione del Bundesverfassungsgericht - 3. Il Consiglio di Stato francese e la “question de proportionnalité” della libertà di culto - 4. “Secular gatherings” v. “secular businesses”: il tertium comparationis nella giurisprudenza della Corte Suprema statunitense - 5. Emergenza sanitaria e test di proporzionalità nella giurisprudenza di Strasburgo: brevi considerazioni de iure condendo - 6. Conclusioni.
Restrictions on Religious Freedom and the Principle of Proportionalitybefore the Courts: A Comparative Perspective
ABSTRACT: The emergency legislation through which the legal systems have tried to cope with the Covid-19 pandemic has necessitated new forms of balancing health protection and other fundamental freedoms, including freedom of religion. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different ways in which the superior Courts have applied the principle of proportionality, with the purpose of trying to assess the extent to which the different sensitivity of judges (especially as regards the identification of the tertium comparationis) has affected the effective protection of freedom of religion during the pandemic. In particular, a comparison will be made among the statements of the Bundesverfassungsgericht, the Conseil d'État and the US Supreme Court, which have balanced the right to health and religious freedom. Short concluding remarks will be addressed to the possible role of Strasbourg jurisprudence in guiding the work of national judges dealing with the proportionality test, also in a post-pandemic perspective.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Metodo concertativo, bilateralità e laicità - Paesi diversi, bilanciamenti simili.
Concertative method and balancing techniques in the legal discipline of religious freedom in times of emergency (about the reports by Silvia Baldassarre, Simone Gianello and Paolo Zicchittu)
ABSTRACT: In this contribution, which takes its cue from the reports by Silvia Baldassarre, Simone Gianello and Paolo Zicchittu, the author makes some brief considerations about the method followed - and the balancing results achieved - by the political decision-maker in the emergency management of religious freedom.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: sui così detti limiti impliciti - 2. Le misure limitative della libertà religiosa alla prova dei test di bilanciamento - 3. Il ritorno della specialità (o del privilegio) nella seconda fase della pandemia.
The problem of limits to religious freedom under the pandemic test: specialty or privilege? (about the reports by Silvia Baldassarre, Simone Gianello and Paolo Zicchittu)
ABSTRACT: In this contribution, which takes its cue from the reports by Silvia Baldassarre, Simone Gianello and Paolo Zicchittu, the author makes some brief remarks on the subject of limits to religious freedom, the difficulties of balancing them, and the legitimacy of differential treatment between spiritually connoted activities.
SOMMARIO: 1 - Su di un critico arretramento nella teoria della giustizia - 2. La possibile riconduzione della giustizia alla ‘logica’ della carità religiosamente orientata - 3. Il pluralismo religioso come ausilio per un più equo e dinamico con-vivere nelle democrazie contemporanee - 4. Sul ritorno a Morgezia, italica matrice del plurale con-sistere di civiltà e culture euro-mediterranee - 5. - Una declinazione mediterranea della giustizia a sostegno delle realtà estromesse dalle “società dell’abbondanza”.
Morgezia, Italic matrix of Euro-Mediterranean civilizations
ABSTRACT: The essay aims to claim to Calabria - identified with the "italic" name of Morgezia - the role of matrix of the cultures that have spread from the Mediterranean to the entire planet. It would recall that in the current era, characterized by globalization and emergencies induced by socio-environmental degradation and the regurgitation of conflicts, also according to the papal magisterium, the recovery of the most genuine and plural Mediterranean identities can help give again to Europe - of which Calabria is emblematically assumed as a metaphor - the ability to affect international relations in order to determine their more a fair and balanced structure, and therefore more peaceful with and among peoples, even the most “peripheral” and/or neglected ones.
SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. Stereotipi e luoghi comuni - 3. Stereotipi e linguaggio di genere - 4. Contro un automatismo discriminante: la sentenza della Corte costituzionale n. 131 del 2022 - 5. Non arrendersi all’ovvio.
Resist the obvious. Some considerations on gender stereotypes following the sentence of the Italian Constitutional Court, n. 131 of 2022, on the attribution of the surname
ABSTRACT: The aim of this contribution is to examine the gender inequalities issues, particularly those of women, within the linguistic perspective. In particular, it highlights the discriminating capacity of stereotypes and discusses their performative dimension. Nowadays, despite several recommendations to reduce the gender gap, women continue to be marginalised in a still strong masculine culture, also through discursive practices. So, commonplaces, thanks to their simplicity and immediacy, reinforce an order of power relations between genders that place women in a position of subordination. In order to subvert this situation and reach an equal condition, the law also appears useful. The last sentence issued by the Italian Constitutional Court, on the attribution of surname to children, offers a good example in this sense. The path still appears long and uncertain, but highlighting stereotypes distortions can contribute to achieving an equal democracy which finds in inclusiveness an indispensable basis for an authentically democratic condition of life, that encourages the emergence and spread of a way of being more open, and also more ethical, a way of being of the future and for the future.
SUMMARY: 1. Religion and citizenship - 2. Religion and migration - 3. The controversial stance on religion, citizens and migrants - 4. Promoting Western values or international standards of human rights protection? - 5. Concluding remarks.
ABSTRACT: In a controversy concerning the legitimacy of the wearing of the Sikh kirpan in the public space, the Italian Court of Cassation stated that immigrants have the obligation to conform their values to those of the Western world. This is but one case when a migrant’s religion has been assumed - in the public and political debate and in courts - to draw a line between what belongs to the Western civilization and what does not. This paper aims to challenge the ‘West versus non-West’ approach, by examining the interplay between religion, citizenship and migration, and by stressing that democratic countries are such only as long as they remain pluralist and accommodate diversity. Although limitations on unacceptable manifestations of religion do apply, these must pursue only legitimate aims under international standards, which do not include such a thing as the protection of Western values.
SOMMARIO: 1. Una sentenza attesa: Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization - 2. Motivazioni offensive e preoccupanti - 3. Una decisione all’insegna del principio democratico e della chiarezza normativa? - 4. Questioni spinose - 5. Dobbs, ovvero la morte del potere di judicial review della SCOTUS?
Dobbs: the alarming implications of a political overturning of the right to abortion
ABSTRACT: With Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization the Supreme Court of United States overturned Roe v. Wade, upending almost 50 years of abortion rights in the United States. In commenting the case this article highlights the many problems arising from the decision: its bringing about new divisive legal issues; its possible outreach in terms of other fundamental liberties that could soon be cancelled; and especially the decline of the Supreme Court legitimacy that could call into question its very judicial review power.
Canon law and choral singing: unity and plurality among the people of God. An brief introduction
ABSTRACT: Liturgy, music and law seems appartently to be strictly divided dimensions of a religious world. Instead, it is interesting to note how these three different cosmos of religiosity could live together and nurture themself. Even more interesting it is to learn how liturgy law has and music has been used by Catholic and Protestant canon law to shape their different identities through history.
SOMMARIO: Premessa - 1. Canto e liturgia - 2. Dal canto gregoriano al canto piano - 3. La musica figurata, l’organo, le cappelle musicali.
Chant and music in the liturgy: musicological observations between musical practice and ecclesiastical regulations *
ABSTRACT: Chant, polyphony, the role of the organ, and other forms of music performed in the liturgy are examined from the middle ages to the early modern era in order to point out ecclesiastical regulations and possible legislation.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La fase antepraeparatoria (1959-1960) - 3. La fase praeparatoria (1960-1962) - 3.1. La prima sessione plenaria (12 e 15 novembre 1960) - 3.2. La Relatio De musica sacra presentata alla seconda sessione plenaria (12-22 aprile 1961) - 3.3. Il dibattito sulla Relatio De Musica sacra nella seconda sessione plenaria - 3.4. La Relatio De Musica sacra dopo la seconda sessione plenaria - 4. La redazione dello Schema presentato al Concilio - 5. Il dibattito conciliare sulla Liturgia (1962-1963) e l’approvazione della Costituzione Conciliare Sacrosanctum Concilium.
Music and theology in Sacrosanctum Concilium: the munus ministeriale of music in the liturgy
ABSTRACT: The focus of this article is showing the relationship between music and theology in the Constitution on The Sacred Liturgy (Sacrosantum Concilium). Initially, the article examines the altiora principia of SC in Chapter I which represents the context in which to interpret Chapter VI on the sacred music. Then, from the study of their redactional process, there’s a detailed review of some of the numbers from the same chapter on the sacred music, in order to show how some expressions were elaborated to define the connection between music and theology, especially munus ministeriale.