SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione. 2. Laicità dello Stato, libertà religiosa e comunità islamiche nella società italiana: tra diritto comune e legislazione pattizia. 3. I nodi giuridici di maggior rilievo in Italia e in Europa. 4. Conclusioni.
ABSTRACT: The constitution in the European legal space of a stable islamic community has given rise to a series of repercussions in the legal regulations of all countries of the European Union. Governments, Parliaments and civil society have been called to assess the requests made by the muslim associations, in order to give recognition to a specific set of rules and habits, which is variably understood by Muslims themselves as necessary to live in a manner consistent with religion. This, however, on the one hand, has imposed to the State institutions to reflect on the coexistence of concepts such as the universality of rights, the respect for cultural distinctiveness and the centrality of the principle of secularism in all the national legal orders, and, on the other side, has urged the muslim communities - considered as a complex and articulated whole - to put in place an attitude of moderation and adaptation towards the foundational principles of the Western legal world .