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Online from january 2007

Articoli in Diritto ecclesiastico comparato e straniero

“More sinned against than sinning”: la Corte Suprema pakistana e il caso Asia Bibi - ​ Deborah Scolart

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La blasphemy law - 3. Un campo di falsa, un sorso d’acqua e il “peccato” contro Asia Bibi - 4. La sentenza della Corte Suprema - 5. Leading case o moral suasion?

“More sinned against than sinning”:  the Pakistan Supreme Court and Asia Bibi case

ABSTRACT:  Asia Bibi case, a Christian woman falsely accused of being a blasphemer, finds her ‘judge in Berlin’ in the Supreme Court of Pakistan. The Court does not address the ratio legis of blasphemy law but points out how contrary to the spirit of Islam is the misuse of law for political purposes. The wide international echo of the case makes this SC verdict a possible leading case in theme of presumption of innocence.

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La Chiesa Ortodossa Russa e le riforme dell’inizio del XX secolo - ​ Giovanni Codevilla

SOMMARIO: 1. La riforma di Pietro il Grande e la paralisi della Chiesa - 2. La diffusa aspirazione a ridefinire i rapporti tra Stato e Chiesa - 3. Verso il superamento dell’intolleranza religiosa - 4. Le prese di posizione di Antonij (Vadkovskij) e di Sergej Witte - 5. La reazione del Pobedonoscev – 6. Il Memorandum dei 32 - 7. Il riconoscimento della tolleranza religiosa - 8. I vescovi e la riforma ecclesiastica - 9. Il Manifesto del 17 ottobre e i ritardi nella convocazione del Concilio.

The Russian Orthodox Church at the Beginning of the 20th Century

ABSTRACT: Peter the Great abolished the Patriarchate and entrusted the direction of the Church to a Holy Synod led by a laymen (Ober-prokuror). This reform had the consequence to paralyze the Church, as pointed out by F.M. Dostoevskij and by several outstanding Russian scholars. At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century the necessity to overcome the relationship of subjection of the Church to the State was clearly perceived both by the intellectuals and inside the Church. The Tsar himself realized that there was a need of a change: the Fundamental laws were consequently modified and religious tolerance was acknowledged on April 17th 1905. Of paramount importance was the role played by the Prime-minister Sergej Witte and by the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg Antonij (Vadkovskij) to overcome the conservative ecclesiastical policy carried out by the Ober-prokuror Konstantin Pobedonoscev. The answers given by the bishops to a questionnaire issued by the Holy Synod on July 27th, 1905, confirmed that the problem was clearly felt also inside the Church. The Council of the Russian Church, which was supposed to be gathered at the beginning of the century, was summoned several years later, at the eve of the bolshevik coup d’état.

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Educación, proselitismo y adoctrinamiento: perfil y repercusiones jurídicas - ​ José Mª Martí Sánchez

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. El concepto de educación-enseñanza, vinculado a la libertad religiosa y el pluralismo - 3. El proselitismo o incitación articulada para compartir una opción de vida - 4. El concepto de adoctrinamiento, como conducta lícita e ilícita - 5. Consecuencias jurídicas: la educación y sus parámetros - 6. Consecuencias jurídicas: El proselitismo legítimo y el abusivo o ilícito - 7. Los conflictos del proselitismo en el seno de la familia, según el TEDH - 8. Consecuencias jurídicas: el “adoctrinamiento” en la educación familiar y reglada - 9. El adoctrinamiento en los tipos penales - 10. Conclusiones.

Education, proselytism and indoctrination: profile and legal treatment

ABSTRACT: Nowadays the identity is a big question, and his preservation depends by a great deal on the education, the proselytism and the indoctrination. These three concepts, close and complex, demand a juridical explanation. This study looks for to light up them, in the European and Spanish context, through the legislation and the case-law.

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Sur le film “Matilda“ dans le contexte de la protection de la dignité des croyants - ​ Igor V. Ponkin Victor I. Slobodtchikov Vsevolode Yu. Troytskiy Alexandre Yu. Evdokimov

SOMMAIRE: 1. Introduction - 2. Méthodes appliquées dans la recherche et le domaine de la réalité objective et analytique; objet de la recherche - 3. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 1 - 4. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 2 - 4.1. Recherche et l’appréciation de l’image formée et retransmise par le film “Matilda“ de l’Empereur de Russie Nicolas II (Romanov) canonisé par l’Eglise Orthodoxe Russe - 4.2. Recherche et l’appréciation de l’image formée et retransmise par le film “Matilda“ de l’épouse de l’Empereur Nicolas II, Alexandre Féodorovna, canonisée par l’Eglise Orthodoxe Russe - 5. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 3 - 6. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la Question № 4.

About the film “Matilda” in the context of protecting the dignity of believers

ABSTRACT: In 2017, the film «Matilda» caused a strong controversy in Russia. This article is devoted to the study of this film. The authors explore the film in the context of protecting the human dignity and the rights of believers, protecting their religious feelings. Critics of the film "Matilda" indicated that this film represents mockingly offensive images of those persons who are religiously revered by Orthodox Christian believers. The authors of the article check the validity of such critical assessments.

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Il delicato bilanciamento costituzionale fra libertà di parola e tutela del sentimento religioso: profili comparati - ​ Stefano Testa Bappenheim

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il quadro costituzionale in Pakistan - 3. La tutela del sentimento religioso nel codice penale pakistano - 4. Il quadro costituzionale tedesco - 5. La tutela del sentimento religioso nel codice penale tedesco - 6. Conclusioni.

The delicate constitutional Balance between Freedom of Speech and the Protection of religious Sentiment: comparative Profiles

ABSTRACT: The article focuses on the issue of freedom of speech and freedom of religion from the point of view of two countries with specific legislation in place (Pakistan and Germany). In particular, we will examine the two Constitutions and the two Criminal Law, which proved to have very different ways of expressing their sensitivity and a great attention to the religious sentiment of the population.

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Religione e guarigione: libertà religiosa e principio di autodeterminazione in materia di salute mentale (salus aegroti suprema lex o voluntas aegroti suprema lex) - ​ Cristiana Maria Pettinato

SOMMARIO: 1. Linee di lettura - 2. La guarigione forzata: i fatti di Vilnius - 3. Il percorso giudiziario che conduce alla decisione di Strasburgo - 4. La dissenting opinion: brevi appunti sul metodo -5. Il sofferto cammino della libertà religiosa tra fede, stregoneria e follia - 6. La forza terapeutica della libertà religiosa: “capacità-libertà” di credere e diritto di guarire - 7. La funzione politica della religione in terra lituana: semi di neo-confessionismo - 8. La sfida dell’inclusione dell’altro da sé: scelte etero-spirituali e prudentia iuris.

Religion and healing: religious freedom and the principle of self-determination in matters of mental health (Salus aegroti suprema lex o voluntas aegroti suprema

ABSTRACT: The case before the Court of Strasbourg, projects us into the most sacred and private dimension of the life of the human being: that of religious options. In the present case, a young woman with behavioral disorders, manifested even before joining the group close to the Movement founded by the Indian Master Osho, following undergoes a series of medical treatments obligatory that force her to the suspension of the religious practices to which she usually devotes for her own psychophysical well-being. But according to the opinion of the doctors these practices compromised the applicant's mental health status, representing a serious and ascertained danger. The doctor becoming the promoter of his patient's health, ends up interfering in the personal sphere of the girl's religious sentiment, trying to modify the choices deemed to be non-conforming to tradition and prejudicial to health, without scientific evidence and, exclusively, on basis of presumptions and religious prejudices. The facts give rise to some considerations on the methods and criteria for balancing the protection of the right to health, and self-determination in therapeutic choices, and the exercise of religious freedom in conditions of compromised mental health, and the risk of a reviving confessional in Lithuania.

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Le libre exercice du culte dans la République populaire de Chine - ​ Andrea Tigrino

SOMMAIRE: 1. Une prémisse historique sur la Chine en tant que société multi-religieuse - 2. Les dispositions constitutionnelles relatives à la liberté de croyance avant 1982 - 3. La liberté religieuse dans l'actuelle Constitution de 1982 et la législation suivant en la matière - 4. Liberté religieuse et protection des droits de l'homme dans la Chine actuelle.

The free exercise of Religion in People’s Republic of China

ABSTRACT: After some historical reflections on the spread of multiple religious doctrines on the Chinese territory between the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, the Author considers the attitude of the central government with respect to the right of religious freedom from the time of the Cultural Revolution to today, paying particular attention to the constitutional and criminal law provisions attached to this issue. It seems clear how the Chinese legal tradition is not based on a balance of interest theory as known in the Western legal systems, given the prevalence of the higher communist principles rooted in time. Last pages are reserved for the systematic violations of human rights reported by numerous international observatories, as well as the ancient grudge between China and the Holy See caused by the question of the appointment and formal recognition of new bishops. The provisional agreement signed on 22 September 2018, while marking a step towards finding a solution to this tensions, doesn’t offer a definitive solution to the problem.

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Profili del sacro all’interno dei sistemi giuridici c.d. “plurali”. Recenti tendenze nell’ordinamento costituzionale canadese - ​ Giuseppina Scala

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La tutela del sentimento religioso in Canada: un inquadramento costituzionale - 3. Il reato di Hate Speech - 4. Il reato di blasfemia - 5. Considerazioni conclusive.

Legal features of the sacred in pluralist systems. Recent developments in the Canadian constitutional legal order

ABSTRACT: Nowadays the concept of "sacred" is characterised by a pluralization of the religious phenomena, which are barely defined from a legal point of view by the State. One of the criticalities of this scenario lies in the fact that there is no uniqueness on the limits that the State determines in outlining the boundaries of a religion. The risk of this lack of precise limits could be, inter alia, the offense to religious sentiment. The Author investigates the legal provisions that limit offences to religious sentiment such as the crime of hate speech and blasphemy in Canada. The latter is in fact a pluralist system considered as a good example for other States.

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Organizzazioni di tendenza religiosa tra Direttiva europea, diritti nazionali e Corte di giustizia UE - ​ Pierangela Floris

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La Direttiva 2000/78 CE e i casi Egenberger e IR arrivati a Lussemburgo - 3. Autonomia delle chiese e tutela giurisdizionale dei diritti all’interno delle organizzazioni religiosamente orientate. I contenuti criptici delle pronunce di Lussemburgo - 4. Il requisito ideologico nelle organizzazioni di tendenza. Le integrazioni della Corte UE e le riletture in corso da parte confessionale - 5. L’art. 17 TFUE e l’attesa di chiarimenti.

Religious-Ethos Employers between European Directive, national laws and Court of Justice EU

ABSTRACT: This article examines two recent rulings of the Court of Justice of the European Union (cases Egenberger and IR). These are the first rulings on art. 4, par. 2, Directive 2000/78/EC on “occupational activities within churches and other public or private organisations the ethos of which is based on religion or belief“. On the one hand the author focuses on the passages concerning religious autonomy and jurisdictional protection of rights; on the other hand she highlights the links between the jurisprudence of the two European courts (CJEU and ECHR) and tries to reconcile the statements of the Court of Justice and those of the German constitutional Court on the limits to the autonomy of churches. However, the article highlights how the Court of Justice has not adequately addressed neither the art. 10 of the European Charter of Fundamental Rights EU, nor the art. 17 of the TFEU. As regards the ideological requirement set by art. 4, par. 2 of the European Directive, the study focuses on the additions made by the Court of Justice and recalls the reinterpretations of the ideological requirement recently adopted by the Catholic and Evangelical Churches in Germany.

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Identità negate. Mutilazioni genitali femminili: la lotta dell’Europa contro una silenziosa violenza - ​ Tiziana Di Iorio

SOMMARIO: 1. Le pratiche di manipolazioni degli organi genitali femminili - 2. Procedura esercutiva e conseguenze degli atti di alterazione dei caratteri sessuali delle donne - 3. Radici socio-culturali delle pratiche di MGF - 4. Fattore religioso e atti modificativi dei genitali femminili - 5. Le strategie di prevenzione e di contrasto delle MGF nell’Unione europea - 6. Politiche legislative nella lotta contro le MGF - 7. Conclusioni.

Denied identities. Female genital mutilation: the fight of Europe against a silent violence

ABSTRACT: FGM refers to rituals of manipulation female genitalia and other procedures against female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Usually the practice is carried out on young girls, from childhood to teenagers. These rituals are carried out for cultural, religious and social reasons in the mistaken belief that they will produce a benefit to the girl (to safeguard her virginity, to prepare for marriage, etc.). No religious text prescribes the practice, but is rooted in the culture and beliefs of the communities that practice it. However some religious communities practice the FGM. Rituals do not help the health of the girl subjected, but they can lead to serious health complications or even to death of victim. So FGM is recognised a form of child abuse and a violation of women’s human rights. The EU is committed to eliminating FGM through strategic actions and legislative measures, but mainly changes in attitudes and beliefs among relevant communities are important to ensure FGM is abandoned. It is also important to fight FGM with direct involvement of the religious and political leaders of the communities where the rituals are diffuse. European States are called to cooperate with each other with strategic internal and external actions.

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Appunti sulla circoncisione rituale nel diritto ecclesiastico e delle religioni - ​ Alex Borghi

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La giurisprudenza della Suprema Corte - 3. L’introduzione del § 1631, lett. d, nel BGB tedesco e la giurisprudenza di Colonia - 4. Risoluzioni e raccomandazioni del Consiglio d’Europa - 5. Il recente dibattito islandese - 6. Prospettive per l’Italia: necessità o ultroneità di una legge ad hoc? - 7. Osservazioni conclusive.

Notes on ritual circumcision in Ecclesiastical and Religious Law.

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the delicate issue of ritual circumcision in Ecclesiastical and Religious Law. After having investigated the etymological origin of the word and reconstructed the history of the practice in question – distinguishing between circumcisions: a) therapeutic or prophylactic, b) ritual, c) cultural or ethnic – the focus is on the jurisprudential orientations of the Italian Court of Cassation. The solution proposed by the judgment of 24 November 2011, n. 43646, is carefully read and compared with the EU's law, the German legislation and the results of the recent Icelandic debate. Nevertheless, the absence of an ad hoc law on circumcision does not represent a vulnus in the Italian legal system, since the discipline can be found in the positive law in force, and even before in constitutional principles, as interpreted by the jurisprudence of merit and legitimacy. On the contrary, the essay raises the question that the introduction of a law on circumcision would not only be superfluous (for ethical and cultural reasons, even before legal ones), but also late".

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Considerazioni sul genocidio: ipotesi di comparazione e conseguenze nella tutela del diritto di libertà religiosa - ​ Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa: le origini del dibattito sul genocidio e la difficile genesi della sua giuridificazione - 2. Processi ermeneutici e tentativi espansivi in merito alla nozione di genocidio: rischi e problematiche. Il ruolo dei profili religiosi - 3. Qualificazioni tipologico-effettuali del genocidio. Percorsi e prospettive - 4. Appunti per una casistica giurisdizionale internazionale del genocidio: riscontri formali e casi controversi - 5. Disagevoli profili conclusivi: l’attualità del genocidio e delle sue conseguenze istituzionali nel cuore dell’Europa.

Observations about the genocide: hypotheses of comparison and consequences on the legal protection of religious freedom

ABSTRACT: Talking about the genocide implies to recall a wide doctrinal processing, including refined strategies to put into effects the legal definition of genocide itself. This conceptual effort should combine the historical reconstruction with a dramatic but intransigent analysis of the most recent massacres. The constant presence of religious conflicts in concrete representations of genocide undoubtedly shows how the stance for religious freedom shall be definitely urgent and participated, because genocides are a maybe surprising but anyway unquestionable part of our most recent legal history and systems, including the institutional development of the European Union.

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Evaluation of the exhibit “Amen” of Abel Azcona - ​ Igor V. Ponkin Viktor I. Slobodchikov

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction. Object of the evaluation: description of the exhibit – 2. Main part. An evaluation - 2.1. Communicative technique of combining the sacred with the low and vulgar associated with homosexual acts and the corresponding semantics condemned in the traditional Catholic religion - 2.2. Communicative technique of metonymic replacement (substitution) of one sign with another - 3. Conclusions.

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Confessioni e comunità religiose nell’Europa dell’Est, pluralismo religioso e politiche legislative degli Stati - ​ Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: Sistemi di classificazione dei rapporti e individuazione degli interlocutori istituzionali delle confessioni religiose - 2. Il “laboratorio” dell’Europa dell’Est come luogo di sperimentazione del pluralismo intra confessionale - 3. La gestione delle relazioni tra Stato e confessioni religiose attraverso gli uffici - 4. I problemi nuovi posti dal moltiplicarsi delle confessioni nei diversi paesi europei - 4.1. L’area baltica - 4.2. (segue) Le Repubbliche russofone - 4.3. (segue) Le Repubbliche dell’Europa Centrale - 4.4. (segue) I Balcani Orientali - 4.5. (segue) I territori della ex Repubblica Jugoslava - 4.6. (segue) Le scelte differenziate delle Repubbliche ex jugoslave in materia di Rapporti tra Stato e confessioni religiose - 5. La felice anomalia albanese - 6. Un contributo all’elaborazione di linee guida ai rapporti tra Stato e confessioni religiose in Europa.

Confessions and religious communities in Eastern Europe, religious pluralism and legislative policies of the States

ABSTRACT: The intervention reconstructs the supporting lines of the activity of the national office of each legal system in charge with the maintenance of the relations between the State and the confessions and religious communities in the Eastern European countries. Through this perspective, the ecclesiastical politics of 19 countries is reconstructed, highlighting the genesis and the peculiar characteristics of their legislations and highlighting the underlying lines that are at the root of the choices of their systems. Particular attention is dedicated to the definition of the different models to which the States refer in relation to their effectiveness in maintaining religious peace while respecting the principle of equality and freedom among the various religious confessions. The article aims to be a contribution to the development of guidelines for relations between the state and religious confessions in Europe.

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A Comparative Survey on Islamic Riba and Western Usury - ​ Andrea Borroni

SOMMARIO 1. Introduction - 2. Premise - 3. Ancient history - 4. Roman law - 5. Aquinas and Canon law - 6. 16th Century: Protestantism and the mercantile era - 7. 17th century: Jusnaturalism - 8. 18th century and 19th centuries: industrialization and capitalism - 9. The prohibition of riba - 10. Similarities between the sharia prescriptions and the ancient Jewish ones - 11. Riba and its recent openings - 12. Riba prohibition in the twentieth century and the sharia-compliant financial instruments - 13. Solutions - 14. Islamic Finance - 15. Conclusions.

ABSTRACT: The article addresses the theme of usury taking into account various viewpoints and traditions, pausing in particular on the Western and Islamic notions of lending at interest, in order to outline its distinctive features in the present days as well as throughout its historical evolution. The author applies a comparative research method, examining both the differences and similarities between the Western and Muslim concept of usury so to present an accurate picture of the phenomenon. In fact, the article aims at answering the latest questions concerning the possibility for the Muslim model to be a valuable resource in overcoming the keep going financial crisis.

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Libertà religiosa collettiva e principio di non discriminazione nel sistema ‘costituzionale’ dell’Unione europea - ​ Maria Elena Gennusa

SOMMARIO: 1. Autonomia delle organizzazioni religiose e diritti dei singoli: il problema ‘classico’ del contemperamento - 2. Il problema del contemperamento dinanzi alla Corte di giustizia. I casi Vera Egenberger e JQ: stessa narrativa per due gemelli (in parte) diversi? - 3. Il profilo sostanziale delle decisioni: le dimensioni della libertà religiosa e il principio di non discriminazione - 4. Il profilo ordinamentale: Carta dei diritti e principi generali del diritto dell’Unione europea nel rapporto fra sistemi.

Collective religious freedom and principle of non-discrimination in the ‘constitutional’ system of the European Union

ABSTRACT: In the two recently handed down Judgments in the cases Vera Egenberger and JQ, the Court of Justice of the European Union for the first time interpreted Article 4, par. 2 of the Anti-discrimination Framework Directive (Directive 2000/78/EC) admitting a ‘religious exemption’ in favour of Churches and other religious organisation, and ruled on the horizontal application of the right not to be discriminated against in situations coming within the scope of EU law. The paper explores the substantive implications of those Judgments for the collective religious freedom and their contribution in clarifying the horizontal direct effect of the fundamental rights and principles enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

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Opinion on act (decision), adopted by the Holy Synod of the Patriarchate of Constantinople on 11 October 2018 - ​ Igor V. Ponkin

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Main Part. An Examination - 3. Complete exhaustion of the subject of the executive act adopted by the Patriarchate of Constantinople in 1686 - 4. Assessment of the actions from the perspective of the legislation of the Republic of Turkey - 5. Conclusions.

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Pluralismo religioso e integrazione europea: le nuove sfide - ​ AA. VV. (Angelucci e altri) Antonio Angelucci Maria Ilia Bianco Wojciech Brozowski Marco Croce Lucia Giannuzzo Sina Haydn-Quindeau Corinne Maioni Francesca Mauri Joshua Moir Stefano Montesano Costanza Nardocci Alessandro Negri Marcello Toscano Alessia Tranfo Julia Wagner Giovanni Zaccaroni Marco Parisi Filippo Croci Rosa Geraci

Il 28 settembre 2018, presso l’Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, si è tenuto un convegno internazionale co-finanziato dall’Unione Europea, che ha visto la partecipazione di giovani studiosi delle più diverse discipline giuridiche, italiani e stranieri. I relatori, selezionati in seguito ad una “call for papers”, cui è stata data ampia pubblicità in Italia e all’estero, si sono confrontati sul tema del pluralismo religioso nel sistema europeo e, soprattutto, nella recente giurisprudenza delle Corti sovranazionali. (continua)

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L’elezione di un prete cattolico a Rettore dell’Università di Strasburgo: “une tempête dans un verre d’eau”? - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. La vicenda - 2. Gli argomenti pro e contro l’elezione di un sacerdote a Rettore di una università pubblica - 3. Le incompatibilità dei ministri di culto - 4. La possibile incidenza dei principi riguardanti la c.d. “laïcité d’apparence” - 5. L’intervento dei giudici amministrativi - 6. Conclusioni: l’irrilevanza dell’ordinazione non accompagnata dall’esercizio di funzioni ministeriali.

The election of a Catholic priest as Rector of the University of Strasbourg: “Much ado about nothing”?

ABSTRACT: This study examines the question of compatibility between the principle of neutrality of public services in force in French law and the election of a minister of the Catholic religion as Rector of a public university. The Author rules out the existence of any form of incapacity. However, since the duty of discretion of the public official (“devoir de réserve”) operates even outside the exercise of his functions, it may limit the freedom to exercise pastoral ministry in specific cases, as well as the performance of the most typical tasks that are inherent in the status of minister of worship, due to the inevitable repercussions on the image of the university.

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Neutralidad, diversidad y celebración de las festividades religiosas en la escuela pública - ​ Silvia Meseguer Velasco

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Libertad religiosa y celebración de las festividades religiosas - 3. La neutralidad ideológico-religiosa de los centros educativos públicos - 4. Celebración de festividades religiosas en la escuela de titularidad pública - 4.1. Celebración de festividades que presentan un significado religioso y una tradición cultural - 4.2. La respuesta de los Tribunales de Justicia en materia de celebraciones religiosas - 4.3. Algunas claves para la solución de estos conflictos - 5. Celebración de las festividades religiosas en el horario escolar - 5.1. Marco jurídico de las festividades en el ámbito escolar - 5.2.  Discriminación de los grupos religiosos minoritarios - 6. Consideraciones finales: la acomodación razonable de las creencias religiosas.

Neutrality, diversity and celebration of religious festivities in public schools

Abstract: This paper analyzes some legal conflicts derived from the celebration of religious festivities in ​​the public school. On the one hand, the celebration of certain festivals that, while showing a cultural tradition, at the same time, present a religious meaning, mainly of Christian inspiration. On the other, when permission is requested to celebrate and commemorate such festivities during school hours. Beyond the concrete problem, it is important to start from the position of inclusive neutrality that public authorities must adopt to manage the religious diversity that manifests itself in this specific area and which, in turn, is the best way to guarantee the right of parents to choose the education they wish for their children.

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Le origini del fondamentalismo cristiano: profili comparatistici e prospettive di ricerca - ​ Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive sul fondamentalismo odierno: alcune differenze rispetto ai movimenti omologhi dei decenni precedenti - 2. L’influenza del fondamentalismo sulla demografia religiosa e sul contenzioso giurisdizionale negli Stati Uniti d’America - 3. Il fondamentalismo americano protestante e le omologhe istanze etiche e giuridiche di gruppi religiosi contemporanei - 4. La Chiesa di Gesù Cristo dei Santi degli Ultimi Giorni: le origini di una protesta contro la teologia ottocentesca - 5. L’escatologia teocratica dei Testimoni di Geova e le conseguenze ordinamentali - 6. Possibili conclusioni: il ruolo del fondamentalismo cristiano nella conformazione attuale delle istituzioni statunitensi.

The origins of the Christian fundamentalism: comparative approaches and research perspectives

ABSTRACT: The aim of this essay is to demonstrate the Christian roots of the public discourse concerning fundamentalism, its disciplines, groups and legal consequences. This issue implies to go back to the first Christian fundamentalist experiences born and raised during last two centuries in America (with a peculiar focus on the United States). By reconsidering a wide historical period and a not simple variety of local religious communities, it will be possible to underline a substantial and concurrent beginning for similar movements in the progressive development of Jehovah’s Witnesses, new wave Lutheran and Baptist Churches, Church of Latter Day Saints: some of the same faiths and cults still effecting the American recent ecclesiastical controversies.

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Pietro I di Russia e la tentazione del Protestantesimo - ​ Giovanni Codevilla

SOMMARIO: 1. L’infanzia di Pietro - 2. Il rione degli stranieri - 3. La Grande Ambasciata - 4. L’inizio delle riforme - 5. Pietro e il monachesimo - 6. Il manifesto sulla tolleranza religiosa - 7. Pietro e la religione - 8. La subordinazione della Chiesa - 9. Feofan Prokopovyč e il suo ruolo determinante - 10. L’abolizione del Patriarcato - 11. Il Santo Sinodo governante e la paralisi della Chiesa.

The Protestant Influence on the Church Reform of Peter the Great

ABSTRACT: Peter the Great first comes into contact with the outside world through long familiarity with the German Quarter, a fluctuating Muscovite community of foreigners with its Lutheran and Calvinist churches, and with subsequent and extensive travel in the Protestant Lands (1697-1698), where he has ample time to appraise the role of sovereign as head of the church. The relationship of the tsar to his church is paradoxical; on the one hand, it emanates laws contrary to the principles sanctioned by the Church's Councils and organizes blasphemous parodies with The All-Joking, All-Drunken Synod of Fools and Jesters; conversely, he imposes rigidly traditional religious behaviors on the military. Rejecting his role and duty as Servant of the Salvation of Souls, he assumes a secular stance: Protector of the wellbeing of the community, (Vsenarodnaja pol’za). This swerve subordinating Church to sovereign undergoes elaborate scrutiny by Feofan Prokopovyč, apologist and theologian with Protestant leanings, who, in light of the abolition of the Patriarchate and the institution of the Holy Synod, affirms the principle of cuius regio eius et religio, openly challenging the position of the locum tenens Stefan Javors’kyj.

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L’alimentazione halal e le sfide alla laïcité francese: il caso dei menù alternativi nelle mense scolastiche - ​ Ugo Gaudino

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa metodologica - 2. Cenni storici sulle comunità musulmane francesi - 3. La re-invenzione di una tradizione? - 4. Mangiare halal a scuola: l’affaire di Chalon-sur-Saône - 5. Conclusioni.

Halal alimentation and the challenges against french laïcité: the request of alternative menu in the school canteens

ABSTRACT: The article will concern the debate about the balance between secularism and religious-driven prerogatives through a narrow focus on the diffusion of halal food in France. In particular, I will shed light on the increasing request of shari'a-compliant food by Muslims in some social spaces, for instance in the school canteens. My research will unfold its arguments in two sections. In the first one, I will address the recent development of halal market in France and try to frame the reasons of such burgeoning activities - revival of Islam or neoliberal marketing strategy? In the second part, I will consider the sentence of Dijon Administrative Tribunal, which in 2017 abolished the decision of the mayor of Chalon-sur-Saône of suppressing halal menu in the school canteens. The verdict might be read as an opinion favourable to Muslim’s prerogatives. Nonetheless, the rationale of the judgement does lie indeed in the defence of the “best interest of the child”, whereas the basic principles of French laicité were not put into discussion.

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La Bielorussia alla ricerca della propria identità e il processo di confessionalizzazione dello Stato - ​ Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: 1. Dal socialismo di Stato allo Stato confessionale - 2. L’Accordo di collaborazione con l’Esarcato della Chiesa ortodossa Russa in Bielorussia - 3. Le materie oggetto di accordo e la confessionalizzazione delle istituzioni e dello Stato - 4. Gli accordi con gli altri culti tradizionali - 5. Il prezzo dell’alleanza: la lotta alle nuove confessioni religiose attraverso la legge sulla libertà religiosa - 6. Alcune considerazioni finali.

Belarus in search of its identity and the process of confessionalisation of the State

ABSTRACT: The current piece analyzes the stages characterizing the transition from State socialism to State Confessionalism through the Collaboration Agreement between the Belorussian Government and the Exarcate of the Russian Orthodox Church in Belarus. The main subjects of the agreement and the confessionalisation process of the institutions are taken into account. The essay deals with the alteration of the basic functions of the Belorussian State, namely education, health services and assistancy to the segregating foundations, etc. Furthermore, the agreements with other traditional religious groups are relevant. In this regard, the law on religious freedom is mainly used to resist the spread of such new cults. The study is then finalized to highlight the existing link between the Russian Orthodox Church traditions and cultural heritage with the estabilishment of a national identity. This symbolic bond is then used to build the basis of a new State with strong religious features in sensitive matters such as the control over births, bridal affairs, cultural and social valuesin a nationalist and sovereignist key.

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Law and religion as a strategy in favor of profitable cultural osmosis: a wide look to civil law systems - ​ Antonio Fuccillo Francesco Sorvillo Ludovica Decimo

SUMMARY: 1. Together in diversity: law and religion in modern civil law systems - 2. The religious traditions in law and religion - 3. The religion and law osmosis in law-making processes - 4. The religion and law osmosis in jurisdiction - 5. As a strategy: the nomopoietic function of religions in the legal koinè.

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Símbolos religiosos y paradojas del franquismo a la luz de la Ley de Memoria Histórica - ​ Manuel Alenda Salinas Matilde Pineda Marcos

SUMARIO: 1. Planteamiento de la cuestión - 2. El catolicismo-nacionalista de ciertos símbolos evocadores de lo religioso - 3. ¿Los símbolos religioso-franquistas pueden permanecer en ámbitos públicos? - 3.1. Supuesto en que el símbolo religioso no ha de tenerse por vestigio franquista - 3.2. Supuesto en que el símbolo ha de tenerse por vestigio franquista - 4. Consideraciones conclusivas.

ABSTRACT: The present article argues if, under the interpretation and application of the so-called Historical Memory Law, Franco’s regimen would have set the basis to divest itself as part of the Catholicism that characterized it, in terms of having some symbols that originally would have been considered religious and now they cease to be so, historically and inevitably, at least in a retrospective point of view. In other terms, for the current time to impose a type of victim, although final of Franco’s regimen in the manner of, as a paradox, for some religious symbols to cease to be, without any other possibility for its political use as far as ‘semel francoist semper francoist’ can no longer recover that religious value. This matter, whether it refers, principally to the “Cruces de los Caídos” it can also be argued for it to attain the crucifix and the Virgin Mary located in public places by order of the dictatorial regimen.

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Toccare con mano i nodi dell’integrazione (a proposito di saluti “proibiti” e divieto di discriminazione) - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Le possibili implicazioni religiose di una “stretta di mano” - 2. Il caso sottoposto all’esame dei giudici svedesi - 3. La pronunzia del 15 agosto 2018, n. 51, del Tribunale del lavoro svedese e la questione della ricorrenza di una “pratica religiosa” meritevole di tutela - 4. (segue) La verifica dei presupposti di una “discriminazione indiretta” - 5. L’esperienza d’Oltreoceano - 6. Identità religiosa e (dis)uguaglianza di genere - 7. La diversa incidenza, nella fattispecie esaminata, del divieto di discriminazione per motivi religiosi e del principio della parità di genere - 8. Conclusioni: la libertà religiosa della lavoratrice e i margini lasciati alle scelte di politica aziendale della società.

Dealing with the contentious points of the integration (about “forbidden” greetings and principle of non-discrimination)

ABSTRACT: Some Islamic believers adhere to a rule of behavior coming from a particular reading of the traditions concerning the life of Muhammad, so they do not shake hands with people of the other sex outside their own restricted family circle. The present paper analyzes the potential impact of such a choice, if it is carried out in the work context and it infringes specific internal company rules, which require employees to not discriminate against customers on the basis of sex. The Author, in accordance with a recent decision of the Swedish Labor Court, affirms that the limitation of the freedom of the worker can be considered a case of indirect discrimination for religious reasons. However, demanding that the woman abstains from shaking hands with persons of her own sex, as suggested by the Court, is not required by the principle of gender equality, and is not coherent with the very personal nature of the act, according to the Author.

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Atheism and the Principle of Laïcité in France. A Shifting Process of Mutual Adaptation - ​ Francesco Alicino

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. The Vertical and Horizontal Influences - 3. Atheism, laïcité and Church - 4. Atheism, laïcité and Islam - 5. Today’s Popular Sources of Atheism - 6. Conclusion.

ABSTRACT: With this article, the Author outlines the legal issues involving the atheism in France, analysing them in the light of the principle of laïcité. France has a long history of criticism of religion. Many philosophes of the Enlightenment, for example, have provided the classical writings in this field. In this sense, they were able to aliment two major streams of thought of the magmatic French atheism: one is based on the horizontal influences arising from the effect of increasing worldwide travel with the discovery that people do not necessary share the same views and beliefs about the nature of human being; the other is centred on vertical arguments bubbling up from the past in a very form of scepticism and realism. With its multi-faceted and articulated view, the French atheism has also been promoted by a number of movements devoted to arguing the case for non-belief and for its political expression in laïcité. In this manner, the Author tries to demonstrate that, since the Great Revolution and during the long history of the French constitutional system, laïcité de combat and atheism has been influencing each other in a constantly shifting process of mutual adaptation.

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La controvertida prohibición de la blasfemia en la Constitución de la República de Irlanda - ​ José Ramón Polo Sabau

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. La prohibición de la blasfemia en el marco de una Constitución de clara inspiración católica - 3. El cuestionamiento de una norma de tan dudoso encaje en el sistema constitucional de derechos y libertades - 3.1. Las críticas en general al régimen constitucional de las confesiones religiosas - 3.2. La controversia específica en torno a la prohibición de la blasfemia en la Constitución irlandesa - 4. Algunas conclusiones y una razonable expectativa.

The controversial offence of blasphemy in the Irish Constitution

ABSTRACT: As recently as June 2018 the Irish Government has approved a referendum to remove the offence of blasphemy from the Constitution; the referendum will be held in October this year. This paper briefly examines the historical and legal backgrounds of this controversial prohibition that survived the 1972 reform of the constitutional provisions in the field of Church and State that, among other aspects, conferred a special position to the Catholic Church, and it does so in order to underline the importance and the potential consequences of the proposed reform in case of an affirmative vote in the upcoming referendum. For this analysis the author gives prior consideration to the fundamental meaning and scope of the constitutional provisions currently in force in the area of Law and Religion and, once this framework is summarized, the paper turns to reflect primarily on the legal and judicial developments that have taken place in the last decades relating the offence of blasphemy in Irish Law.

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“It is (not) a piece of cake”: libertà di espressione e politiche antidiscriminatorie in America. Note a margine del caso Masterpiece Cakeshop, Ltd. v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission - ​ Luca P. Vanoni

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Tra free speech e free exercise clauses: la libertà di coscienza nella giurisprudenza della Corte suprema (cenni) - 3. Una discriminazione nella discriminazione? Una decisione che non risolve il dilemma - 4. Kicking the can down the road: l’arte di non decidere e le dissenting/concurring opinions del caso Masterpiece Cakeshop - 5. (segue) a) l’opinion del giudice Thomas - 6. (segue) b) uno sguardo sul futuro: due (ipotetici) orientamenti prevalenti - 7. Dal saluto alla bandiera alle torte nuziali: libertà e tolleranza nella società plurale contemporanea.

ABSTRACT: The paper examines the clash between public accommodations laws and freedoms of speech and religion in America at the light of the recent decision of the U.S. Supreme Court Masterpiece Cakeshop Ltd., v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission. The case deals with the refusal of a Colorado’s bakery to provide a wedding cake to a gay couple based on the owner's religious beliefs. After explaining the decision of the Court and the position of the U.S. Supreme Court Justices in their dissenting and concurring opinions, the paper addresses the claim of freedom of speech and of the tolerance principle in the pluralistic age.

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The legal status of Jerusalem in the State of Israel - ​ Myriam Lucia Di Marco

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Background and Laws - 3. Legal Issues - 4. Future outlook.

Abstract: Jerusalem is the most important city in the world, the Centre of the three greatest religions. It is the Capital of the State of Israel for some, the capital of the State of Palestine for others and for others still a corpus separatum under international control. Everyone wants Jerusalem, and so they contest it, creating political and legislative unrest. These disturbances give rise to violence from both groups of people that live there. In this brief dissertation, we retrace the key historical points and problems associated with the legal status of this city, from the first decades of the twentieth century, to understand that the problem lies in the claim of ownership of this City.

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Le mutilazioni genitali femminili come reato di genere? Un’analisi delle norme europee alla luce del concetto di violenza - ​ Lucia Bellucci

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione – 2. Le mutilazioni genitali femminili come atto di violenza nelle norme e nei documenti europei degli anni 2000 – 3. Escissione e abuso/brutalità/violenza: binomi appropriati e inevitabili? – 4. L’escissione, il dolore e la sua reinterpretazione – 5. Il rapporto dell’escissione con la comunità, la famiglia e il matrimonio – 6. La Convenzione di Istanbul, le norme francesi e i rischi per la libertà religiosa – 7. Considerazioni conclusive.

Female Genital Mutilation as a Gender-Based Crime? (An Analysis of the European Norms in Light of the Concepts of Violence and Religious Freedom)

ABSTRACT: Female genital mutilations (FGM) are ancient practices, which are widespread in several geographical areas, and particularly in Africa. The conflict between customary norms and state legal systems, which arises because FGM violate fundamental rights like the right to physical integrity, health, and non-discrimination based on gender/ethnicity/culture, discloses the dialectic between two normative universes; these universes are conceptually distant with regard to the priority given to the individual and the group. Focusing on the reasons related to female genital cutting (FGC), which consists of the ablation, to differing degrees, of female genital organs, this article, argues that the link that European norms establish between FGM and violence, abuse or brutality comes into conflict with the reasons why migrants perpetuate FGC. Therefore, the way gender is mainstreamed into European norms on FGM can have negative effects, which concern courts’ implementation of these norms and migrants’ social inclusion. Furthermore, this article claims that focusing on health instead of gender equality may prove more effective for the eradication of FGM. Through an analysis of French law, it also suggests that the way the national law is adapted to conform to the Istanbul Convention, may represent a danger to religious freedom.

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Libertà di culto e diversità religiosa nelle carceri inglesi - ​ Jacopo Paffarini

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La disciplina dell’esercizio della fede nei penitenziari inglesi - 3. La diversità delle fedi in carcere e il ruolo delle community chaplaincies - 4. Il carcere come spazio multi-religioso e i nodi irrisolti dall’Equality Act del 2010 - 5. La discriminazione per motivi religiosi nella giurisprudenza inglese e gli obblighi di prestazione a carico della pubblica amministrazione.

Freedom of worship and Religious Diversity in English Prisons

ABSTRACT: This article aims to highlight different aspects of the practice of faith in the British prison system. While the 1952 Prison Act gave a preeminent position to the chaplains of the Church of England, in the last decades multi-faith spaces of worship and spiritual-care groups have multiplied. Furthermore, ‘community chaplaincies’ and volunteers are active players in rehabilitation programs, especially in preventing recidivism, which is higher among ethnic and religious minorities. Both the Human Rights Act of 1998 and the Equality Act of 2010 have contributed to promote an ‘inclusive’ approach to religion pluralism, granting access to spiritual assistance and equal treatment among prison inmates. However, it is worth to consider if a State-centred management of religious diversity is a sustainable choice before the growing judicial litigation related to prisoners’ freedom of worship.

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Un “modello Unesco” per la gestione, in chiave economica, dei beni culturali di interesse religioso? - ​ Marta Tigano

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. Premesse a una ricostruzione dello statuto dei beni culturali - 3. Il passaggio da una tutela “statica” a una valorizzazione “in chiave dinamica” - 4. Inquadramento dell’attività di valorizzazione nell’ambito dei “servizi pubblici” - 5. La possibile estensione dei processi di gestione (e di valorizzazione) ideati per i beni culturali “laici” - e ispirati a criteri economici - anche ai beni culturali di interesse religioso: la necessità dell’accordo - 6. L’organizzazione di un “servizio alla cultura” ispirato a criteri di natura economica - 7. Tentativo di individuazione dei beni culturali di interesse religioso e possibile compatibilità della gestione secondo criteri economici con la natura di questi ultimi - 8. Beni culturali religiosi e “mistero” di salvezza - 9. La programmazione e la pianificazione delle attività relative ai beni culturali (di appartenenza pubblica e non) ed esempi di modelli “condivisi”.

An "UNESCO model" for the economic management of cultural heritage of religious interest?

ABSTRACT: The article is intended to verify if the "UNESCO" management model is applicable to the management of cultural heritage of religious interest, tout court, or if, otherwise, special arrangement are required. Indeed, the UNESCO one is a model not only of dualistic management, (which implies a bilateral agreement), but moreover is inspired by purely economic management criteria. The question is whether a model created for secular cultural heritage can be assumed as a management model also for cultural heritage of religious interest, whose purpose would seem to be incompatible with the characteristics of purely economic management. The author tries to give an answer identifying the common features between the two categories of heritage.

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Divieto di discriminazione religiosa sul lavoro e organizzazioni religiose - ​ Nicola Colaianni

SOMMARIO: 1. La direttiva europea 2000/78/CE e le organizzazioni di tendenza - 2. Il caso Egenberger c. Evangelisches Werk dinanzi alla Corte di giustizia - 3. La sindacabilità dei provvedimenti confessionali in materia di lavoro - 4. I controlimiti alla disapplicazione della direttiva - 5. L’obbligo giudiziario di conformazione del diritto nazionale a quello europeo - 6. Il divieto di discriminazione sul lavoro alla stregua della Carta dei diritti del cittadino europeo.

No difference of treatment on grounds of religion or belief and religious organizations

ABSTRACT: It’s the first time that the Court of Justice E.U. deals with the limits of the exemption from ban on discrimination on grounds of religion or belief in favour of organisations the ethos of which is based on religion or belief. The German law implemented softly the directive 2000/78/CE favouring that ethos, as interpreted by those organizations, and consequently limiting the judicial review merely to its plausibility. Viceversa according to the European Court the religion or belief must constitute a genuine, legitimate and justified occupational requirement, having regard to the organisation’s ethos and the proportionality principle (even though not explicitly recalled by the directive). So an exhaustive judgement allows an objective, not spiritualistic, evaluation of the occupational activities and therefore a stronger legal protection of workers under articles 10, 21 and 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

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Libertà di coscienza e religione alla prova della post-modernità: la prospettiva giusfilosofica di Martha C. Nussbaum - ​ Andrea Romeo

SOMMARIO: 1. “A tradition under threat”. Antropologia della paura e tendenze esclusiviste delle comunità dominanti - 2. La tradizione filosofica del pensiero costituzionale: Williams, Madison e i princìpi cardine della tradizione di “religious fairnes” - 3. Forme di Benign Establishment: critica alla tesi della “presunta innocuità” e interpretazione autentica del principio di separazione - 4. Neutralità statale e speciale considerazione del fenomeno religioso: un rapporto problematico.

Liberty of conscience and liberty of religion on the challenge of the post-modernity: the Martha C. Nussbaum's philosophical jurisprudence

ABSTRACT: Nussbaum is one of the prominent defenders of the North American liberal tradition, threatened by the post-modern tendency to the exaltation of elements from the mainstream religion and the creation of in-groups between citizens. In his writings, the philosopher reproposes the value of liberal tradition by trying to show the impossibility to justify even the most venial forms of the benign establishment, as in the case of state-sponsored-religious-displays. The article focuses on Nussbaum'arguments, in a critical perspective.

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La questione della riconoscibilità civile del divorzio islamico al vaglio della Corte di giustizia dell’Unione europea (a margine della pronunzia del 20 dicembre 2017, C-372/16) - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Notazioni introduttive - 2. I termini della vicenda da cui origina il rinvio pregiudiziale e la competenza della Corte di giustizia a pronunziarsi sulla questione controversa - 3. La portata applicativa del regolamento n. 1259 del 2010 e le sentenze dei tribunali religiosi - 4. Le implicazioni di carattere sistematico della pronunzia in rapporto al principio di incompetenza dell’Unione nella materia ecclesiastica o religiosa - 5. I dubbi sostanziali circa la riconoscibilità in Europa del ripudio islamico - 6. Conclusioni.

The issue of the civil recognizability of the Islamic divorce by the EU Court of Justice (considerations on the ruling of December 20th 2017, C-372/16)

ABSTRACT: The present paper takes as a starting point a recent ruling by the EU Court of Justice concerning the issue of recognizability of Islamic repudiation under the EU Regulation No. 1259/2010. After assessing the conditions underlying the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice to rule on such a controversial matter, the Author excludes that the religious judgments fall within the scope of the aforementioned regulation (and within the purpose of Regulation No. 2201/2013), also in light of the so-called principle of the Union’s incompetence in ecclesiastical or religious matters. Moreover, although the unilateral repudiation is to be considered contrary to the principle of public order of the moral and legal equality of the spouses, the Author concludes that, consistently with the current trend of many legal systems to give increasing broader space to the “negotiating” management of the marriage bond, effective protection of the principle of equality should involve letting women, in some particular situations, have the choice of concretely enforcing that principle.

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Alcuni spunti di comparazione tra diritto italiano e diritto ebraico in tema di maternità surrogata - ​ Enrica Martinelli

SOMMARIO: 1. Il divieto di maternità surrogata nell’ordinamento italiano - 2. Diritto ebraico e bioetica - 3. “Crescete e moltiplicatevi”. Il precetto divino di procreare e la maternità surrogata nel diritto ebraico - 4. Conclusioni.

Some starting points for comparison between Italian law and Jewish law on surrogate motherhood

ABSTRACT: Recent scientific progress in reproductive biotechnologies implies significant transformations in terms of the value and culture of the concept of maternity, which is no longer attributable to the legal definition of “mother” offered by Italian civil legislation. Assisted reproductive technologies separate the reproductive aspect and sexual union of the couple, finally leading to the metamorphosis of the relational dynamics underlying the “family identity” and the birth of new types of biolegal contracts. The study sets out to compare the approach that the Italian legal system reserves for the phenomenon of surrogacy with that which has developed at the heart of Jewish law. The interesting variety of opinions of the rabbinical authorities, which express both the Orthodox positions and the more progressive ones, show how Jewish speculation around bioethical reproductive issues has led to a respectful comparison of knowledge and judgements of the minority opinions that enter, with equal dignity, into the legal debate and are enhanced by the absence of a superior interpretation.

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Il secolarismo all’ombra dei minareti: il principio costituzionale di laicità nella Turchia moderna e contemporanea - ​ Marco Galimberti

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa introduttiva - 2. La Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tra eredità islamica e legittimazione internazionale - 3. La laicità dello Stato: il fondamento della nuova identità nazionale - 4. Le forze armate e la Corte costituzionale: i ‘custodi’ della laiklik - 5. La parabola dell’AKP: dall’impulso riformista alla recente involuzione autoritaria - 6. Le implicazioni giuridiche del fallito golpe del 2016.

Secularism in the shadow of the minarets: the constitutional principle of secularism in modern and contemporary Turkey

ABSTRACT: The present essay deals with the so-called ‘laiklik’, namely the Kemalist understanding of the constitutional principle of secularism implemented in the Turkish legal framework over the last century. The analysis takes as a starting point the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey and focuses firstly on the staunch protection of secularism by its traditional ‘guardians’ (i.e. the army and the Constitutional Court). In particular, it is argued that the rhetoric of secularism has been exploited by the ruling élites with the aim to curb religious, cultural and political pluralism. Subsequently, the paper investigates the controversial policies adopted by the AKP - the moderate pro-Islamic party in power uninterruptedly since 2002 - and the rule of law crisis recently occurred in the country. In this regard, the author eventually seeks to assess the aftermath of the coup attempt failed in July 2016, by giving special attention to its short and long-term implications in the light of Turkish secularism.

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Le Sharia Court in Gran Bretagna. Storia ed evoluzione dei tribunali islamici nel Regno Unito - ​ Alessandro Negri

SOMMARIO: 1. Le Sharia court: origini, attività e scopi - 2. Alcuni dati statistici - 3. Un’ulteriore evoluzione: l’Arbitration Act e il Muslim Arbitration Tribunal - 4. Il discorso dell’arcivescovo di Canterbury e reazioni - 5. Il Private Members’ Bill della baronessa Cox - 6. La risposta dell’Islamic Sharia Council - 7. Un dibattito ancora in corso: Friend or Foe?

Sharia Courts. History and evolution of Muslim courts in the United Kingdom

ABSTRACT: In the last thirty years the United Kingdom has experienced the formation and surge of so-called Sharia courts or councils, unrecognised Muslim tribunals with purpose of settling disputes using Islamic religious law. Their stated objectives include providing advice and assistance in the operation of Muslim family life, establishing a bench of scholars to operate as a council, making decisions on matters of Muslim family law, and promoting an enlightened practice of the Muslim faith by Muslims living in the UK.

This paper analyses the origins, evolution and functioning of these councils, with emphasis on the lively public debate initiated in 2008 following the Archbishop of Canterbury’s remarks and followed with the bill proposed by Baroness Cox. An overview of the relations between Sharia councils and the State is presented, while providing insight on future scenarios.

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Lo ‘sbattezzo’, tra libertà religiosa e norme implicite. Spunti di diritto comparato - ​ Maria Chiara Ruscazio

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. Il quadro normativo - 3. Le soluzioni giurisprudenziali - 4. Riflessioni conclusive.

The ‘debaptism’, between religious freedom and implicit rules. Hints of comparative law

ABSTRACT: The problem of cancellation from baptismal registers seems to have come to a final solution, thus being no more interesting. Nonetheless, it can still be useful to analyse it from a comparative point of view. The study of the various solutions proposed by the different legal systems allows finding out ‘implicit’ juridical principles, which condition the interpretation and the implementation of positive rules. It can be especially remarked a convergence of arguments and results between legal systems formally inspired to distinct models of State-religions’ relationship - such as the French and the Italian legal systems. This convergence highlights the existence, at a latent level, of common cultural conceptions of the religious experience, fashioned by the Christian religious paradigm; these conceptions tend to shape the concrete contents of both the right to religious freedom, and the right to personal identity, protected by personal data laws.

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Moyens modernes, buts traditionnels: le discours constitutionnel de l’Église de Grèce - ​ Kaidatzis Akritas

SOMMAIRE: 1 - Introduction - 2. L’État et l’Église en Grèce. Le cadre constitutionnel - 3 - L’Église de Grèce comme institution de l’État grec - 4. Le discours constitutionnel de l’Église. Des éléments de constitutionnalisme populiste - Pluralisme constitutionnel et droits de la majorité - 6. Les droits en tant qu’identité - 7. Conclusion - Bibliographie.

ABSTRACT: The invocation of the people, the constitution and the rights occupies an important place in the public discourse of the Church of Greece. Its constitutional discourse exhibits two main characteristics. Firstly, it is a populist discourse. The church talks in the name of “its” people, which it identifies with the Greek nation, and as the voice of the people’s will against its rulers. Moreover, it is a rights-laden discourse. The church talks as the protector of the rights of the majority, which it identifies with the rights of its believers. Its constitutional discourse and practice shows that the church manages to exploit the institutions, achievements and discourses of modernity, if only for the promotion of apparently pre-modern ends: the preservation of its privileges against the other religions; the prolongation of its role in the public sphere; its reproduction as an ideological mechanism of the nation-state.

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Secularism e post-modernità: qualche eco da oltreoceano - ​ Alessandro Ferrari

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Considerazioni preliminari - 3. La fine del ‘vecchio mondo’ - 4. Universalità e identità - 5. Un nuovo protagonismo per i diritti religiosi? - 6. Per concludere.

Secularism and post-modernity: some American echos

ABSTRACT: The paper focuses on the works of six North American authors stemming from the conviction that the end of the ‘modern world’ is nigh and we are locked into the irreversible entropy of a secularism understood as a wall of separation between politics and religion. These convictions, together with a strong criticism towards legal positivism, imply the idea of the porousness of the borders between the sacred and profane, and a resulting reciprocal adjustment, an osmosis between the political and the religious spheres. In this paper, I would like to concentrate on the new approaches proposed by these authors and on the historical end epistemological connotations of the posited osmosis between the political and religious spheres.

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Laicità europea. Riflessioni sull’identità politica dell’Europa nel pluralismo ideale contemporaneo - ​ Marco Parisi

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Europa dei cittadini e identità politica del processo di integrazione continentale - 3. Spazio politico europeo, libertà religiosa e laicità - 4. Conclusioni.

ABSTRACT: The evolution of the European Union law and of the right to religious freedom lies in the global process of internationalization of fundamental rights, the transformation of relations between States, the modification of the idea of ​​sovereignty, the emergence of new conventional instruments. With reference to the European social and legal space, the transformation of the European Economic Community into a real political union has allowed the inalienable human rights of the people to become central in the process of integration. Because of that, the political and legal system of the European Union, characterized by the transition of the State monopoly of sovereignty to its sharing among different subjects, has affected the reality of relations between public powers and religious phenomenon. A particular configuration of the concept of secularism in the European continent has been established, by virtue, which the values of democracy, pluralism, human dignity and non-identification between public functions and religious experience would allow for peaceful coexistence between religion, institutional activity of the European Union and fundamental freedoms.

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Security and Religious Radicalization. Securitization of Islam in Europe - ​ Agustìn Motilla

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. General measures of the anti-terrorist laws; social surveillance and immigration control - 3. Antiterrorist laws and Islam: the securitization of Muslims in western countries - 4. The enforcement of measures affecting Muslim population not directly related to security: the vague criminalization of Islam - 5. Effects of the measures direct or indirectly justified on security reasons in religious freedom; specially related to Muslim population - 6. Closing remarks; positive statements in the construction of the European Union framework.

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“A ognuno la sua croce”. Notazioni sparse in tema di ostensione istituzionale dei simboli cristiani nella sfera pubblica europea (con particolare riferimento all’art. 28 della legge francese di separazione) - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Delimitazione del tema d’indagine - 2. Gli epigoni giurisprudenziali del caso Lautsi in una recente sentenza del Tribunale Amministrativo Regionale per la Sardegna - 3. L’art. 28 della legge francese di separazione del 9 dicembre 1905 - 4. Il banco di prova dei monumenti ai caduti edificati dopo la legge del 1905 - 5. Le oscillazioni interpretative della giurisprudenza amministrativa in materia di esposizione dei presepi - 6. I dubbi sulla “riscrittura” dell’art. 28 operata dal Conseil d’État - 7. Le sorti della statua “fuorilegge” di papa Giovanni Paolo II - 8. La “prova di forza” della Slovacchia nella vicenda della moneta commemorativa dei Santi Cirillo e Metodio - 9. Conclusioni: trasfigurazione dei simboli o della laicità?

To each his own cross”. Disparate remarks concerning the public display of Christian symbols in the European public sphere (with specific regard to Article 28 of the French Separation Law)

ABSTRACT: The present essay takes as a starting point some recent case law on the so-called “institutional” display of religious symbols (and in particular Christian symbols), in Italy and other European countries. The analysis focuses on both the French legal system and some recent rulings of the administrative jurisprudence, which seems to mark a shift from the more consolidated and traditional reading keys of the “secularism”.

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L’impegno della Conferenza Episcopale Spagnola in favore della trasparenza: il Portale di Trasparenza e l’Accordo con Transparency International España - ​ Juan González Ayesta

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Misure di trasparenza adottate nell’ambito della Santa Sede- 3. Legislazione spagnola in materia di trasparenza- 4. Il nuovo Portale di Trasparenza della CEE- 5. L’Accordo tra la CEE e TIE: profilo soggettivo- 6. L’Accordo tra la CEE e TIE: profilo sostanziale - 7. Riflessioni conclusive - 8. Appendice: Testo integro dell’Accordo tra la CEE e TIE.

The commitment of the Spanish Bishops' Conference in favor of Transparency: the Transparency Portal and the Agreement with Transparency International España

ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes two recent measures adopted by the Spanish Bishops' Conference to increase its level of transparency. The first of these measures is the creation of a new Transparency Portal in which a great deal of information is collected on institutional, legal and economic aspects related both to the Spanish Bishops' Conference itself and to other entities of the Catholic Church in Spain. As the present article shows, it is possible to establish a parallelism between the information provided on that website and some of the active publicity obligations established by Spanish Transparency Act. The second of the measures analyzed is the Agreement signed by the Spanish Bishops' Conference and Transparency International España. Through this Agreement, the Spanish Episcopal Conference is committed to adopt measures to increase its levels of Transparency.

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Lo status di rifugiato religioso nelle fonti del diritto internazionale: le nuove frontiere delle libertà dello spirito - ​ Daniele Ferrari

SOMMARIO: 1. Libertà religiosa e protezione internazionale: note introduttive e di metodo - 2. La nozione di religione perseguitata - 3. I contenuti di tutela della libertà religiosa dei perseguitati - 4. Le condizioni di riconoscimento dello status di rifugiato religioso - 5. La procedura di valutazione delle domande - 6. Conclusioni.

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Libertà di religione e libertà dalla religione in Marocco: la revisione interpretativa sull’apostasia - ​ Fabio Franceschi

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Diritto e religione in Marocco: la libertà religiosa nella Costituzione del 2011 - 3. L’apostasia nel diritto islamico: cenni - 4. Il codice penale marocchino e la fatwā del 2013 - 5. Il Consiglio Superiore degli Ulema: prerogative e valenza dei suoi interventi - 6. “La via degli Ulema” (Sabīl al-‘ulamā’) e la rinnovata interpretazione sull’apostasia - 7. Il Marocco e la “via di Marrakech”: un segnale per il futuro?

Freedom of Religion and Freedom from Religion in Morocco: The Interpretative Revision on Apostasy

ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes a recent step taken by the Kingdom’s Ulama that distances from the traditional meaning of apostasy and of the penalty given for this offense. According to this document, Murtadd would not be the one who leaves Islam for another religion, but the one who betrays the group he belongs to. Apostasy was therefore political, not doctrinal. In this sense, the document represents an essential progress for the qualification of religious freedom in Morocco (on the same way already indicated by the Marrakesh Declaration).

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L’odio proibito: la repressione giuridica dello hate speech - ​ Gianmarco Gometz

SOMMARIO: 1. Discorsi odiosi - 2. La repressione giuridica delle idee odiose: vecchie difese, nuovi difesi - 3. Le ragioni del contrasto giuridico ai discorsi d’odio - 4. Due direttrici nella giustificazione della repressione giuridica del discorso d’odio.

Forbidden hate: the legal repression of hate speech

ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is two-folded. First, it offers a general overview of the legal repression of various categories of expressive behaviours ascribed to the notion of hate speech. Especially in Europe, such repression often passes through criminalization, long since used by law to suppress thoughts or points of view for some reason considered harmful. The social groups nowadays protected by such repressive measures, however, are different from the past: weak and/or minoritarian groups rather than strong and/or majoritarian ones. The second aim of this work is to identify the reasons for the legal repression of expressions, beliefs or doctrines certainly in many cases morally deplorable, yet protected by other high-ranking legal reasons: the principles of freedom of thought and speech. It will be noted that especially for untargeted hate speech not connected to a clear and present danger of unlawful actions, there is no general agreement about those reasons. Furthermore, they tend to be structured in justifications showing some typical flaws of, respectively, deontological and teleological reasoning: the former tend to be superficial as apodictic, generic and vacuous; the latter tend to evade the argumentative burdens of factual order from which their validity depends.

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Forme di pluralismo nel settore matrimoniale: le nuove sfide delle “overlapping jurisdictions” - ​ Adelaide Madera

SOMMARIO: 1. Le sfide del nuovo multiculturalismo in materia matrimoniale - 2. La riforma del processo matrimoniale canonico e le sue potenziali ricadute sul giudizio di delibazione - 3. Il processus brevior - 4. La crisi della bilateralità - 5. Il “mite” pluralismo statunitense e le nuove “anti-sharia laws” - 6. L’esperienza del pluralismo “forte” israeliano e i suoi effetti sulle minoranze - 7. Modelli di pluralismo a confronto.

Pluralism in Marriage: the New Challenges of the “Overlapping Jurisdictions”

ABSTRACT: The challenges of the “new multiculturalism” in the field of marriage law regard not only which forms of marriage should be recognized by the State but also the forums in which marriage cases can be adjudicated and the role of faith-based laws and religious courts in democratic and secular legal systems. Religious groups increasingly ask for accommodation of their cultural identities; however, a growing skepticism concerning forms of religious jurisdiction is developing in regimes devoted to individual liberties, which employ public policy as grounds to vacate religious rulings. The present paper highlights the need for Western States to update and exploit the full potential of their legal instruments in order to prevent restrictions on collective and individual religious freedom in matters of marriage.

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Laïcité en marche. L’Hexagone à l’épreuve - ​ Sara Domianello

La lecture de l’ouvrage de Philippe Portier, L’État et les religions en France. Une sociologie historique de la laïcité, est particulièrement stimulante pour ceux qui s’intéressent à la recherche des facteurs favorisant l’évolution des formes et des techniques juridiques élaborées par un Etat face au phénomène religieux.

De ce point de vue spécifique, j’apprécie l’effort accompli par Portier pour exposer et argumenter la thèse selon laquelle, à l’intérieur des lignes brisées qui délimitent le polygone correspondant à l’espace géopolitique occupé par la France continentale - et qui ont conduit à calquer la figure géométrique définie dans son emploi originel de “laïcité hexagonale” comme synonyme de laïcité à la française -, se serait en fait inscrit peu à peu, à partir d’un certain moment historique et pour l’avenir, un modèle vivant de laïcité tout autre que dur et rigide, qui aurait progressivement amené la France à s’adoucir par rapport aux religions et mériterait donc d’être représenté par un dessin plus conforme à la réalité actuelle. (continue)

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El reconocimiento del llamado matrimonio de creencia en Irlanda del Norte: la revolucionaria sentencia de la High Court de 9 de junio de 2017 - ​ José Ramón Polo Sabau

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Caracteres esenciales del sistema matrimonial en Irlanda del Norte - 3. La sentencia de la High Court de 9 de junio de 2017 en el caso In Re Laura Smyth - 4. Conclusiones: hacia el pleno reconocimiento de los matrimonios de creencia en las islas británicas.

The recognition of the so called belief marriages in Northern Ireland: a revolutionary High Court decision (9 June 2017)

ABSTRACT: In a context in which most other countries in the British Islands have allready recognised the validity of the so called belief marriages, very recently the Northern Ireland High Court has delivered its decision in the case In Re Laura Smyth, concerning the autorisation of humanist celebrants to perform a legally valid and binding humanist wedding ceremony in Northern Ireland, as it had been requested by the applicant in this case. In this extremely important decision, Mr Justice Colton declares that the initial denial by the General Register Office of the applicant’s request was in breach of section 6 of the Human Rights Act 1998 as contrary to the applicant’s rights under Article 9 and Article 14 ECHR, and consequently makes a declaration against the General Register Office in order to grant the application for the requested temporary authorisation to humanist celebrants. This paper summarizes and conducts a preliminary analysis of this decision’s content.

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The courts and the code. Legal osmosis between religion and law in the cultural framework of civil law systems - ​ Antonio Fuccillo Ludovica Decimo Francesco Sorvillo

SUMMARY: 1. The value of religious law in modern (and secular) states - 2. Religious rules and individual choices in Europe - 3. Religious law and the fields in which it can operate effectively - 4. The rules of religious courts in civil legal systems - 4.1 ..The direct referral to religious laws - 4.2. The pronounces of religious courts and its importance for faithful - 5. The development of Religious Arbitration Courts in Italy - 6. Does religious jurisdiction another side of religious freedom?

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Diritto concordatario versus diritto eurounitario: a chi spetta la primauté? (a margine della pronunzia della Corte di Giustizia del 27 giugno 2017, C-74/16, in tema di agevolazioni fiscali per le “attività economiche” della Chiesa) - ​ Angelo Licastro Antonio Ruggeri

SOMMARIO: 1. La riproposizione da parte della Corte di Giustizia dello schema collaudato dell’“assorbimento” delle forme di rilevanza del fenomeno religioso nelle regole (e nelle logiche) del libero mercato - 2. La vicenda oggetto del rinvio pregiudiziale - 3. Le valutazioni di merito operate dalla Corte - 4. Le analogie con la vicenda italiana riguardante l’esenzione ICI/IMU degli immobili degli enti ecclesiastici cattolici non esclusivamente destinati a fini di culto - 5. I riflessi della sentenza sulla fiscalità agevolata degli enti ecclesiastici prevista dall’ordinamento italiano - 6. La questione dell’incidenza di tale tipo di controversie sulla clausola di salvaguardia dello status riconosciuto dal diritto nazionale alle Confessioni religiose (art. 17 TFUE) - 7. La “copertura” costituzionale della normativa di derivazione concordataria e il principio del primato del diritto dell’Unione - 8. Struttura internamente composita dell’identità dell’Unione, in seno alla quale si dà il principio del primato del diritto eurounitario come pure quello della salvaguardia dei principi fondamentali degli ordinamenti nazionali, e necessità che, caso per caso (e con la tecnica del bilanciamento), si raggiunga e tenga fermo l’equilibrio tra gli stessi - 9. Struttura parimenti composita dell’identità costituzionale dello Stato e modi di farla valere al momento (e per effetto) dell’ingresso in ambito interno di norme di origine esterna, alla luce del bisogno di affermazione di tutti i principi fondamentali (in ispecie, di quelli espressivi della coppia assiologica fondamentale di libertà e uguaglianza) - 10. Diritto concordatario versus diritto eurounitario: conflitto reale o apparente? - 11. Il significato della decisione qui annotata al piano delle relazioni istituzionali: verso una rimessa a punto del rinvio pregiudiziale e dell’equilibrio per il suo tramite raggiungibile tra la Corte dell’Unione e il giudice nazionale?

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More than a playground dispute: il caso Trinity Lutheran Church v. Pauley e le nuove traiettorie interpretative dell’Establishment Clause - ​ Adelaide Madera

SOMMARIO: 1. Il problema della legittimità di forme di assistenza finanziaria alle organizzazioni confessionali nell’ordinamento statunitense - 2. L’evoluzione della giurisprudenza della Corte Suprema - 3. I margini di discrezionalità dei singoli Stati - 4. Il caso Trinity Lutheran Church v. Pauley - 5. Le posizioni sostenute dalle parti - 6. Il confronto con il caso Locke v. Davey - 7. Il retaggio dei “Blaine Amendments” - 8. Il trattamento spettante alle istituzioni di natura religiosa - 9. La Corte Roberts e la clausola di separazione: nuove traiettorie interpretative.

More than a playground dispute: the Trinity Luthera Church v. Pauley case and the new trajectories of the interpretation of the Establishment Clause

ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the problem of the access of nonprofit religiously affiliated organizations to the public funding necessary for these institutions to develop their mission: in the USA, nonprofit religiously affiliated organizations are denied direct access to public funding but some forms of indirect access have been gradually admitted. The article examines new perspectives opened by recent Supreme Court rulings, which are going to offer a new, more equal role to nonprofit religiously affiliated organizations, preserving their spiritual identity.

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Quale tutela delle libertà fondamentali per i simboli religiosi? Considerazioni sulla decisione del Consiglio di Stato francese sul caso burkini - ​ Lavinia Anello

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Luoghi pubblici e simboli religiosi - 3. Rispetto del dialogo e delle diversità interculturali - 4. L’evoluzione della laicità in Europa - 5. Osservazioni conclusive.

Which protection for the fundamental freedom of religious symbols?

Abstract: Starting from the analysis of the French Council of State’s decision on the case “burkini” (August 26th 2016), this paper examines the issues on the interaction between the acceptance of the religious minority’s symbols by the majority and the acceptance of the dialogue and cultural diversity. Taken into account is the process of secularism-neutrality of public space and the interference of the civil judiciary in the religious sphere declined in different models of secularism of the French, Italian and European jurisdictions.

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La libertà dell’educazione religiosa davanti ai giudici canadesi (prendendo spunto dalla sentenza Loyola High School vs. Québec) - ​ Cristiana Maria Pettinato

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. L’educazione religiosamente orientata nelle scuole del Canada: brevi cenni storici - 3. Il percorso giurisprudenziale del caso Loyola High School: i primi due gradi di giudizio, l’analisi della Corte Suprema e le conclusioni della maggioranza dei suoi componenti sulla violazione dell’art. 2(a) della Charter of Rights and Freedoms del Québec del 1982 - 4. Le osservazioni dei giudici di minoranza sulla dimensione collettiva della libertà religiosa - 5. La verifica sulla sincerity of belief: tra foro esterno e foro interno - 6. Qualche chiarimento sul diritto fondamentale di libertà religiosa in Canada - 7. Alcune considerazioni a margine della sentenza: l’accomodamento ragionevole come strumento di applicazione caso per caso del “diritto alla differenza” - 8. Note conclusive.

ABSTRACT: The judgment Loyola v. Canada sees protagonist a confessional school who refuses to submit to the neutral government educational program, advancing pretension of guardianship of her own religious liberty as group and her liberty to teach from a religious and not neutral perspective. The examined case also allows to develop some reflections about the peculiarities of the Canadian constitutional system, and the relationship between the public institutions and the religious phenomenon, in a contest of strong pluralism.

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Lavoro, discriminazioni religiose e politiche d’integrazione - ​ Livia Saporito Francesco Sorvillo Ludovica Decimo

SOMMARIO: 1. La forza sociale delle religioni negli attuali scenari geopolitici - 2. Libertà religiosa, selezione lavorativa e integrazione nel mondo del lavoro - 3. La tutela della libertà religiosa nel rapporto di lavoro -3.1 Le discriminazioni religiose nei rapporti di lavoro nel quadro del diritto primario dell’Unione europea - 3.2 La giurisprudenza comunitaria - 3.3 L’incidenza del precetto religioso sul rapporto di lavoro - 3.4 La “presenza” delle religioni nei luoghi di lavoro: profili simbologici - 4. Istanze religiose e diritto negoziato nelle politiche d’integrazione - 5. Diritto, religione e sfide dell’integrazione.

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Pluralità di etnie, di religioni, di Stati in Medio-oriente; il terrorismo islamico - ​ Vittorio Parlato

SOMMARIO: 1. Le ripartizioni islamiche – 2. La realtà cristiana mediorientale - 3. Gli Yazidi - 4. Chiese etniche e realtà statuali in Medio-oriente – 5. Il sistema degli statuti personali - 6. Valutazione negativa da parte dell'Islam della laicità dello Stato - 7. Irrealizzabilità di uno stato laico in Medio-oriente - 8. Atti terroristici e fondamentalismo islamico. È guerra di religione?

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Natività e laicità: i presepi in Francia tra religione e secolarizzazione - ​ Daniele Ferrari

SOMMARIO: 1. La legge del 1905 e la sua applicazione: osservazioni introduttive - 2. Edifici pubblici e presepi: l’argomento religioso - 3. Edifici pubblici e presepi: l’argomento culturale-secolarizzato - 4. Simboli religiosi e laicità: l’imporsi di un proselitismo civile?

ABSTRACT: In France, the principle of separation between State and religious denominations, established in reference to public buildings by Article 28 of Law 1905, does not prohibit the presence of a Christmas crib within a municipal building. The Nativity scene is authorized provided that, in general, this facility does not express any form of religious proselytism or recognition of a cult, but a cultural, artistic or festive event forming part of the celebrations planned for Christmas; if the building in question is the headquarters of a territorial organization or a public service, representation, in order to be authorized, must meet particular requirements, for example, in local historical traditions.

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Le droit européen de liberté religieuse au temps de l’islam - ​ Alessandro Ferrari

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction - 2. Une nouvelle modernité: le chameau musulman et le trou Westphalien - 3. Tensions contemporaines: ce que la "question musulmane" révèle - 4. Vers un ordre westphalien-méditerranéen - 5. Le rouleau compresseur de la contemporanéité: vers un nouveau paradigme.

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Nuove forme di obiezione di coscienza fra oneri a carico della libertà religiosa e third-party burdens. Un’analisi comparativa della giurisprudenza della Corte Suprema U.S.A. e della Corte di Strasburgo - ​ Adelaide Madera

SOMMARIO: 1. Nuove rivendicazioni di differenze negli U.S.A. e in Europa: un tentativo di comparazione - 2. I conflitti generati dal Contraception Mandate negli U.S.A. – 3. Il caso Zubik v. Burwell – 4. La difficile definizione del concetto di substantial burden – 5. La soluzione di compromesso adottata dalla Corte Suprema - 6. Accomodazionismo religioso e nuove “battaglie culturali” - 7. Prerogative dei soggetti confessionalmente connotati e “costi sociali” del loro riconoscimento - 8. Il fenomeno delle nuove conscience claims - 9. La valutazione dei third-party burdens - 10. Il diritto all’obiezione di coscienza dinanzi alla Corte di Strasburgo - 11. La decisione Eweida and others v. United Kingdom e l’ampliamento della portata dell’art. 9 CEDU - 12. Il rilievo attribuito al principio di non discriminazione - 13. La valorizzazione del margine di apprezzamento - 14. Annotazioni riepilogative.

New forms of Conscientious Objection between Burdens on Religious Freedom and Third-Party Burdens. A Comparative Analysis of the Supreme Court USA and of the Court of Strasbourg Case Law

Abstract: This paper analyzes the emerging tension between new complicity-based conscience claims of accommodation and the costs associated with them, in the ambit of the current national constitutional and international law frameworks. In a comparative perspective, recent decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court and of the European Court of Human Rights will be examined. The U.S. Supreme Court is moving towards a greater recognition of religious freedom in its collective dimension in the ambit of a common law framework; the European Court of Human Rights is entrusted with the delicate balance between unity and diversity, without unduly interfering with the national identities and legal regimes recognized to the Churches.

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Sicurezza nazionale e diritto di libertà religiosa. Alcune considerazioni alla luce della recente esperienza statunitense - ​ Pasquale Annicchino

Sommario : 1. Introduzione – 2. La sorveglianza di massa alla luce del caso “Snowden” – 3. Il caso del New York Police Department – 4. Primo emendamento costituzionale e nuove tecnologie – 5. Conclusioni.

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La Corte Roberts e la questione della “preghiera municipale” - ​ Adelaide Madera

Sommario : 1. Il paradigma dello Stato secolare e la legislative prayer – 2. Il precedente Marsh v. Chambers – 3. La frammentazione degli orientamenti delle Corti d’Appello – 4. La decisione Town of Greece v. Galloway – 5 . Il coercion test e le sue diverse interpretazioni a opera dei giudici della Corte Suprema – 6. La “ soft dissenting opinion del giudice Elena Kagan – 7. Il parametro della “discriminazione intenzionale” introdotto dal giudice Alito – 8. Le opinions dei giudici Kennedy e Kagan: due approcci alla religious accommodation a confronto – 9. La civil religion nell’accezione statunitense – 10. La legislative prayer al crocevia fra Free Speech Clause ed Establishment Clause – 11. La legislative prayer come forma di private speech ? – 12. La continuità con la giurisprudenza in materia di religious displays – 13 . La paventata contrazione del campo di operatività dell’ Establishment Clause – 14. Annotazioni (provvisoriamente) riepilogative. The Roberts Court and the “municipal prayer” Abstract : In the USA, few topics are more divisive than the government’s use of religious expressions and symbols. The Supreme Court has tried to find a balance between the Establishment Clause of the U.S. Constitution and the inclusion of religious expressions in government activities. In Town of Greece v. Galloway, the Roberts Court upheld a town’s practice of opening board meetings with prayers from invited speakers. The essay critically examines the various opinions in the case, and looks at where this decision suggests the Establishment Clause doctrine is moving award.

The Roberts Court and the “municipal prayer”

ABSTRACT: In the USA, few topics are more divisive than the government’s use of religious expressions and symbols. The Supreme Court has tried to find a balance between the Establishment Clause of the U.S. Constitution and the inclusion of religious expressions in government activities. In Town of Greece v. Galloway, the Roberts Court upheld a town’s practice of opening board meetings with prayers from invited speakers. The essay critically examines the various opinions in the case, and looks at where this decision suggests the Establishment Clause doctrine is moving award.

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On legal and factual grounds of relevance of confessional cemeteries and religious sites of common cemeteries to real estate property objects for religious purposes - ​ Vladislav V. Bagan

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction: formulation of the Problem – 2. The genesis of the legal status of religious cemeteries – 3. The meaning of confessional cemeteries and religious sites of common cemeteries, attached in different religions – 4. The nature of confessional cemeteries from the perspective of the right – 5. The issue of confessional graves in the Russian Federation legislation – 6. The theme of religious burials in the judicial practice of the courts of the Russian Federation – 7. Conclusions.

ABSTRAC: The article is devoted to problems arising in implementation of the provisions of Federal Law from 30.11.2010 № 327-FZ (as amended on 23.06.2014) «On the transfer of property for religious purposes under state or municipal property to religious organizations». The article studies legal and factual grounds of relevance of confessional cemeteries and religious sites of common cemeteries to the category of real estate property objects for religious purposes.

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“A chiare lettere” - Transizioni • Nel primo anniversario della “Dichiarazione sui diritti delle minoranze religiose nei Paesi a maggioranza musulmana” (g. c.)* - ​ Giuseppe Casuscelli

Tra pochi giorni sarà trascorso un anno da quel 27 gennaio 2016 in cui 250 eminenti studiosi islamici , riuniti a Marrakech e provenienti da oltre 120 nazioni, hanno sottoscritto una “ Dichiarazione sui diritti delle minoranze religiose nei Paesi a maggioranza musulmana” rivolgendo l’appello a sviluppare una giurisprudenza islamica sul concetto di cittadinanza inclusiva di tutti i gruppi religiosi. L’incontro si era tenuto su invito del Ministero della Promozione e degli Affari Islamici del Regno del Marocco e del Forum per la Promozione della Pace nelle società islamiche , con sede negli Emirati Arabi Uniti. All’evento avevano partecipato cinquanta leader di altre religioni e rappresentanti delle organizzazioni islamiche e internazionali. L’incontro proseguiva lungo il cammino tracciato ad Abu Dhabi nel 2014 con la nascita del Forum for peace , inteso a mostrare al mondo che l’Islam “is a religion of peace and justice”, cui aveva fatto seguito nel 2015 un secondo Forum inteso a ristabilire “ the priorities of Muslim societies by rehabilitating hearts and intellects to a more thorough understanding of the salience of peace in Islam, the shariah, and our tradition”.

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The Question of the Legal Nature and Status of Real Estate Objects for Religious Purposes - ​ Roman V. Tupikin

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. Degree of the subject study – 3. - Legal framework, empirical, and other source basis of the research – 4. Conclusions.

ABSTRACT: The article is devoted to research of the texts of foreign laws, regulations, and concordats on property relations between the state and religious institutions, on property rights of religious institutions and property relations in religious institutions (regarding property objects for religious purposes), on the status of some property objects for religious purposes. The author of the research analyzed the features of legal and contractual regulation of property relations of religious institutions and the status of property objects for religious purposes. The methodological foundation of the research presented has comparative and legal research method as the basis

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Religions and Ethno-Religious Differences in Bosnia and Herzegovina. From Laboratories of Hate to Peaceful Reconciliation - ​ Francesco Alicino

SUMMARY : 1. Introduction - 2. The Politicization of Religion and the Nationalization of Confessions - 3. The Place of Religion and Religious Confession - 4. The Constituent (Chosen) People and Religious Power-Sharing Mechanism - 5. The Education System and Religious Education - 6. The Legal Status of Churches and the State-Religions Relationship - 7. Conclusion.

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La decisione Holt v. Hobbs: una svolta nelle politiche di religious accommodation con riguardo agli istituti di detenzione nell’ordinamento statunitense? - ​ Adelaide Madera

SOMMARIO: 1. La libertà religiosa negli istituti di detenzione negli U.S.A. e il caso Holt v. Hobbs – 2. Le esigenze di bilanciamento fra libertà religiosa ed esigenze di ordine e sicurezza nelle istituzioni penitenziarie – 3. La diluizione delle forme di tutela della libertà religiosa nel contesto degli istituti di detenzione – 4. L’impatto del R.F.R.A . sulla tutela della libertà religiosa negli istituti di detenzione – 5. L’adozione del R.L.U.I.P.A. – 6. Il riconoscimento di legittimità del R.L.U.I.P.A . alla luce dell’ Establishment Clause – 7. I nodi irrisolti del caso Cutter v. Wilkinson – 8. Le interferenze del Prison Litigation Reform Act sulla tutela dell’esercizio della libertà religiosa dei detenuti – 9. La frammentazione dei parametri adoperati dai diversi circuiti d’appello – 10. La decisione Holt v. Hobbs – 11. Le motivazioni della Corte – 12. Il (parziale) ridimensionamento del parametro della due deference – 13. La tutela estensiva della libertà religiosa promossa dalla Corte Roberts – 14. Holt e Hobby Lobby a confronto – 15. Il crescente rilievo assunto dall’elemento dei third-party burdens nella giurisprudenza della Corte – 16. Annotazioni conclusive.

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Giustizia religiosa e islam. Il caso degli Shariah Councils nel Regno Unito - ​ Federica Sona

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La cornice del dibattito - 3. L’indagine ministeriale - 4. Il quadro descrittivo delle attività di ricerca - 5. Le difficoltà dell’indagine empirica - 6. Gruppi tematici e problematiche di ricerca - 7. Aspetti fondamentali ed elementi chiave - 8. Proposte di legge - 9. Riflessioni conclusive sulla giustizia religiosa sciaraitica. Faith-based justice and Islām . Sharī ʿ ah Councils in the UK.

ABSTRACT: In 2008, a vivid debate was stirred by the lecture delivered in the Royal Courts of Justice by the then Archbishop of Canterbury. Public discussion and social commentary began to question the role that sharī ʿ ah was playing in the British society and the Sharī ʿ ah Councils were immediately identified as proponents of a "parallel" legal system. Whilst media coverage was causing much anxiety, the narrative on "inherently discriminatory" legal orders operating in the shadow of state law exponentially grew.This social critique soon brought to light knowledge gaps concerning British Muslim communities as well as Islamic and Muslim laws, specifically regarding family issues. Thus, the Ministry of Justice promptly commissioned a research project on these matters. Having had the privilege of being named amongst the researchers responsible for mentioned ministerial project, this paper intends to build upon the collected material and analysed data in order to shed light upon some key-findings concerning the British Sharī ʿ ah Councils. The proposed discussion also pays attention not only to the latest products of the academic discourse on faith-based justice, but also to the political debate on sharī ʿ ah -related matters, addressing two recently launched enquiries and a pending Bill introduced in the Parliament. pdf

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L’istruzione religiosa in Turchia: gli Aleviti e la Corte Europea dei Diritti Umani - ​ Anna Parrilli

SOMMARIO : 1. Breve premessa sull’insegnamento della religione in Europa - 2. La Corte Europea dei Diritti Umani e l’istruzione religiosa - 3. Scuola e religione in Turchia - 4. Alevismo e istruzione religiosa: il caso “Hasan e Eylem Zengin c. Turchia” - 5. La reazione alle sentenze in Turchia e in Europa - 6. Conclusione.

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I sindaci francesi contro il “burkini”: la laicità a ferragosto? A prima lettura di alcuni recenti orientamenti giurisprudenziali - ​ Daniele Ferrari

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione – 2. I codici vestimentari sulla spiaggia: il caso del “burkini”: a) La condotta punita; b) La nozione di ordine pubblico; c) La “laicità di emergenza”; d) Il service public balnéaire – 3. Le ordinanze “anti-burkini” davanti al Tribunale amministrativo di Nizza: l’affermarsi di una “laicità di emergenza” – 4. Il Consiglio di Stato riforma l’ordinanza del Tribunale di Nizza – 5. Conclusioni: laicità liberale vs . laicità di emergenza.

ABSTRACT: The paper proposes a reflection on the relationship between religious freedom, laicity and terrorism. The reflection regards France, a country where, after the tragic attacks of Islamist matrix, some mayors have banned the use of burkinis on beaches. Starting from an examination of these measures and some rulings that have concerned them, the analysis focuses on the relationship between laicity, religious freedom and terrorism.

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La Chiesa della comunità arbëreshë e la Chiesa di rito greco-cattolica in Albania: una sola Chiesa - ​ Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: 1. Il cristianesimo in Albania tra oriente e occidente - 2. I cattolici di rito greco in Italia e il ruolo degli arbëreshë - 3. I cattolici di rito greco bizantino nel sud dell’Albania come testa di ponte verso i Balcani - 4. La persecuzione contro la Chiesa cattolica in Albania e la confisca dei beni ecclesiastici.

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Il dubbio di una “velata” discriminazione: il diritto di indossare l’hijab sul luogo di lavoro privato nei pareri resi dall’Avvocato generale alla Corte di giustizia dell’Unione europea - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. La novità e la rilevanza della questione pregiudiziale relativa all’uso del velo islamico in azienda sollevata davanti alla Corte di giustizia – 2. I termini della vicenda esaminata dalla Cassazione belga – 3. Il rinvio operato dalla pronunzia “gemella” della Cassazione francese – 4. Il profilarsi della questione pregiudiziale in controversie riguardanti lavoratori del settore pubblico – 5. Le conclusioni dell’Avvocato generale nella causa C-157/15: a ) l’approccio “onnicomprensivo” nell’analisi della fattispecie – 6. (segue): b ) discriminazione diretta o indiretta? – 7. (segue): c ) la giustificazione del trattamento differenziato – 8. (segue): d ) la salvaguardia dell’”identità nazionale” degli Stati – 9. Le conclusioni dell’Avvocato generale nella causa C-188/15 – 10. La querelle sulla mise da spiaggia per le donne islamiche (breve divagazione, in attesa della decisione della Corte di giustizia).

The doubt on a “veiled” discrimination: the right to wear an Islamic headscarf at work in the opinions given by the Advocate General to the European Court of Justice

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“A chiare lettere” – Transizioni • La farsa del burqini: ma c’è un giudice a Parigi! (di g.c.) - ​ Giuseppe Casuscelli

Nei giorni dello sgomento, del lutto per le atrocità degli attentati terroristici, le ordinanze sindacali sul divieto d’indossare il burqini sulle spiagge francesi hanno avuto il sapore penoso di una farsa fuori luogo, che ha alimentato un “dibattito surrealista” sulla laicità “balneare”. Quei divieti di carattere assoluto sono parsi una ripicca inappropriata, inutile se non dannosa: in questi casi, certo, non era in gioco la necessità di salvaguardare le esigenze fondamentali del “vivre ensemble”, regola derogatoria della libertà di abbigliamento individuata dalla Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo nella decisione della Grande Chambre nel caso S.A.S. c. France del 1° luglio 2014 con riferimento all’uso nello spazio pubblico del burqa, che copre l’intero volto. Quei divieti, si legge in un comunicato dell’Onu, “non rafforzano la sicurezza ma, al contrario, alimentano intolleranza religiosa e discriminazione dei musulmani in Francia, in particolare le donne. La parità di genere non si ottiene regolamentando i vestiti che le donne decidono di portare”.

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El nuevo régimen jurídico de las formas religiosas de celebración matrimonial en el Derecho español - ​ José Ramón Polo Sabau

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Breve referencia a los cambios introducidos en la forma estrictamente civil de celebración conyugal - 3. La eficacia civil del matrimonio celebrado en forma religiosa - 3.1. Los caracteres esenciales de la normativa precedente - 3.2. Las novedades introducidas por la Ley de la Jurisdicción Voluntaria - 3.2.1. El matrimonio de las confesiones con acuerdo de cooperación con el Estado - 3.2.2. El matrimonio de las confesiones con notorio arraigo declarado – 4. Consideraciones conclusivas.

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Il ritorno del waqf - ​ Giovanni Cimbalo

Sommario : 1. Premessa – 2. La concezione della ricchezza nel mondo musulmano - 3. Il waqf all’interno del sistema dei “ furu al figh ” . Definizione di waqf o hubus - 4. Il Bonyads, le fondazioni di beneficienza nella variante sciita – 5. La struttura del waqf khayrì - 6 . Gli elementi costitutivi delle causae piae e del waqf khayrì a confronto - 7. Il negozio giuridico costitutivo delle causae piae e del waqf khayrì - 8. Caratteri strutturali comuni e analoga funzione dei due istituti giuridici: effetti rispetto ai beni che ne costituiscono l’oggetto - 9. Confronto tra i regimi giuridici relativi al subiectum administrationis nelle causae piae e nel waqf khayrì - 10. Alcune riflessioni conclusive.

The return of waqf

ABSTRACT: The essay reconstruct role and structure of the waqf , typical institution of Islamic law, by a comparison of it with the “ causae piae”, to highlight the concordances and differences, emphasizing the institution's use in the management of the charity and of places of worship in the Muslim ambit, in particular mosques and activities related to them. Particular attention is paid to the activities with social purposes for the realization of the Islamic Welfare, operated by religious communities, with believers support (public waqf ). Frequent are the references to the charity structure in the Anglo-Saxon law. The Autor envisages the opportunity to a number of agreements with the various components of Islam, in which specific parts can find a place, dedicated to waqf as entity inspired by religious reasons, and a review of the general favorable legislation ensured by the State to all religious bodies, and to those who carry out social activities obtaining profit.

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Brief reflections on Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, inc. (Supreme Court of the United States, June 30, 2014) from an Italian Corporate Law Scholar’s perspective - ​ Andrea Tina

SUMMARY: 1. Foreword - 2. The issue(s) raised by Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, inc. - 3. Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, inc. main arguments - 4. Conclusions.

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Cappellani militari e prospettive di riforma - ​ Paolo Cavana

Sommario: 1. Riforma dell’assistenza spirituale nelle Forze armate e impegni pattizi - 2. L’evoluzione dei sistemi di difesa in Europa e la sua incidenza sull’assistenza spirituale: il passaggio dalla coscrizione obbligatoria a un servizio di tipo professionale - 3. L’assistenza spirituale tra modello confessionista e modello pluralista. Le ragioni del ritardo legislativo - 4. L’inquadramento dei cappellani militari all’interno delle Forze armate, tra esigenze di ammodernamento e tendenze alla smilitarizzazione - 5. Inquadramento gerarchico dei cappellani militari e tradizione storica - 6. Inquadramento militare dei cappellani, principio di laicità ed esigenze funzionali - 7. Compiti delle Forze armate, principi costituzionali e nuovo ruolo dei cappellani militari - 8. La recente valorizzazione del ruolo dei cappellani militari nel sistema di difesa NATO. Osservazioni conclusive.

Military Chaplaincy in the process of reform

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the service of spiritual assistance in the State military forces according to the Italian system of law, in the context of their current evolution given to the principles of the Constitution and the changing international situation and policy. After some preliminary remarks about the origins of the present debate, it compares the models of other countries concerning the service of military chaplains and focuses on the issue of their juridic status as commissioned officers in the Army, taking into consideration the advantages and disadvantages of this legal framework. In the end it makes some conclusive remarks about the new role of chaplains in military organizations, not only religious support but also advisor to the command on issue of religion and ethics and liaison with local religious leaders in an effort to understand the role of religion as both a factor in hostility and war and as a force for reconciliation and peace.

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Religious Values and Conflict of Laws - ​ Sara Tonolo

Summary : 1. Preliminary Remarks - 2. Religious values and nationality - 3. Electio iuris and religious values - 4. Public policy and religious values - 5. The Conventional approach - 6. Conclusive Remarks.

ABSTRACT: The wide evolution of private international law is currently recalling attention to the general aspects of the discipline. Europeanization and globalisation of sources of private international law do not preclude the chance that conflict of laws should also deal with individual identities. To the extent that the European systems have hitherto offered to the application of foreign laws, we are faced with the problem of survival in Europe of an idea of the personality of laws. In fact it’s generally accepted that conflict of laws faces the individual identities of people involved in international relations. Cultural identity may be considered collective and individual at the same time, because each member of the group has an identity of its own. Religious values contribute to defining the cultural identity of individuals: be it in Europe or other countries, cultures, values, civilization, religion, are never absent from the solutions of personal status. Stepping back from the analysis of some cases where religious values are relevant, this Article aims at a theoretical analysis of the subject, involving the contrast between value pluralism, conflict of laws and fundamental rights.

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The “Essential Practice of Religion” Doctrine in India and its application in Pakistan and Malaysia - ​ Valentina Rita Scotti

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. Understanding the complexity: the role of religions in the Indian, Pakistani and Malaysian contexts – 3. The discipline of the religious phenomenon in India: which influences from foreign models in the Constitution? – 4. The Supreme Court and the “essential elements of religion” doctrine – 5.The migration of the Indian essential practice doctrine in Pakistan and Malaysia – 5.1 Interpreting the essential practice doctrine in Pakistan: the long-lasting history of the Ahmadis (non)recognition – 5.2 Cloths and Words always matter. The essential doctrine in Malaysia – 6. Concluding Remarks

ABSTRACT: The Supreme Court of India elaborated the “essential elements doctrine” to ascertain which elements are fundamental for a religious practice and which may be purged, as mere superstition, by the intervention of the State without infringing the principle of State neutrality in religious affairs. The doctrine has been discussed and in some cases applied also by constitutional interpreters in Pakistan and Malaysia, whose Constitutions echo the provisions on freedom of religion of the Union of India but also establish Islam as the religion of the State. Therefore, the present essay discusses the interpretation of constitutional provisions by the Supreme Court of India in order to introduce the essential elements doctrine as well as its application by the Pakistani and Malaysian Courts with the aim to asses, relying on the theory of cross-fertilization, whether they merely imported the doctrine or adapted it to the national contexts

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Introduzione a “Cibo, diritto e religione in una prospettiva comparata” - ​ Salvatore Berlingò

Il contesto in cui si svolge il nostro Convegno ("Le Università per EXPO 2015") m'induce nella tentazione di introdurre il dibattito con un interrogativo provocatorio e, forse, in qualche modo impertinente: Una dieta mediterranea per la mensa delle religioni e delle credenze?" (continua)

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Matrimonio omosessuale e pubblico ufficiale: una nuova forma di obiezione di coscienza? - ​ Ludovica Decimo

SOMMARIO: 1. La difesa dei valori culturali e religiosi attraverso il diritto all’obiezione di coscienza - 2. I casi di obiezione di coscienza sulle unioni omosessuali: uno sguardo d’insieme oltre i confini nazionali - 3. Il matrimonio omosessuale e il pubblico ufficiale nell’ordinamento giuridico italiano - 4. Lo scudo dell’obiezione di coscienza: un’opzione possibile per il pubblico ufficiale?

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Formation of the Russian Federation as a secular state (XVII century - beginning of the XXI century): historical and theoretical aspects - ​ Igor Pibaev

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction - 2. Pre-revolutionary period - 3. The Soviet period - 4. Modern stage - 5. Conclusion.

ABSTRACT: The article examines main stages of formation of the secular state in the Russian Federation. The author provides historical and legal overview of the development of secularism in Russia in the period starting from 1701 to the present days.

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Quando è l’abito a fare il lavoratore. La questione del velo islamico, tra libertà di manifestazione della religione ed esigenze dell’impresa - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Simboli religiosi e competenze dell’Unione europea – 2. Il divieto di discriminazione del lavoratore e l’ammissibilità di regimi derogatori – 3. La problematica delimitazione della portata dell’art. 4, par. 1, della direttiva 2000/78/CE – 4. Il rinvio pregiudiziale davanti alla Corte di giustizia della questione del velo islamico – 5. ( segue ) I dubbi sull’eccessiva concretezza del quesito – 6. Gli orientamenti della giurisprudenza francese – 7. La libertà religiosa nell’impresa privata e le deroghe al diritto antidiscriminatorio: tre notazioni generali – 8. ( segue ) Il problema della rilevanza del requisito professionale “negativo” – 9. ( segue ) Gli spazi di operatività della discriminazione indiretta – 10. Divieto di discriminazione ed esigenze dell’impresa. Una conclusione provvisoria in attesa della pronunzia della Corte di giustizia.

ABSTRACT: An employer refusing to hire an applicant (or discharging an employee) wearing an Islamic headscarf, because of the individual’s religious practice, could be seen as a case of discrimination based on religion and therefore contrary to Council Directive 78/2000/EC of 27 November 2000, establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation . However, Article 4(1) of this Directive provides that a difference in treatment based on a characteristic related to the listed grounds of discrimination may not be discriminatory if a particular religion or belief is a genuine occupational requirements for the post. The article examines the question referred at the Court of Justice of the European Union from the Cour de cassation (France) on 24 April 2015: “Must Article 4(1) … be interpreted as meaning that the wish of a customer of an information technology consulting company no longer to have the information technology services of that company provided by an employee, a design engineer, wearing an Islamic headscarf, is a genuine and determining occupational requirement, by reason of the nature of the particular occupational activities concerned or of the context in which they are carried out?”

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Les droits de la femme dans la jurisprudence de la Cour Constitutionnelle égyptienne après les “Printemps Arabes” - ​ Roberta Cupertino

SOMMAIRE: 1. Préface - 2. Religion et État dans la ʺ théocratie constitutionnelle ʺ égyptienne – 3. La jurisprudence constitutionnelle entre l’article 2 et l’affirmation des droits des femmes – 4. La Cour constitutionnelle égyptienne en tant que garante de la primauté du droit et des principes de la charia.

ABSTRACT: This work addresses the issue of women's rights in Islamic society. Particularly, attention is focused on a legal system, the Egyptian, who is heavily innervated by the principles of Islamic law. On the relationship between the principles of the Sharia and Women's Rights has repeatedly ruled the Constitutional Court that, with its peculiar interpretative reasoning on scriptural texts, has enabled the survival of the rules protecting women in the legal system of the State .

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Legal guarantees for the protection of the rights to life and to health care of the child extracted alive as a result of abortion - ​ Alexandra A. Ponkina Igor V. Ponkin

SUMMARY: 1. Problem description - 2. State of Russian Legislation regulating of the legal status of the child extracted alive as a result of abortion - 3. Legal basis for the recognition of human dignity and the right to life of the child extracted alive as a result of abortion - 4. Legal guarantees of recognition of the right to life and human dignity of the child extracted alive as a result of abortion and emergency medical care in foreign legislation - 5. Conclusions.

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Riflessioni di diritto comparato e canonico sull’obiezione di coscienza del pubblico funzionario - ​ Maria Chiara Ruscazio

SOMMARIO: I. Premessa - I I. L’obiezione di coscienza del pubblico funzionario nel diritto statale: - 1. Il conflitto fra i doveri di status e i diritti costituzionalmente garantiti. Il modello francese: la preminenza del principio di neutralità – 2. Il conflitto fra i doveri di status e i diritti costituzionalmente garantiti. Il modello italiano: la molteplicità dei principi e delle interpretazioni - 3. Il riconoscimento difficile del diritto di obiezione del pubblico funzionario. La chiusura positiva del modello francese - 4. Il riconoscimento difficile del diritto di obiezione del pubblico funzionario. L’apertura incerta del modello italiano – III. L’obiezione di coscienza del pubblico funzionario e il diritto canonico: 1. Pertinenza delle diverse tecniche di flessibilità del diritto ecclesiale - 2. Per una applicabilità concreta della tolleranza alle ipotesi di conflitto di coscienza del funzionario.

The conscientious objection of the public official. Considerations in comparative law and canon law

We witness nowadays a wave of judicial cases concerning the problem of the possible right to conscientious objection of those who exert public functions. The problem’s elements are two: on one hand, the existence of juridical principles and obligations incident to the civil service, which are able to lie more heavily on the public official’s freedom of conscience; on the other hand, the acknowledgement or the denial, by the legal order, of the right to object as specific content of freedom of conscience. In this perspective, the comparison between the French and the Italian legal orders can be useful to highlight which consequences come from different approaches. In another perspective, where State law does not recognize the conscientious objection of the public official, we can ask ourselves whether canon law can solve the conscientious conflict of catholic public officials, softening their canonical obligations.

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Dallo scontro all’incontro. 1917-1997: ottanta anni di politica ecclesiastica russa - ​ Giovanni Codevilla

SOMMARIO: 1. L’inizio della lotta contro la Chiesa. Il Tribunale rivoluzionario e la nascita della ČK - 2. La profanazione delle reliquie - 3. La requisizione dei preziosi - 4. Il movimento degli innovatori - 5. I processi per opposizione alla requisizione dei preziosi - 6. La Dichiarazione del metropolita Sergij - 7. La Nep religiosa staliniana. L’elezione di Sergij a patriarca - 8. Il Concilio della Chiesa Ortodossa Russa del 1945 - 9. L’attività internazionale della Chiesa Ortodossa Russa. La nuova sinfonia tra bolscevismo e Ortodossia - 10. La campagna contro la Chiesa cattolica. L’idea di convocare un Concilio in funzione anticattolica - 11. La svolta antiecclesiastica del 1947 - 12. La ripresa della campagna ateistica e la politica antireligiosa chruščëviana - 13. Il Concilio del 1961 - 14 Il Concilio del 1971 e la politica ecclesiastica postchruščeviana - 15. Il Rapporto Furov e l’asservimento della Chiesa - 16. Michail Gorbačëv - 17. Il ritorno al passato della nuova Russia.

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Libertà sindacale nelle confessioni religiose. Spunti comparativi - ​ Laura Sabrina Martucci

SOMMARIO : 1. La tutela dei diritti fondamentali all’interno delle confessioni religiose: la tesi e l’ipotesi - 2. Il caso emblematico del Sindicatul Păstorul cel Bun: a) la giurisprudenza rumena - 3. ( segue ) b) la giurisprudenza della Corte EDU - 4. Autonomia e libertà sindacale: limiti e ordine d’esercizio - 5. Attività ecclesiastiche neutre o non strettamente “spirituali” - 6. Una libertà (sindacale) senza necessità negata.

Freedom of Union inside Religious Organizations. A few comparative Cues.

ABSTRACT: Inside religious Organizations clerics are forbidden to form and to join trade unions . This paper takes its cue from the case of the “Sindicatul Păstorul cel Bun”, to whom Romania refused the registration as a trade union, in order to point out that a few duties practised by priests in favour of their churches are not closely spirituals but rather neutral. Thus, with regard to them, the foregoing ban doesn’t appear as “necessary in a democratic society” under the art. 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights .

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La libertà religiosa in Italia e nella prospettiva europea - ​ Valerio Tozzi

SOMMARIO : 1. Introduzione - 2. Cenni storici: 2.a) L’unità d’Italia; 2.b) Il fascismo e la Conciliazione del 1929 fra Chiesa e Stato; 2.c) La Repubblica democratica e la Costituzione italiana del 1948 - 3. La disciplina costituzionale dei fenomeni religiosi in Italia nei primi sessanta anni di democrazia repubblicana - 4. La libertà religiosa nella prospettiva europea: 4.a) La costruzione dell’Unione Europea; 4.b) Il fenomeno religioso nelle istituzioni europee. Le chiese dominanti negli Stati nazionali; 4.c) Le libertà religiose individuali e collettive; 4.d) I temi controversi - 5. L’immigrazione e i fenomeni religiosi.

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La libertà religiosa nella “teocrazia costituzionale” egiziana - ​ Roberta Cupertino

SOMMARIO: 1. Libertà religiosa nell’Islam e costituzionalismo: profili di criticità del caso egiziano - 2. L’interpretazione dei principi sciaraitici per via giurisprudenziale - 3. I nuovi risvolti costituzionali del diritto di libertà religiosa – 4. L’implementazione dei diritti tra Costituzioni e Corte Costituzionale.

ABSTRACT: The present work deals with the issue concerning the protection of the right to religious freedom in Egypt, on the basis of the fact that the Constitutions of this Country, following the Sadat era to the present day, while recognizing the essential elements of constitutionalism, attach to Sharia principles the rank of preeminent source of legislation. On the basis of this specificity, therefore, this work examines the relationship between Islamic culture and constitutionalism, focusing on a number of judgments of the Constitutional Court, known for having permitted a more liberal interpretation of the Sharia rules. Just the particular method used by constitutional judges in order to establish the principles of a religious nature that can not be violated by the legislature, in fact, offers starting points about the future, possible cohabitation, or contamination between the two cultures mentioned, with interesting implications on the subject of religious freedom.

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The law and financial transparency in churches: reconsidering the form 990 exemption - ​ John Montague

TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction - I. Legislative History A. Early Legislative History of the Information Return Requirement - The Revenue Act of 1943 - 2. The Imposition of the Unrelated Business Income Tax in 1950 - 3. Expanding the Information Return and Unrelated Business Income Tax in 1969 - B. Televangelist Scandals During the 1980s - C. Recent Legislative History of the Information Return - 1. The William Aramony Scandal and Aftermath - 2. Recent Revisions to Form -II. Increased public access to and use of FORM 990 Information Returns - III. Churches should not be exempt from filing form - A. Churches Are Especially Susceptible to Financial Abuses / - 1. Many Churches Lack Basic Forms of Oversight and Accountability, Revealing Too Much Trust in the Honesty of Religious People - 2. Churches Where Power is Concentrated in the Hands of One Leader Provide the Ideal Structure for Financial Abuse - 3. Even at Churches with More Independent Boards, Leaders Still Maintain Undue Influence - 4. The Nature of Spiritual Leadership Gives Church Pastors Extraordinary Power - 5. Hierarchical Churches also Lack Proper Financial Oversight, and Lay Members Have Little Say in Accountability - B. Churches Themselves Would Benefit from Increased Transparency and Accountability - 1. Greater Transparency May Increase Donations - 2. Requiring Transparency Would Mitigate the Inevitable Fall in Donations from Scandals at Similar Institutions -3. Financial and Other Scandals, Caused or Exacerbated by Lack of Transparency, Have the Potential to Damage the Spiritual Lives of Churchgoers - C. Many Churchgoers Would Likely Welcome More Financial Transparency - D. Financial Transparency is Consistent with the Teachings of Many Churches - E. Self-Regulation Is Insufficient to Prevent Financial Abuse - F. The Public Has a Right to Know What Happens to Taxpayer Money Funneled to Churches - IV. Constitutional Issues - A. Removing the Exemption Would Not Violate Free Exercise - B. The Current Exemption May Violate the Establishment Clause - C. Requiring Churches to File the Form 990 Would Not Be Excessively Entangling – Conclusion.

ABSTRACT: Most tax-exempt organizations are required to file the IRS Form 990, an information return that is open to the public. The Form 990 is used by watchdogs and donors to learn detailed financial information about charities. However, churches are exempt from filing the Form 990 and need not disclose any financial information to the IRS, the public, or their donors. In December 2012, the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability recommended to Senator Charles Grassley that Congress should preserve the exemption, despite recent financial scandals at churches. nonprofits honest and efficient. Unfortunately, because churches do not have to be transparent or accountable, few of them are. Using research and insights from sociology, this Article contends that because of their opacity and the unique nature of religious authority, churches are more likely to foster and shelter malfeasance. Churchgoers are unlikely to challenge leaders because doing so can endanger their position in the religious community, making it imperative that transparency be mandated by outside authorities. Ironically, increased transparency may actually be good for churches because, as studies suggest, it is likely to increase donations and because, by minimizing opportunities for financial improprieties, it may preserve the religious experience of churchgoers. In addition, transparency is consistent with the teaching of many Christian leaders and with the expressed preferences of a large portion of churchgoers.

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L’assetto patrimoniale della Chiesa d’Inghilterra: un esempio di pragmatismo - ​ Cristiana Cianitto

Sommario : 1. Il finanziamento delle confessioni in Europa: un’ipotesi - 2. La Chiesa di Inghilterra: un laboratorio di indagine - 3. L’ipotesi e la verifica in laboratorio: a) Autosufficienza; b) Affidabilità e trasparenza; c) Uguaglianza - 4. L’indagine: conclusioni.

ABSTRACT: The Church of England has been chosen has one of the privileged observatory to test the even-handedness model proposed by the RELIGARE project to govern the public funding of religious denominations. The key concepts of accountability, equality and self-support seems to be an appreciable way to manage the financial support of religious groups in a multifaith society.

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Il delitto di onore e l’aggravante dei “futili motivi” culturalmente (e religiosamente) motivata - ​ Germana Carobene

SOMMARIO: 1. I reati culturalmente motivati e il tentato omicidio per causa di “onore” - 2. Il concetto di onore nella cultura e nella tradizione giuridica dei Paesi mussulmani - 3. L'aggravante dei futili motivi nel nostro sistema penale - 4. Considerazioni conclusive.

The crime of honor and the aggravating factor of the trivial reasons' culturally (and religiously) motivated

ABSTRACT: A recent case law of the Italian Court of Cassation, on 2013, ruled that, in the case of the attempted murder of a daughter, trivial reasons cannot be considered based on the honor of the family and the violation of a fundamental religious precept. The evaluation of these cases then relates to that, of a much broader scope, linked to the concept of 'cultural crimes' or cultural defence. It is necessary, however, to perform a careful balancing between guilt and offensiveness proportion on the one hand and, on the other hand, to consider the extent to which the author of a culturally motivated crime can enjoy a punitive treatment, though attenuated compared to those who commit the same crime without a cultural motivation. A judgment intrinsically linked to a cultural and ethical relativism, cannot be accepted that though respecting the multiculturalism of the western society in general, and of the Italian one in particular, must always find its legitimacy by submitting to the principles and values on which the Italian Constitution is founded.

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I mille splendidi volti della giurisprudenza della Corte di Strasburgo: “guardarsi in faccia” è condizione minima del “vivere insieme” - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione – 2. Il velo integrale davanti alla Corte di Strasburgo – 3. I profili procedurali e la sussidiarietà – 4. La ratio della legge francese sul divieto di occultamento del viso – 5. La questione del margine di apprezzamento – 6. Il limite alla libertà di manifestare la religione derivante dalla “protezione dei diritti e delle libertà altrui” – 7. La Corte di Strasburgo “dietro” il velo: la “laïcité” e il suo riverberarsi sulla tutela del diritto di libertà di religione.

ABSTRACT: The French Law no. 2010-1192 of 11 October 2010, introduced the ban on wearing clothing designed to conceal one’s face in public places. Muslim women do not have the possibility of wearing the full-face veil ( burqa / niqab ) in public. The present article explores the question concerning whether the burqa ban is compatible with the democratic society in Europe and particularly with Article 9 of the European Convention of Human Rights, which guarantees the exercise of freedom of thought, conscience and religion. To do so, the paper critically analyzes a recent decision of the Strasbourg Court, S.A.S. v. France of July, the 1 st 2014. The Court held that the barrier raised against others by a veil concealing the face can be perceived as breaching the right of others to live in a space of socialisation which makes living together easier. The Author examines the issue considering various features of secularism and their effects on the different points of view regarding religious freedom.

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Islam y educación religiosa en Europa. Análisis macro-comparado - ​ Gloria M. Morán García

SUMARIO: A. Presupuestos: 1. El fracaso de las repúblicas árabes del siglo XX, emigración y expansión de la cultura musulmana en Occidente - 2. Islam, diversidad geográfico-cultural, emergencia del islamismo político e identidad musulmana en Occidente – B. Islam y educación pública en algunos países europeos. La experiencia macro-comparada desde su particular legado religioso y político: 1. Austria, Alemania y Suiza – 2. Dinamarca, Noruega, Suecia, Holanda y Reino Unido – 3. España e Italia – C. Conclusión: Laicidad estatal y educación religiosa islámica: ¿valores incompatibles?

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Failure of Arab republics in XX Century, migration and expansion of Muslim culture in the West. Islam, cultural-geographical diversity, emergence of political Islam and Muslim identity in the West. Islam and public education in European countries: Macro-comparative experience from its particular religious and political legacy. Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Holland and United Kingdom. Spain and Italy. Conclusion: Secular state and Muslim religious education: Incompatible values?

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Il matrimonio same sex nella Repubblica di San Marino? - ​ Luca Iannaccone

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa – 2. La questione del matrimonio tra persone dello stesso sesso in Italia: brevi cenni circa lo stato del dibattito nella giurisprudenza - 3. Il matrimonio same sex nella Repubblica di San Marino?

The same sex marriage in the Republic of San Marino?

ABSTRACT: The issue of the recognition of same sex marriages is extremely relevant again in Italy after the April 3, 2014 ruling in which the Court of Grosseto ordered to transcribe, in the registry office, a marriage contracted in New York (USA) by two Italian citizens of the same sex. The Author, after a brief synthesis that summarizes the main topics of the jurisprudential debate in Italy, turns his gaze to the neighboring Republic of San Marino, where the same issue was risen as a result of an initiative (Istanza d'Arengo) with which a San Marino citizen, having contracted a civil marriage abroad with the partner, sought its recognition in the Republic. The contribution deals with the topic in the light of the legislation in force in San Marino presenting the hypothesis that, de iure condendo, are looming on the horizon.

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Relaciones Estado-Confesiones religiosas y el derecho de libertad religiosa en Italia y España - ​ Fernando Santamaría Lambás

SUMARIO: I. Los paréntesis dictatoriales en el pasado del estado moderno al estado social (primera sesión) - 1a. De las experiencias constitucionales en España desde 1845 a 1920 - 1b. Desde el Estatuto Albertino de 1848 hasta 1920 en Italia - II. Las dictaduras fascista y de Primo de Rivera y de Franco y las relaciones entre cada uno de los estados y la Iglesia católica (segunda sesión) - 2a. Las dictaduras de Primo de Rivera y de Franco en España - 2b. La dictadura fascista en Italia - III. La instauración en la práctica de la democracia en Italia y España (tercera sesión) - 3a. Los periodos republicanos y la democracia de 1978 en España - 3b. Desde la Segunda Guerra mundial al momento actual en Italia.

ABSTRACT: From 21 to 25 October 2013 at the University of Salerno, the Tozzi, Macri and Santamaría teachers have had the opportunity to confront in several seminars organized by Professor Tozzi Italian-Spanish reality, both from a historical perspective current on-state relations religious confessions and the right of religious freedom in Italy and Spain. The seminars have passed in three sessions and a concluding fourth. The first, in parentheses dictatorial past of the modern state to social state. The second on the Franco fascist dictatorships and the relationships between each of the States and the Catholic Church and the third on the establishment in the practice of democracy in Italy and Spain.

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