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Giudizio di appello nelle cause matrimoniali: “reiectio in limine” e limiti della prova - di Piero Amenta

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Introduzione - 3. Il processo ordinario di appello nel M.P. Mitis Iudex - 4. L’appello nel processo abbreviato - 5. I limiti della prova in fase di appello.

ABSTRACT: The article is the resumé of a speech originally delivered to the members of the Arcisodalizio della Curia Romana. It examines the canonical discipline in matrimonial case as it is contained in m.p. Mitis Iudex, by pope Francis, with whom the Pontiff has reformed the discipline of the canonical process in matrimonial cases. The author explaines the new discipline, compares it with the old one replaced, and discuss the points that seem to be problematic, proposing possible solutions in the light of the Roman Rota Jurisprudence of recent times.

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L’economia del Profeta: la finanza islamica e i fondamenti religiosi del diritto islamico dei contratti Shari’ah Compliant - di Alessandro Cupri

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: l’Islam tra religione ed economia - 2. Dalla finanza al contratto islamico, tra vincolo e libertà: alla ricerca di una teoria generale dei contratti - 3. L’etica islamica dei contratti: divieto di ribà e divieto di ghàrar - 4. Operatività delle attività della banca islamica e contrattualistica commerciale Shari’ah Compliant - 5. I contratti di tipo partecipativo: “mudàraba” e “mushàraka” - 6. (segue) Tipologie di mudàraba - 7. Cenni conclusivi e prospettive future.

The Prophet's Economy: Islamic Finance and the Religious Foundations of Islamic Law of Shari'ah Compliant Contracts

ABSTRACT: The growing presence of Muslim believers in Europe has increasingly led to heated debates also at the doctrinal level. Legal and economic literature, particularly, has recently emphasised the importance that inclusive, effective and efficient financial regulation can have on the degree of integration of the Islamic communities present in non-Muslim contexts. Since the Shari'ah dictates a series of behavioural rules in different sectors of the believer’s life, the Koran and the narratives of the Prophet (hadith) offer a series of prescriptions also in economic matters. With the aim of outlining the religious and juridical reasoning of the so-called halal economic dimension, this paper first examines the economic principles of Islamic finance: the prohibition of ribà (interest), the prohibition of ghàrar (uncertainty) and that of maysìr (speculation). It then provides a recognition aimed at finding a general theory of Islamic contracts. Finally, it reconstructs the discipline of the mudàraba and musharàka participatory contracts. These two forms of contracts represent a product of Islamic finance widely used in banking-financial practice and considered by Islamic legal schools to be totally in conformity with the Word of Allah. They are therefore instruments of comparison particularly interesting as well as useful for the Italian legal system. They can represent a flywheel for the integration of Muslims in the social fabric, and at the same time, an antidote to the unstable European economic panorama.

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Introduzione di un obbligo vaccinale contro il Covid-19: profili di criticità - di Arturo Maniaci

SOMMARIO: 1. L’epidemia nel Codice civile italiano - 2. “Una brutta notizia, avvolta in una proteina” - 3. Le misure di contenimento dell’epidemia da Covid-19 adottate e l’esordio di vaccini anti-Covid-19 - 4. La vaccinazione obbligatoria: precedenti storici italiani - 5. La vaccinazione obbligatoria contro il Covid-19, oggi: una mappa mondiale - 6. La vaccinazione contro il Covid-19 in Italia: obbligo, diritto od onere? 7. Il problema della compatibilità dell’obbligo vaccinale con il quadro normativo costituzionale ed europeo - 8. Conclusioni.

The introduction of a compulsory vaccination in Italy: critical profiles

ABSTRACT: The multiple Covid-19 vaccines developed until now are typically thought of as the only means to meet the challenges posed by the current pandemic. The Italian legal system offers a composite framework for the regulation of vaccinations against Covid-19 and more precisely provides for the burden of vaccination for many categories of people (including healthcare workers). The purpose of this paper is to verify the legitimacy of a compulsory vaccination in the light of Italian and European sources of law. In this perspective, the Author argues that a compulsory vaccination against Covid-19 could be considered not consistent with both the Italian Constitution and the European legislation. Furthermore, the Author focuses on the phenomenon of vaccine esitancy, questioning whether a policy of mandatory vaccination is the proper tool for supporting the effective implementation of vaccination strategies.

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Le Sezioni Unite della Cassazione sul crocifisso a scuola: alla ricerca di un difficile equilibrio tra pulsioni laiciste e giurisprudenza europea - di Paolo Cavana

SOMMARIO - 1. Il crocifisso in classe davanti alle Sezioni Unite - 2. Laicità dello Stato e autonomia scolastica - 3. Conflitto tra diritti e reasonable accommodation - 4. La regola della reasonable accommodation nella giurisprudenza straniera e italiana - 5. Il crocifisso come simbolo “essenzialmente passivo” nella giurisprudenza europea - 6. Reasonable accommodation in assenza di una lesione di diritti: rilievi critici - 7. Bilanciamento dei diritti e legislazione scolastica - 8. Il rapporto asimmetrico tra docente e alunni nella scuola: un dato del tutto omesso - 9. La rimozione del crocifisso da parte del docente: un atto lecito? Osservazioni conclusive.

The Supreme Court’s United Sections on the Crucifix controversy in schools: searching for a difficult balance between laicism and European case-law

ABSTRACT: This paper examines critically, in the light of the Italian and European case-law, the contents and the juridical arguments of a recent decision issued by the United Sections of the Italian Court of Cassation concerning the Crucifix controversy arisen in a State school. The judges established, on one hand, that the crucifix may be hung in a classroom upon demand of the students as it does not infringe the dissenting teacher’s freedom of conscience or of teaching, according to Lautsi ECHR decision (2011); on the other hand, the clash of values involved would need a reasonable accommodation which could require other religious symbols alongside the crucifix or its removal during the lessons of the dissenting teacher. Such a decision, according to the author, appears to be somewhat contradictory and ambiguous, and it does not resolve the case in a well-balanced way.

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L’emergenza e il diritto ecclesiastico: pregi (prospettici) e difetti (potenziali) della dimensione pubblica del fenomeno religioso - di Giuseppe D'Angelo, Jlia Pasquali Cerioli

SOMMARIO: 1. Una collocazione non casuale - 2. Mutazioni, crisi, emergenze. Valori-fini dell’ordinamento e rilettura in continuità del “microsistema costituzionale” del diritto ecclesiastico - 3. Il duplice significato della dimensione pubblica del fenomeno religioso. Ambiguità e contraddizioni nel diritto ecclesiastico pre-pandemico - 4. Le conferme della pandemia. I limiti della libertà religiosa (e gli spunti per la valorizzazione del suo apporto costruttivo) - 5. Il rafforzamento e l’estensione del paradigma collaborativo - 6. La nuova fase della ripartenza e il binomio collaborazione-sussidiarietà - 7. Riepilogo e rilancio - 8. Note di discussione: i pregi (prospettici) - 9. (segue) i difetti (potenziali).

The pandemic emergency and the ecclesiastical law of the State: advantages (in perspective) and (potential) defects in considering the public dimension of religion.

ABSTRACT: Despite the pandemic emergency, religion is still placed among the elements that contribute to the material and spiritual progress of society. Particularly, the perception of the role of religion is assuming a greater consideration by State institutions and politics as well among the scholars. In this sense, the emergency law is an opportunity to reflect on the public dimension of the religious factor and a good chance to test its merits (in perspective) and (potential) defects.

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Lex orandi, lex credendi? Il Messale Romano e il suo valore simbolico tra Summorum Pontificum e Traditionis Custodes - di Francesco Ferrara

SOMMARIO: 1. Il “pomo della discordia”: Concilio Vaticano II - 2. L’ermeneutica della riforma nella continuità - 3. Unità nella unicità? - 4. Esempi di non trascurabile fedeltà.

Lex orandi, lex credendi? The Roman Missal and its symbolic value between Summorum Pontificum and Traditionis Custodes

ABSTRACT: This essay aims to examine the symbolic value acquired by the Roman Missal of 1962 by the Second Vatican Council today, especially through the comparison of two recent statutes, Summorum Pontificum and Traditionis Custodes. They can represent an effective synthesis of the approaches used by the Catholic Church to relate to a liturgical question that is still very controversial.

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“Droit européen“ à la liberté religieuse et paradigmes des relations État-religions dans l’Europe contemporaine: une cacophonie épineuse - di Alessandro Ferrari

SOMMAIRE: 1. Introduction: paradigmes de relations et droit à la liberté religieuse, de l’identité à la tension - 2. Des paradigmes des relations État-Églises au droit à la liberté religieuse - 3. La force attractive des paradigmes dans le scénario européen contemporain - 4. Les paradigmes des relations État-Églises dans la nouvelle arène internationale - 5. Conclusion: une citoyenneté inachevée.

The “European Right” to Religious Freedom and Paradigms of State-Religion Relations in Contemporary Europe: a thorny cacophony

ABSTRACT: The article examines the dialectic between European national models of religious freedom and the paradigm of religious freedom shaped in the international order and in particular by the human rights discourse. The analysis of the relationship between the modern - national-centered - and the contemporary - individual-centered - paradigm of religious freedom reveals, on the one hand, the difficult but inevitable osmosis between legal systems in a multilevel system of rights protection and, on the other hand, the deep transformation of religious freedom in contemporary Europe.

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La crisis de la separación institucional Iglesia-Estado en EUA y la emergencia religiosa del neo-evangelismo ultraconservador en el ámbito político - di Gloria M. Morán García

SUMARIO: - 1. Cuestión metodógica previa - 2. La crisis de los modelos tradicionales de comunidades religiosas a causa de los cambios en un mercado religioso cada vez más plural y competitivo - 3. La crisis de la edulcorada y estereotipada historia oficial de EUA y del americanismo como religión cívica - 4. El desarrollo de la religión cívica estadounidense y el papel político del evangelismo en ese proceso - 5. La evolución del evangelismo estadounidense y su influencia en los poderes Legislativo y Ejecutivo - 6. El papel del sionismo neo-evangelista en la política estadounidense - 7. Los lobbies religiosos indirectos en Estados Unidos y su papel en la política estadounidense mediante los religious advocacy groups y el National Prayer Breakfast - 8. Las contradicciones en los estándares elaborados por el USSC para una separación institucional Iglesia-Estado - 9. Conclusiones - Bibliografía.

Crisis of the Institutional Separation between Church and State in USA and the Emergence of Conservative Neo-evangelism in the Political Sphere

 ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the cumulative causes of the progressive decay in the institutional and jurisprudential separation between Church and State in the United States from an interdisciplinary methodological approach, including sociological, economic, historical, and political elements interacting with the American legal system. It reviews the changes in the American civic religion, the plural religious denominationalism facilitating a new religious market, the increasing entanglement between religion and politics, and the role of neo-evangelicalism in the elections and the US policies at domestic and international levels. It includes some changes in the US Supreme Court that facilitates increasing paradoxes in the First Amendment jurisprudence regarding the Free Exercise and Non-Establishment clauses.

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Il crocifisso ‘accomodato’. Considerazioni a prima lettura di Corte cass., Sezioni Unite civili, n. 24414 del 2021 - di Marcello Toscano

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La decisione (in sintesi): una soluzione subottimale - 3. Il ruolo determinante del principio supremo di laicità - 4. Laicità sostanziale, laicità procedurale, accomodamento ragionevole - 5. Discriminazione diretta e indiretta. - 6. Conclusioni.

The crucifix ‘accommodated’. Considerations at first reading of the judgment no. 24414/2021 by the United Sections of the Italian Supreme Court of cassation

ABSTRACT: With decision no. 24414/2021 the United Sections of the Italian Supreme Court of cassation have provided an unprecedented solution to the issue of religious symbols in the classrooms of public schools. In this essay the author analyses the judgment, focusing in particular on three aspects: the relationship between the so-called ‘Italian principle of secularism’ and the reasonable accommodation; the existence or not of discrimination against the teacher who has been obliged to teach under the crucifix; the practical ways in which this ruling can become 'living law' in the Italian legal system.

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L’omofonia ecumenica patriarcale - di Giorgio Barone Adesi

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. L’odierno dibattito sulle prerogative patriarcali costantinopolitane e il gathering di Amman - 3. La ratio attributiva delle prerogative ecclesiastiche romane al vescovo di Costantinopoli-ΝέαςῬώμης - 4. Le prerogative ecclesiastiche costantinopolitane - 5. Il conferimento imperiale del titolo patriarcale al vescovo di Roma e di patriarca ecumenico al vescovo di Costantinopoli-Νέας Ῥώμης - 6. L’ecumenicità dell’omofonia patriarcale - 7. Osservazioni finali.

Patriarchal ecumenical homophony

ABSTRACT: The establishment in 2019 of a new Ukrainian autocephaly raises the question of the legal basis of exclusive Constantinopolitan canonical prerogatives. As is known, after the Edict of Thessalonica of 380, can. cost. 3 of 381 attributes the Roman prerogatives to the bishop of Constantinople-Νεα Ρωμη.The ethnarchical religious role, assumed by the Roman bishop, guardian of the Romanitas, (conceived as the apostolic heritage of the Roman church), determines the Eastern emperors to confer the patriarchal title (previously reserved for the Jewish etnarch of Palestine), to Roman pope and ecumenical patriarch, to the bishop of Constantinople, which became the only seat of the imperium.The Justinian articulation of the ecclesiastical order comes to highlight in the homophony of patriarchs the attestation of the unity, doctrinal and disciplinary, in the Church of the ecumenical empire. Therefore, today's panorthodox reception of Ukrainian autocephaly cannot be considered an ecclesial burden due to the universal canonical authority of the patriarchate of Constantinople. Consequently, the primates cannot accept it in the name of the respective autocephalous Church, in contrast with canon 34. In respect of the nomocanonical tradition, today's Ukrainian controversy must therefore be submitted to the assembly of patriarchs in order to reach a canonical unanimous (homophone) solution to the controversy.

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