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“Droit européen“ à la liberté religieuse et paradigmes des relations État-religions dans l’Europe contemporaine: une cacophonie épineuse - di Alessandro Ferrari

SOMMAIRE: 1. Introduction: paradigmes de relations et droit à la liberté religieuse, de l’identité à la tension - 2. Des paradigmes des relations État-Églises au droit à la liberté religieuse - 3. La force attractive des paradigmes dans le scénario européen contemporain - 4. Les paradigmes des relations État-Églises dans la nouvelle arène internationale - 5. Conclusion: une citoyenneté inachevée.

The “European Right” to Religious Freedom and Paradigms of State-Religion Relations in Contemporary Europe: a thorny cacophony

ABSTRACT: The article examines the dialectic between European national models of religious freedom and the paradigm of religious freedom shaped in the international order and in particular by the human rights discourse. The analysis of the relationship between the modern - national-centered - and the contemporary - individual-centered - paradigm of religious freedom reveals, on the one hand, the difficult but inevitable osmosis between legal systems in a multilevel system of rights protection and, on the other hand, the deep transformation of religious freedom in contemporary Europe.

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La crisis de la separación institucional Iglesia-Estado en EUA y la emergencia religiosa del neo-evangelismo ultraconservador en el ámbito político - di Gloria M. Morán García

SUMARIO: - 1. Cuestión metodógica previa - 2. La crisis de los modelos tradicionales de comunidades religiosas a causa de los cambios en un mercado religioso cada vez más plural y competitivo - 3. La crisis de la edulcorada y estereotipada historia oficial de EUA y del americanismo como religión cívica - 4. El desarrollo de la religión cívica estadounidense y el papel político del evangelismo en ese proceso - 5. La evolución del evangelismo estadounidense y su influencia en los poderes Legislativo y Ejecutivo - 6. El papel del sionismo neo-evangelista en la política estadounidense - 7. Los lobbies religiosos indirectos en Estados Unidos y su papel en la política estadounidense mediante los religious advocacy groups y el National Prayer Breakfast - 8. Las contradicciones en los estándares elaborados por el USSC para una separación institucional Iglesia-Estado - 9. Conclusiones - Bibliografía.

Crisis of the Institutional Separation between Church and State in USA and the Emergence of Conservative Neo-evangelism in the Political Sphere

 ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the cumulative causes of the progressive decay in the institutional and jurisprudential separation between Church and State in the United States from an interdisciplinary methodological approach, including sociological, economic, historical, and political elements interacting with the American legal system. It reviews the changes in the American civic religion, the plural religious denominationalism facilitating a new religious market, the increasing entanglement between religion and politics, and the role of neo-evangelicalism in the elections and the US policies at domestic and international levels. It includes some changes in the US Supreme Court that facilitates increasing paradoxes in the First Amendment jurisprudence regarding the Free Exercise and Non-Establishment clauses.

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Il crocifisso ‘accomodato’. Considerazioni a prima lettura di Corte cass., Sezioni Unite civili, n. 24414 del 2021 - di Marcello Toscano

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La decisione (in sintesi): una soluzione subottimale - 3. Il ruolo determinante del principio supremo di laicità - 4. Laicità sostanziale, laicità procedurale, accomodamento ragionevole - 5. Discriminazione diretta e indiretta. - 6. Conclusioni.

The crucifix ‘accommodated’. Considerations at first reading of the judgment no. 24414/2021 by the United Sections of the Italian Supreme Court of cassation

ABSTRACT: With decision no. 24414/2021 the United Sections of the Italian Supreme Court of cassation have provided an unprecedented solution to the issue of religious symbols in the classrooms of public schools. In this essay the author analyses the judgment, focusing in particular on three aspects: the relationship between the so-called ‘Italian principle of secularism’ and the reasonable accommodation; the existence or not of discrimination against the teacher who has been obliged to teach under the crucifix; the practical ways in which this ruling can become 'living law' in the Italian legal system.

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