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Ritual Circumcisions of Minors: Civil and Criminal Perspectives - di Agustín Motilla

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Parental authority and the inherent rights of the minor. The best interests of the minor - 2.1. Conflicting rights. The current understanding of parental authority - 2.2. Limits to parental authority. Personality rights - 2.3. The minor’s consent in surgical procedures - 2.4. Circumcision and the best interests of the minor. An act which falls within parental authority? - 3. Criminal responsibility in acts of circumcision for religious motives - 3.1. The criminal approximation to female genital mutilation - 3.2. Circumcision in criminal jurisprudence - 4. Concluding remarks. De iure condendo contributions.

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Il Regno dell’Imperatore: tipicità e contraddizioni del modello istituzionale giapponese di regolazione dei culti - di Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. Le ragioni di rinnovata attualità di una ricerca storica, religiosa e normativa sulla spiritualità giapponese - 2. Riflessi di natura costituzionale: la costruzione giuridica di un ordinamento nuovo, tra vestigia imperiali e modernità internazionale - 3. Le religioni tradizionali, tra continuità ed elaborazione progressiva - 4. Uno sguardo alle condizioni materiali dei culti di minoranza: problemi e prospettive per un nuovo sincretismo diffuso - 5. I segni di una precisa spiritualità collettiva nel disposto costituzionale e nella legislazione recente: possibili aperture per nuovi studi - 6. Conclusioni in progress: il paradigma nipponico come modello extra-regionale.

The Kingdom of the Emperor. Typicality and contradictions in the Japanese institutional paradigm of religious regulation

ABSTRACT: The history of Japanese legal institutions has probably known in recent years a lack of attention due to the affirmation of other legal paradigms in the same Asian continent. It could seem a plausible underestimation because Japan has usually reached a leading role in the constant evolution of constitutional rules and concrete everyday praxes. An important aspect of this tradition certainly consists in the peculiar Japanese religious approach: a form of customary culture and not only a specific regulation, crossing many spiritual teachings and belongings (Confucianism, Buddhism and Shintoism, with a more recent but truly significant monotheistic nationwide proselytism). The main purpose of this analysis is to notice how this objectively composite religious framework has surprisingly influenced the shape and the implementation of constitutional principles, still offering an interesting overview able to clear up misunderstandings in the intercultural debate between the Western constitutionalism and the Eastern mentality.

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Le frontiere europee della religious accommodation. Spunti di comparazione - di Greta Pavesi

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La religious accommodation in Europa - 3. (segue) Gli sviluppi più recenti - 4. Il ruolo della giurisprudenza europea: primi segnali di apertura all’accomodamento religioso - 5. Il know-how statunitense e canadese: modelli giurisprudenziali a confronto e possibili interazioni - 6. La religious accommodation in Europa: una prospettiva de iure condendo.

The European frontiers of religious accommodation. Starting points for comparison

ABSTRACT: In the last years several scholars pointed out the desirability to extend the accommodation beyond disability. Currently, indeed, a duty of reasonable accommodation is exclusively provided in favour of people with disabilities (art. 5 dir. 2000/78/CE). Previous contributions, however, have stressed how the existing lack of a provision on religious accommodation can result not only in a low level of protection of religious freedom, but also in the rise of a hierarchy related to discrimination grounds in which religion and belief seem to be left at the bottom. Recently, also the European Courts (especially the ECtHR) have apparently open to the extension of the concept of reasonable accommodation, in line with the sensitivity of the Supreme Courts of USA and Canada, where the religious accommodation was first stated. Moving from the comparison between the American and Canadian jurisprudences and the European one, this paper argues about the transposability of the religious accommodation in Europe, in order to strengthen, even in the workplace, the protection of the freedom of religion.

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“La sfera e la croce”, ovvero i feti abortiti come rifiuto da distruggere o come resti mortali da onorare - di Abramo Dentilli

SOMMARIO: 1. L’art. 7 del d.p.r. n. 285 del 1990 - 2. Parti anatomiche amputate e rifiuti infettivi - 3. Riflessioni sul trattamento dei feti abortiti - 4. Qualche precisazione su temi connessi - 5. A mo’ di conclusione.

“The Ball and the Cross”: the fetuses aborted as medical waste to be destroyed or as mortal remains to be honoured

ABSTRACT: Is there an obligation for Italian hospitals to destroy aborted fetuses as infectious waste? Yes, for a recently published paper. On the contrary, we’ll se that, even without an explicit application of the mother, the hospital has the right not to destroy the aborted fetus, proceeding to its burial or cremation. In fact, it is necessary to interpret correctly the article 7 of the Decree of the President of the Republic n. 285 of 1990, also applying the rules on the treatment of medical waste. So it will be clear that the same regulations for the treatment of recognizable body parts must be applied to the treatment of aborted fetuses.

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Jemolo e il diritto ecclesiastico - di Sergio Lariccia

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa. Gli anni della mia conoscenza di Jemolo nei quattro anni (1953-1957) dei miei studi nella Facoltà di giurisprudenza a Roma - 2. Considerazioni generali sulla vita e le opere di Jemolo - 3. L’attività didattica e scientifica di Jemolo nel ventennio fascista - 4. I primi anni del secondo dopoguerra. Confessioni, esami di coscienza, ricerca di responsabilità, dubbi, perplessità e interrogativi - 5. Inizio di una nuova storia: il contributo di Jemolo alla vita democratica in Italia - 6. Il modello del concordato per la disciplina dei rapporti fra stato italiano e chiesa cattolica - 7. La voce della coscienza: la coscienza laica. Laicità e separazione tra Stato e chiese - 8. Partecipazione di Jemolo alla commissione per la revisione del concordato - 9. Gli anni settanta del Novecento - 10. Conclusione.

Arturo Carlo Jemolo and the ecclesiastic Law

ABSTRACT: The scientific work of Arturo Carlo Jemolo in the years of liberal, fascist and democratic Italy (1905-1981).  A project for a secular and democratic Italy: dreams, hopes, illusions and disappointments.  Freedom, dubious, moral conscience. The separation between State and Catholic Church. Division between believers (in the catholic religion) and nonbelievers.

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Identità religiosa e diritto alla salute. Interazioni classiche ed emergenti - di Gaetano Marcaccio

Sommario: PARTE I: LE INTERAZIONI CLASSICHE - 1. Salute e religione, un tema tradizionale in evoluzione - 2. La “religione” come cura. Santoni e guaritori - 3. Libertà religiosa versus tutela della salute. Le pratiche di mutilazione genitale femminile - 4. (segue) La circoncisione maschile - PARTE II: LE INTERAZIONI EMERGENTI - 5. Il dissenso religioso al trattamento sanitario. Il caso dei testimoni di Geova, e non solo - 6. Le nuove frontiere di tutela della salute nella legge n. 219 del 2017. Gli effetti sull’identità religiosa del paziente-fedele - 7. (segue) Gli spazi di obiezione di coscienza del personale medico sanitario.

Religious identity and right to health. Classic and emerging interactions

ABSTRACT: The relationship existing between health and religion is innate. Legal systems started dealing with it since the first formulations about freedom of religion and right to health, in order to take care of the individual and collective needs. Taking this premise into account, the first part of the essay analyzes the classic interactions between health and religion, in which the latter replaces official medicine or prescribes harmful conduct. Consequently, legal systems have developed resolutive dialectics which can be applied to new specific cases brought by multiculturalism, like infibulation. In the second part, the essay examines the emerging interactions caused by a third party - the medical health personnel - owner of the duty of care and freedom of conscience, recreating the solutions offered by doctrine and law. Lastly, it focuses on the objections which can be moved by the medical health personnel, which are connected to early end-of-life dispositions (law n. 219/2017), proposing solutions to the lack of regulation left by the law.

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Dialogo interculturale e minoranze religiose in Europa al tempo del Covid-19. L’apporto degli ecclesiasticisti - di Salvatore Berlingò

SOMMARIO: 1. Il cambio di paradigma indotto dalla pandemia - 2. Complessità sociali e complessità giuridiche: le loro scansioni temporali - 3. L’obiettivo di “vivere insieme in una società democratica” - 4. L’esemplare negativo della pronunzia S.A.S. c. Francia - 5. La critica alla “cecità interculturale” del secolarismo - 6. La “laicità all’europea” e il principio del “dualismo giurisdizionale” - 7. L’apporto degli ecclesiasticisti: il contributo dell’ ‘accademia’ a una politica del diritto più inclusiva - 8. Il ritorno in auge dei paradigmi euro-mediterranei e gli sviluppi delle democrazie pluraliste.

Cross-cultural Dialogue and Religious Minority in Europe at the COVID-19's time. The Contribution of the Ecclesiasticists.

ABSTRACT: The spread of the pandemic COVID-19, together with the measures of social distance and lockdown, paradoxically have contributed to making the need to recognize what is in common between the most diverse realities increasingly felt. Europe has greater legal resources than other regions of the world to ensure genuine cross-cultural and pluralistic development of the democratic systems.

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Il crocifisso e i diritti del lavoratore nell’ambiente scolastico (aspettando le Sezioni Unite della Cassazione) - di Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Un nuovo tipo di approccio alla vexata quaestio della legittimità dell’esposizione del crocifisso nelle aule scolastiche italiane - 2. L’ordinanza della Cassazione 18 settembre 2020, n. 19618: i fatti di causa e lo svolgimento del giudizio di merito - 3. I diritti nell’ambiente scolastico rivendicati dal ricorrente e l’inquadramento della vicenda operato dalla Cassazione - 4. L’(ingiustificata) esclusione dalla sfera applicativa del regio decreto n. 965 del 1924 delle scuole secondarie superiori - 5. I presupposti per far valere una discriminazione indiretta ai danni del lavoratore - 6. L’incongruenza della tesi che desume l’esistenza di una “finalità legittima” del trattamento differenziato dall’esigenza del rispetto della “coscienza morale e civile degli alunni” come declinata dalla “volontà della maggioranza” dei medesimi - 7. La diversa ipotesi della “finalità legittima” del trattamento differenziato dipendente da una decisione rientrante nelle competenze degli organi di autogoverno della scuola - 8. Gli scenari futuribili.

Crucifix and workers’ rights in the school environment (waiting for the United Sections of the Court of Cassation)

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the question of whether the display of crucifixes in public school classrooms is compatible with workers’ rights, in particular the right of teachers not to be discriminated against. To do so, it takes as its starting point a recent ruling by the Court of Cassation, which referred the matter to the United Sections of the same Court for a decision.

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A come aborto: la “lettera scarlatta” del XXI secolo nel Giardino degli angeli - di Silvia Baldassarre

SOMMARIO: 1. Il caso - 2. La normativa di riferimento - 3. Interruzione di gravidanza e diritto alla privacy - 4. Nel nome della madre e del figlio mai nato - 5. I cimiteri dei feti - 6. Osservazioni conclusive.

A for abortion: The Scarlet Letter in XXI century in the “Garden of angels”.

ABSTRACT: The work analyzes in a juridical key the story of the burial of an abortive product, in the "garden of the angels" (Flaminio cemetery in Rome). The burial, which took place without the mother's consent, is marked by a cross with the woman's personal data. This circumstance raises several critical profiles, examined in the article, regarding the right to privacy, the right to self-determination and freedom of conscience.

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Suiza y el veto al burqa - di Agustín Motilla

El pasado 7 de marzo se celebró en Suiza un referéndum, propiciado por un partido de la derecha del país, a fin de prohibir el uso del burqa y el niqab islámico en los espacios públicos; aunque encubierta bajo la propuesta, aparentemente neutral, del veto a toda indumentaria que oculte el rostro de la persona. Los resultados arrojan la victoria de los partidarios del sí por una exigua mayoría (el 52% de los votos); lo cual refleja la división social existente. Ahora deberá ser el Gobierno suizo el que presente una ley en este sentido para su aprobación parlamentaria. Los carteles de propaganda del partido Unión Democrática de Centro, propugnador de la consulta, reflejan bien la motivación del veto. La cara de una mujer con el niqab a la que solo se ven los ojos se acompaña con un pie de cartel con la siguiente leyenda: “Paremos el extremismo. Sí a la prohibición”. Lo más llamativo es la expresión de la escasa zona del rostro de la mujer que se ve: el entrecejo fruncido, las cejas curvadas hacia el centro enmarcan unos ojos coléricos. Se diría que está amenazando al espectador. El cartel de propaganda es revelador del mensaje que se intenta transmitir, el mensaje del miedo; o, más allá, la identificación del musulmán con el violento, el terrorista. (segue)

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La sfida del pluralismo educativo nella prospettiva sovranazionale e interna - di Nadia Spadaro

SOMMARIO: 1. La sfida del pluralismo educativo - 2. Il pluralismo educativo secondo l’elaborazione giurisprudenziale della Corte Europea dei diritti dell’Uomo - 3. La prospettiva antidiscriminatoria ed economica della Corte di Giustizia dell’Unione Europea - 4. L’effettività dell’istruzione pluralistica nell’ordinamento italiano - 5. Conclusioni.

The challenge of educational pluralism from a supranational and internal perspective

ABSTRACT: Whereas education plays a fundamental role in the construction of an inclusive society, the paper tries to outline the delicate balance between respect for pluralistic demands and state discretion in the educational field, with particular reference to Italy, where an increasingly multi-ethnic society is accompanied by deeply rooted cultural and religious traditions. The analysis will focus on the different approach of supranational and national Courts on issues that are now crucial in educational pluralism both in the perspective of pluralism for the school and in the school.

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Minoranze etnico-religiose in tempi di Covid-19: la Cina e la minoranza uigura, tra violazioni dei diritti umani e (mancata) tutela del diritto alla salute - di Silvia Angioi

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Il caso della minoranza uigura come caso studio, tra identità etnico-religiosa, violazioni dei diritti umani e misure di contrasto all’epidemia di Covid-19 - 3. (segue) in particolare, il problema dei campi d’internamento nello Xinjiang e l’epidemia di Covid-19 - 4. Il contrasto tra le norme internazionali sui diritti umani e le misure adottate nei confronti della minoranza uigura: in particolare, il problema dei campi d’internamento - 5. Il contrasto tra le norme internazionali in materia di diritto alla salute e lotta alle pandemie e le misure adottate nello Xinjiang in tempi di Covid-19 - 6. Conclusioni.

Ethnic-religious minorities in times of Covid-19: China and the Uighur minority, between violations of human rights and violations of the right to health

ABSTRACT: The recent outbreak of Covid-19 that originated in China, has brought the matter of state sponsored persecution of the Uighur minority in Xinjiang to the attention of the international community. The problem of discrimination and persecution of such ethno-religious minority is not new. However, the spread of epidemic, has represented an opportunity for the Chinese national authorities to tighten the measures which have long been adopted against the Uighur minority. This paper aims at highlighting the great impact Covid-19 has had on the repression of Uighur minority since it has led to a dramatic escalation of the systematic violation of human rights which includes not only mass detention in internment camps but also the violation of other fundamental human rights such as the right to health and to access healthcare

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Charity sector e Chiesa d’Inghilterra - di Raffaele Granata

SOMMARIO: 1. Lo status di charity - 2. L’amministrazione del patrimonio nella Comunione anglicana e nella Chiesa d’Inghilterra - 3. La promozione della religione nelle decisioni della Charity Commission - 4. Un possibile contributo all’attuazione della riforma del terzo settore.

Charity sector and Church of England

ABSTRACT: The undertstanding signed on 30 july 2019 between the Italian Republic and Association “Church of England”, representing in Italy the Anglican Confession Church of England, renewed the doctrinal debate on ecclesiastical entities and their location in the non profit universe, organically revised by legislative Decree n. 117/2017. In particular, art. 8, third paragraph, of the agreement in question allows the recognition in Italy of ecclesiastical entities that carry out overseas a "prevalent religion and cult activity", for the implementation of which the use of trust is widespread. It’s, therefore, essential, in order to understand the systematic consequences of this choice of undertstanding, to define the characteristics of the third sector in the British legal system, showing particolar attention to the heterogeneous modes of attribution of charitable status, to the regulatory and taxes linked to it and, even more, the concept of advancement of religion as elaborated by the decision of the Charity Commission and, in the review, the High Court. For the same purpose it’s indispensabile to begin the study of the administration of ecclesastical goods in the Church of England and in the Anglican Communion, together with the principles on which it is inspired.

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“Ad Sacram Communionem ne admittantur”: il can. 915 e la promozione dell’aborto da parte di cattolici impegnati nella vita politica alla luce di un recente decreto episcopale - di Alberto Tomer

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa. I cattolici nella vita politica e la condanna dell’aborto nel magistero della Chiesa - 2. Il precedente del 2004 e la conseguente dichiarazione dell’Episcopato statunitense - 3. L’interpretazione del can. 915 nei suoi elementi costitutivi: la categoria degli “aliique in manifesto gravi peccato obstinate perseverantes” - 4. Un’applicazione concreta: il decreto episcopale del 2019 alla luce del canone (e viceversa).

«Ad Sacram Communionem ne admittantur»: can. 915 and Catholic politicians who promote abortion in the light of a Bishop’s recent decree

ABSTRACT: Moving from a 2019 decree by the Bishop of Springfield in Illinois, the present contribution aims to analyze the nature, the requirements and the implications of can. 915 CIC, which concerns the circumstances of non-admission of the faithful to Holy Communion, namely in order to understand whether the case of politicians supporting legislations that promote abortion falls into the category of those who “obstinately persevere in manifest grave sin”.

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Eterodossia e minoranze religiose: il Tardo Antico, al termine di un lungo percorso - di Antonio Banfi

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. L’esperienza “classica”: Atene - 3. L’esperienza “classica”: Roma - 4. Il IV secolo fra continuità e rotture.

Heterodoxy and religious minorities. Late Antiquity, at the end of a long journey

ABSTRACT: This paper aims to encourage some reflections on the issue of the origins of religious intolerance and on the issues related to the treatment of minorities in Greek and Roman antiquity. In particular, a significant moment in this affair, destined to have prolonged effects, is constituted by the anti-Jewish revolts in Alexandria, in the mid-first century. A.D.

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L’identità (religiosa) della persona migrante e l’accoglienza in Italia, tra le derive securitarie e le politiche di integrazione civica.  Brevi considerazioni - di Stefano Montesano

SOMMARIO: 1. Il migrante e il suo Dio: prove di identificazione e input di integrazione? - 2. L’identità (anche religiosa) della persona migrante. Dalle politiche discriminatrici all’integrazione civica nel modello di accoglienza italiano. Profili critici - 3. Una (prima e utopica) conclusione: la ridefinizione dell’ordine costituente a partire dall’Altro.

The (religious) identity of the migrant person in the reception system, between security drifts and civic integration policies. Brief considerations.

ABSTRACT: The essay takes into consideration some general profiles relating to the issue of immigration. Particular attention is paid to the critical issues that can be found in the context of the reception system in Italy that compromise the migrant's right to religious identity.

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L’esercizio episcopale dell’economia/dispensa e Querida Amazonia - di Salvatore Berlingò

SOMMARIO: 1. Dal climax, al bioma, all’habitat dell’umano - 2. Il bioma panamazzonico e l’ecologia integrale - 3. La Conferenza ecclesiale dell’Amazzonia - 4. Le nuove forme di sinodalità e la Chiesa sacramento universale di salvezza - 5. Il munus petrinum e la presidenza nella carità - 6. La Vicaría Christi vescovile urbi et orbi vocata - 7. Il metodo per “accompagnare” le vicende sinodali: discernimento e gradualità - 8. La Chiesa cattolica fra universale e locale. - 9 . Il poliedro dell’oeconomia/dispensatio Ecclesiae - 10. L’esperienza episcopale panamazzonica pietra miliare dei “cammini sinodali” di tutta la Chiesa.

The exercise of episcopal power and the oecononomia/dispensatio Ecclesiae in Querida Amazonia

ABSTRACT: The essay aims to explain how the Pan-Amazonian synodal experience, because of a particularly compromised and suffering reality - as emerged above all during the current pandemic event -, have pushed the Church to a closer interpenetration of the own universal dimension with the local one and therefore to an exercise of episcopal power more in line with the original oeconomia / dispensatio Ecclesiae.

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Rischi e dinamiche di riassorbimento del privato nel pubblico. Ricerche recenti sull’etica normativa confuciana - di Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. L’uso politico dell’etica confuciana nelle transizioni costituzionali. Una premessa sui primi casi di studio - 2. Il valore della tradizione: formazione individuale, conforto spirituale e proiezioni pubblicistiche- 3.Tra diritto e non diritto: una rappresentazione simbolica della pratica di governo - 4. Dal governo degli uomini al governo negli uomini: introiettare il senso della misura - 5. Profili possibili per l’evidenziazione della questione di genere nel pensiero confuciano: le forme e i tipi di un potere ancora maschile - 6. Incognite conclusive: dal merito di un’elaborazione inclusivistica e plurale al rischio di un confucianesimo fungibile per ogni istanza e perciò privo di contenuto.

Risks and dynamics of reintegration of the individual private dimension into the public sphere. Recent researches on normative Confucian ethics

ABSTRACT: If it seems substantially correct to deny a proper religious qualification for Confucianism, it does not mean that this kind of moral and legal teachings is irrelevant to shape a precise conception of human behavior, rites and relationships between citizenship and government. Finally adequately considered by the Western juridical doctrine, Confucianism and the Confucian scholars are now experiencing an uncritical acclaim too much vague to clarify rigorously the core sense of the first Confucian moral positioning. Some of the finest and the most exhaustive contemporary researches about Confucianism are now going back to the roots of the Chinese political thought, reaching new and more refined interpretations of the same ancient sources. This current renewal could be an excellent opportunity even for the European and Western jurists: the possibility to release an enduring phase of confrontation between the Continental and the Asian constitutionalism.

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Laicità e bilateralità a trent’anni dalla sentenza madre. I test dell’Islam italiano e dell’ateismo militante - di Francesco Alicino

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. L’idioma della laicità - 3. Laicità e bilateralità - 4. La difficile convivenza con il favor religionis - 5. Gli Islam e l’ateismo - 6. Gli obblighi internazionali della laicità - 7. Conclusioni. Le potenzialità nascoste della laicità.

Secularism and Bilateralism Thirty Years after the 1989 Landmark Constitutional Decision. The Italian Secularism tested by Islam and atheism

ABSTRACT: In 1989 the Constitutional Court stated that secularism (laicità) is one of the supreme principles (principi supremi) of the Italian constitutional order. On the basis of articles 2, 3, 7, 8, 19 and 20 of the 1948 Constitution, the Court said that secularism does not affirm indifference of the State towards religions; rather, it sustains the protection of religious freedom in a context of cultural-confessional pluralism. With this essay the author examines the way the Italian supreme principle of secularism has developed in the last thirty years, especially in relation to the so-called bilateralism method (as stated in articles 7.2 and 8.3 of the Italian Constitution) and in the light of today’s pluralism, which is characterized by the presence of new collective organizations, such as those referring to Islam and atheism.

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Lo specchio rotto del Liebeskonzil: un caso di blasfemia nell’Impero guglielmino - di Carlo Sabbatini

SOMMARIO: 1. Panizza, un suddito infedele - 2. Scalpori e processi - 3. La pietra dello scandalo - 4. Un “teologo [...] eretico pittore di immagini sacre” - 5. Una scelta [quasi] obbligata - 6. Una foresta di simboli performativi - 7. Ordine religioso e ordine politico: l’ecosistema del processo - 8. Un “martire” a processo - 9. Martedì 30 aprile 1895, ore 19: la condanna - 10. Panizza sulla censura - 11. Morale religiosa come morale sessuale - 12. Manicomio, prigione, fuga - 13. “Un uomo fuori dal mondo”: ontologia di un blasfemo - 14. Istituzioni che succhiano il sangue.

The broken mirror of Liebeskonzil: a case of blasphemy in the Wilhelminian Empire

ABSTRACT: In 1895, due to the publication of the play Liebeskonzil, the writer Oskar Panizza was sentenced to one year imprisonment for blasphemy. Starting with such exemplary conviction, the essay reconstructs some aspects of the writer's existential and creative path, treating his vitriolic satires of religion as an access key to the political and social situation during the Wilhelminian Empire, where press laws and targeted use of crimes such as lèse majesté, obscenity and profanity, highlight the tenacity of Government, right-wing parties and Catholic Centre Party in pursuing the common purpose of silencing the opponents of the status quo.

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La resilienza della laicità a fronte del terrorismo cosiddetto islamista - di Nicola Colaianni

1 - Sul giornale “il manifesto” del 4 novembre scorso compariva una vignetta raffigurante un coltello da cucina piantato a 60-70 gradi sull’orizzonte con la scritta “terrorismo - la curva sale”. Come quella dei contagiati dalla pandemia, a salire era anche la curva degli attentati terroristici. L’ultimo, e più devastante con quattro persone uccise e altre ventidue ferite, era avvenuto poco più di ventiquattr’ore prima, il 2 novembre, a Vienna ma neppure una settimana prima, il 29 ottobre, s’era registrato l’assassinio del sacrista e di due donne colpevoli di pregare nella cattedrale di Nizza, che aveva fatto seguito a quello del professore Samuel Paty il 16 ottobre nella regione di Parigi. L’efferata sequenza Parigi - Nizza - Vienna nel giro di due settimane confermava che il terrorismo sedicente di ispirazione religiosa non conosce sospensioni temporali neppure nell’anno del coronavirus ed è capace di operare ovunque in Europa. (segue)

The Resilience of the Secularism in front of the so-called Islamic Terrorism

ABSTRACT – The latest attacks by so called islamic terrorism in Europe highlighted the existence of severe  investigative and pre-emptive shortcomings.  However the bills France and Austria are debating about plan to counter a misleading “radical Islam” or “politic Islam” with rules that end up compressing the freedom of worship  of the Muslims. Against the separatisms, permeable by the terrorist narrative, the public space, that promotes the living together, remains the place of de-radicalization and resilience of the secularism.

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L’ospitalità del diritto o dell’impervio cammino della dignità umana - di Alessandro Ferrari

SOMMARIO: 1. Dai cittadini alle persone: la rivoluzione dell’ospitalità del diritto - 2. Le democrazie costituzionali e l’UE: il progetto di una sovranità ospitale - 3. L’ospite nel diritto cosmopolita: i confini del diritto di ospitalità - 4. Dall’ospitalità alla cittadinanza plurale: l’ospite musulmano e il diritto di libertà religiosa come ospitalità.

The hospitality of the right or the arduous journey of human dignity

ABSTRACT: The paper, starting from the idea of law as a producer and, at the same time, an expression of the hospitality of a political community investigates the progressive opening of state legal systems to the "stranger" in the age following the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The paper highlights the difficulty in the implementation of an effective multi-level protection of fundamental rights and the resilience of the ancient paradigms of Westphalian sovereignty. In conclusion, the role of the right to religious freedom is underlined as the right to hospitality for the stable construction of multicultural and multireligious societies.

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Laicità e progetti per una legge generale sulla libertà religiosa - di Laura De Gregorio

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. 1990-2020: trent’anni di progetti per una legge generale sulla libertà religiosa - 3. Norme sulla libertà religiosa e laicità: indicazioni per un’indagine - 4. Quale laicità nei progetti di legge? - 5. Le leggi sulla laicità: alcuni esempi, molte suggestioni, qualche dubbio - 6 Nessuna nuova. Cattiva nuova.

Secularism and drafts law on Religious Freedom

ABSTRACT: This paper focuses the attention on the drafts law on Religious Freedom and aims to examine the links between Secularism and Freedom of Religion.

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Le virtù nascoste della laïcité. A proposito di certificat de verginité e dintorni - di Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Preludio: l’idea francese di una proposta di legge contro i “separatismi” - 2. I termini della questione concernente l’introduzione del divieto di rilascio dei certificat de verginité e del dibattito che ne è scaturito - 3. La presa di posizione dell’Organizzazione mondiale della sanità sui test di verginità - 4. Intermezzo: verginità e ordine pubblico nella vicenda giudiziaria dei coniugi di Lille - 5. Epilogo: la verginità tra libero consenso matrimoniale, potere certificativo del medico e valori irrinunciabili per il vivere insieme.

The hidden virtues of laïcité. About certificates of virginity and some related topics

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine the announced France’s draft bill to prohibit the issue of certificates of virginity. To do so, we first reconstructed the terms of the current debate provoked by the bill. Then, we examined the recent WHO statement which establishes that States should develop plans of action to encourage the elimination of the practice of so-called virginity testing. Finally, we illustrated the advantages and the risks of any solely restrictive approach in this matter.

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L’interazione fra esenzioni religiose e diritti LGBT sul luogo di lavoro: nuove traiettorie giudiziarie al crocevia fra narrative plurali - di Adelaide Madera

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Il frammentato quadro normativo in materia di LGBT rights - 3. Il caso Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia - 4. L’impatto della pronunzia Bostock sulle istituzioni religiose - 5. La tutela offerta dal Title VII all’esercizio della libertà religiosa - 6. La Section 702(a) del Title VII e le questioni interpretative irrisolte - 7. Nuove letture giurisprudenziali della Section 702(a) - 8. L’interazione fra esenzioni religiose ex Section 702(a) e sex discrimination: possibili futuri scenari alla luce del caso Bostock - 9. La specificità delle istituzioni impegnate nel settore dell’istruzione - 10. La ministerial exception e i limiti della sua applicabilità - 11. Il RFRA - 12. I rischi derivanti da un utilizzo over-expansive del RFRA - 13. La Free Exercise Clause - 14. Le vie percorribili per recepire nuove prospettive valoriali - 15. Il mancato intervento del Congresso - 16. Principio di non discriminazione ed esercizio della libertà religiosa: un binomio incompatibile? - 17. L’esempio della legislazione sui same-sex marriages - 18. La tutela dell’istituzionalismo religioso e i suoi “ragionevoli” limiti - 19. Conclusioni.

The interplay between religious exemptions and LGBT rights in the workplace: new judicial trajectories at the crossroads of plural narratives

ABSTRACT: A recent U.S. Supreme Court judgement found that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act covers discriminations founded on gender identity and sexual orientation. The present paper analyses the effect of this judgement on the exercise of religious freedom of faith-based organizations and investigates the possibility of finding ways to reconcile competing interests.

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Internet, culture e religioni. Spunti di riflessione per un web interculturale - di Raffaele Santoro Federico Gravino

SOMMARIO: 1. Sviluppo tecnologico, internet e dinamiche interculturali - 2. I nuovi mezzi di comunicazione sociale nel magistero della Chiesa cattolica - 3. Strategie confessionali e prospettive interculturali: il caso delle app religiose - 4. Il download di una app tra tutela della privacy e sicurezza sociale.

Internet, Cultures, Religions. Some insights for an intercultural web.

ABSTRACT: The article aims to investigate the relationship between the Internet and religions. Technological evolution has produced important consequences on society and relationships between people, also involving religious denominations. The latter have defined new ways of professing and excercizing their belief: creation of Christian communities on line, Internet as window of knowledge of monastic life or proselytizing tools, propaganda through religious videogames, app for smartphones and tablets. Such tools can contribute to the formation of an intercultural web. The use of the Internet and of modern technologies questions jurists about the protection of sensitive data of religious interest and of social security. Downloading an app on smatphones and tablets allows the provider to access even the user’s sensitive data, including their religious affiliation. This requires the intervention of Italian Data Protection Authority, whose task is to check whether the processing of sensitive data is carried out in compliance with the applicable regulations. The improper use of the Internet can also involve the protection of social security, through the denigration of a particularly weak social group and as a tool of spreading and inciting hatred (hate speech). The legislator is therefore called upon to define the sanctioning capacity of the existing legal systems.

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Costituzione e religione in Italia al tempo della pandemia - di Francesco Alicino

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Libertà di culto e pandemia - 3. Logica deontica e bilancia costituzionale - 4. Le critiche agli interventi governativi - 5. Logica giuscostituzionale - 6. Libertas ecclesiae e pandemia - 7. Conclusioni e prospettive.

Constitution and Religion in Italy in a Time of Pandemic

ABSTRACT: In the first half of 2020, in Italy the coronavirus (Covid-19) has spread quickly, putting the country in an unprecedented emergency. From here stemmed the Government’s measures, which were (and are) without parallel in the history of the Italian State. These measures have led to an animated debate, especially when associated to the limitations imposed on the public liturgical life of the Catholic Church. That was also incorporated into the discussion concerning the long-standing principle-method of bilateralism, as established in Articles 7.2 and 8.3 of the Italian Constitution. With this article the Author analyses this debate in the light of the constitutional duty to protect human health, in the individual and collective sense of the terms.

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Autocefalia vo’ cercando ch’è si cara - di Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: 1. Stati a identità debole e rapporti con le confessioni religiose - 2. Il cratere balcanico - 3. La Bosnia Erzegovina terreno di confronto identitario e di rifiuto dell’autocefalia - 4. Un rapporto sinfonico contestato: il Montenegro - 5. Le denominazioni contese: la Macedonia del Nord - 6. L’Ucraina alla ricerca dell’identità - 7. Autonomia confessionale e autocefalia: per una nuova nozione di territorio canonico.

… Is seeking for autocephaly, which is so precious!/ They go in search of autocephaly- so precious! / Of autocephalous they journey: how dear it is!

ABSTRACT: The "Weak States" of the Balkans born from the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the USSR seek legitimacy and struggle to strengthen their national identity. This is currently happening through the recognition of autocephaly to their Orthodox Churches in order to build on the symphonic and stable relationship between State and Churches. The article analyzes the status of relations between the state entities of Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia and Ukraine. In this perspective, the conflict between different religious designations claiming to be represented as identity representations before the State is highlighted. Additionally, the conflicts within the Orthodox pae granting the tomos to recognize autocephaly are explored.

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Forme e pratiche del pluralismo religioso nello Stato di Israele. L’eredità ottomana e la tutela dei rapporti familiari - di Stefania Dazzetti

SOMMARIO: 1. Israele, uno Stato ‘ebraico’ e multiculturale? - 2. Il sistema degli statuti personali e la tutela delle relazioni familiari - 3. Matrimoni, divorzi e Corti religiose - 4. Pluralismo, multiconfessionismo e dinamiche demografiche. Prime conclusioni e prospettive di ricerca.

Forms and practices of the religious pluralism in the State of Israel. The Ottoman inheritance and the protection of family relationships.

ABSTRACT: The essay aims to explore, also in a historical perspective, the general characteristics, peculiarities and limits of the differentiated protection of family relationships in force in the legal system of (State of Israel), still based on the millet system. It allows the application of the personal statutes of the various ethnic-religious communities (Jewish, Muslim, Druze, Christian) present on the territory, not only to regulate the legal institutions typical of family law - especially marriage and divorce -, but also for the resolution of disputes on the matter that are devolved to the jurisdiction of the religious Courts of several religions. In examining the effectiveness and functionality of this model of religious and cultural pluralism, the study highlights the delicate problems of relevance and coexistence of the different religious normative complexes in the Israeli state system.

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Oltre il pluralismo religioso.Il veganismo come convincimento di coscienza - di Federico Colombo

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il caso Casamitjana Costa v. The League Against Cruel Sports - 3. Il veganismo nella giurisprudenza italiana - 4. Pari dignità delle coscienze … - 5. (segue) e specificità del fenomeno confessionale - 6. Definire le convinzioni personali tra libertà del singolo e necessità di accertamento - 7. Spunti conclusivi.

Beyond religious pluralism. Veganism as an expression of freedom of conscience

ABSTRACT: A recent judgement of the Employment Tribunals and a following one of the Tribunal of Bologna recognized veganism as a belief worth of protection. The two judges went beyond the bounds of the religious sphere, exploring the horizon of cultural pluralism, which the Italian Republic, as a secular state, should guarantee. The sentences therefore represent a starting point for addressing the complex issue of the relationship between law and conscience, which recently acquired major importance. As a matter of fact, according to an authoritative doctrine, there is a tendency in all Western legal systems to leave moral or ethical matters to individual self-determination, in accordance with the personalist and pluralist principle. This contribution will then start from the examination of the sentences and then it will deal with some of the main problems concerning freedom of conscience and its protection.

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L’antinomia del reato culturalmente motivato. Ipotesi giusfilosofiche per un ripensamento - di Rosaria Pirosa

SOMMARIO: 1. La figura del “reato culturalmente motivato” e l’idea di multiculturalismo - 2. L’eterogeneità della categoria dei reati culturalmente motivati. Il principio di offensività come canone ermeneutico e veicolo di un approccio interdisciplinare - 3. Il “porto” del kirpan: l’approccio ‘fonografico’ del giudice di legittimità nell’ordinamento italiano - 4. La reasonable accomodation nell’interpretazione pluralista della Corte Suprema Canadese attraverso il caso Multani. Spunti per una comparazione - 5. L’„accomodation” alla prova del paradigma sicuritario. La vicenda del riconoscimento della personalità giuridica della comunità sikh in Italia.

Rethinking the antinomy of the cultural offence. Hypotheses from a legal-philosophical perspective

ABSTRACT: The essay is intends to problematize the epistemological perspective which, in the Italian system, upholds the judicial interpretation related to the cases that can be ascribed to the category of the so-called cultural offence. In this regard, t he article is focused on the case-law concerning the religious practices of the sikh believer and on the legal recognition affair of Sikhism in Italy, identifying this empirical field as a privileged observatory. The topic of the analysis, through the Canadian approach, makes it possible to assess the canons of the prevailing hermeneutics in matter and to envisage hypotheses toward a rethinking of the theoretical assumptions underlying the criminal law enforcement, especially considering non offensive conduct of a religious nature.

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(Sor)ridere al tempo del COVID 19 - di Laura De Gregorio

SOMMARIO: 1. Ironia 2.0: la vignetta in tempo di pandemia - 2. Satira vs libertà religiosa? - 3. Gioia e umorismo virtù anche cristiane - 4. Nota conclusiva.

Smiling and laughing during pandemic time

ABSTRACT: Are smiling and laughing ethically acceptable in times of Covid-Crisis? The paper tries to suggest an answer by taking into account a selection of comic strips posted on the WEB during the pandemic. The issue is addressed through two major points of view: the balance between the freedom of religion and the freedom of expression and the (possible) expressions of humor in the religious - particularly in the Catholic - tradition.

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Culturally Motivated Crimes: the Cultural Test in the Italian Jurisprudence. A Comparative Study - di Sophie Charlotte Monachini

SUMMARY: 1. Key terms and definitions - 2. Two ways to look at culturally motivated crimes: the case of the kirpan in the Italian and in the Canadian jurisprudence - 3. Moving forward: the Italian Court of Cassation n. 29613/2018 - 3.1. Cultural tests: a comparative insight - 3.2. The cultural test in the Italian judgment of 2018 - 4. Final remarks.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to analyze culturally motivated crimes with a comparative focus and a case law approach. First of all, a set of definitions is given to have a common and shared understanding of the topic at stake. What is culture and what do we mean by culturally motivated crimes? Secondly, a comparative case-law study helps to focus the possible different solutions given to the cultural factor in criminal law. In fact, some legal systems -such as the Canadian one - appear to be more willing than others to make concrete accommodations of cultural differences. Lastly, the latest Italian Court of Cassation suggests a possible direction to be taken to better treat culturally motivated crimes in today’s multicultural society. What does it mean for criminal law to be culturally sensitive? How can courts take into consideration cultural factors through a proper legal method? These are the main questions on which criminal doctrine has focused its attention trying to reshape a criminal model which can be responsive to those different cultural values, needs and interests.

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Normativa “anti estremismo” e libertà religiosa nella Federazione Russa. Il caso dei Testimoni di Geova - di Germana Carobene

SOMMARIO: 1. Gli interventi contro i Testimoni di Geova nella Federazione Russa - 2. La presenza storica dei Testimoni di Geova nel Paese - 3. La libertà religiosa nella normativa dell’Unione Sovietica - 4. Le leggi sulla libertà di coscienza degli anni ’90 - 5. La legislazione “anti estremismo” e antiterrorismo - 6. Considerazioni conclusive.

“Anti-extremism” Legislation and Religious Freedom in the Russian Federation. The case of Jehovah's Witnesses

ABSTRACT: The application of "anti-extremism" legislation to minority religious groups in the Russian Federation has led to a progressive institutional tightening of the persecution and heavy discrimination, especially against Jehovah's Witnesses. Although many of these legislative instruments have existed for over a decade, the Russian government has only recently begun to use them in sustained campaigns designed to punish or exclude "non-traditional" religions and movements. In the specific case of Jehovah's Witnesses, these measures have taken on the purpose of delegitimising an entire community, solely because of the religious faith being persecuted, with accusations ranging from missionary activity to offending the religious feelings of believers. Overall, these interventions are part of a wider process of ideological control over society, aimed at curbing, if not stifling, the forces of political and religious dissent. It is well known that secularism is based on two fundamental principles: the inviolability of human rights, which constitute the prodrome of political power and therefore of the State, and, secondly, the importance of a culture and institutions that guarantee the effectiveness of pluralism. The analysis of the Russian history is, in this sense, an important perspective because it calls into question the European model of recognition and guarantee of religious pluralism.

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Gloria e miseria della teologia politica - di Sergio Ferlito

SOMMARIO: 1. Breve storia di un storia lunga - 2. La teologia giuridica di Hans Kelsen - 3. La teologia politica di Carl Schmitt - 4. Intermezzo - 5. Il lascito di Schmitt - 6. Il dito e la luna - 7. La religione del valore di Ronald Dworkin - 8. Una conclusione, … per iniziare.

Glory and misery about political theology

ABSTRACT. This paper deals with the interactions between religions and law. In particular, it analyses and discusses Kelsen’s, Schmitt’s, and Dworkin’s theories on legal and/or political theology. Although in different ways, these authors have well perceived a large number of links between religion and law; nevertheless their conceptions about religion are narrow and remains strictly Christian-centred. A wider concept of religion - as it has been conceptualized by anthropological and social studies - could reveals how many religious concepts underlie legal systems all over the world, and how much (Christian) religion is masked even in western secular law and institutions.

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The Development of Laws and Jurisprudence in Islam: Religious and Imperial Legacies - di Gloria M. Morán García

SUMMARY: 1. Scholar challenges and epistemological pitfalls - 2. Traditional Muslim hermeneutics and the development of schools of Jurisprudence - 3. Jurist’s authority and ruler’s governance from a comparative perspective - 4. Muslim legal tradition of plural jurisdictions - 5. The open scholar question of reciprocal legal influences with other juridical systems - 6. Conclusive remarks.

ABSTRACT: This article analyzes several open scholar debates regarding the Muslim legal system, from the conventional narrative of its formation and the triumph of the Traditionalist movement to the disputed question of reciprocal legal influences with other religious and secular juridical systems. This research tries to avoid two epistemological risks: first, the dangers of a simplistic binary debate like traditionalists v. revisionists, religious v. secular, or even Sunnis v. Shiite reducing the analysis to an ideologically polarized and ineffective dispute; and second, the improper use of juridical neologisms applied to the Islamic legal system, mainly from codified European continental law and English common law as a result of the Orientalist, colonialist, and secularist mentalities that, instead clarification create confusion. From a hermeneutical point of view, two characteristics to keep in mind: 1) the notion of divine law and its legal implications; and 2) the relationship between law and theology that is not correlative to the connection between secular legislation and ideology. From a comparative point of view, three challenging questions to address: 1) the distinction between Usul al-fiqh and Usul al-qanun often blurred in practice showing the complexities of the relationship among religious, legal, and political structures under Muslim ruling; 2) the intertwined relationship among Sharia, fiqh, and siyasa with pre-Islamic administrative, legal, and judicial traditions; 3) Jurisdictional pluralism in the Islamic legal practice concerning non-Muslim minorities.

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Il cardinale Gasparri, Francesco Saverio Nitti e la basilica di Santa Sofia - di Giovanni B. Varnier

Venerdì 24 luglio 2020 la Turchia, o meglio il suo premier Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, ha riaperto al culto islamico il simbolo stesso di Istanbul rappresentato dal complesso monumentale di Santa Sofia. Una vicenda triste per la civiltà, che vede un gioiello artistico di valore universale piegato al nazionalismo religioso. Per la verità l’edificio non è nuovo ai cambi d’uso, come non lo sono altri manufatti di pregio che hanno attraversato i secoli, ma in questo caso non si tratta di un nuovo utilizzo ma di un ritorno al tempo della dominazione ottomana.  Tuttavia, questo non è un ritorno alle origini, perché - come sappiamo - Santa Sofia, costruita per l’imperatore Giustiniano in soli cinque anni dal 532 al 537, è considerata il capolavoro della nuova architettura basilicale bizantina quale espressione della “romanità cristiana e universale della cultura giustinianea”.

Cardinal Gasparri, Francesco Saverio Nitti and the basilica of Hagia Sophia

In reference to the current events that see the return to the destination for Islamic worship of the ancient Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, a Vatican document of the years immediately after the First World War is recalled which presents positions opposite to those prevalent today.

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Un panorama sullo stato laico e sulle sue implicazioni nel modello brasiliano - di Natammy L. de Aguiar Bonissoni

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La religione e la vita nella società - 3. Quello che il principio di laicità non è - 4. Lo Stato laico brasiliano - 5. Considerazioni finali.

The secular State and its implications on the brazilian model

ABSTRACT: For many years Law and Religion were subjects considered unnecessary by some, and, by others, analyzed with reservations and featured as a not legal topic. However, both of the matters has become important issues in the political, legal and social discussions, especially during political campaign, when moral, ethical and religious issues are brought to debate. Although many countries, as Brasil - for example, have been disussing the subject, the numerous and different interfaces between them, most of the time do not take into consideration the constitutional foundations, axiological and cultural values, and pasrticularly the spiritual aspect of the human being as the structuring of human life. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to clarify the conceptual unfolding of the Principle of Secularity and the characterization of the Secular State in Brazil, with the aim of demonstrating that the Brazilian model of Secularity does not mean the absence of religiosity in the public sphere, but the guarantee and safeguard all your expressions.

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I “nuovi accordi” Stato-confessioni in Italia tra bilateralità necessaria e diffusa - di Fortunato Freni

SOMMARIO: 1. La bilateralità “necessaria” e i suoi limiti - 2. Le intese apicali e il generale regime di libertà religiosa - 3. Le intese paraconcordatarie e la delegificazione - 4. La bilateralità “diffusa” e le intese ulteriori - 5. Le differenti bilateralità: una questione di metodo?

The "new agreements" State - religious denominations between necessary bilateralism and broad bilateralism

ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the system of sources of Italian ecclesiastical law in its two pillars of agreed rules and unilateral rules. The former are necessarily the result of an agreement between different legal systems because they govern the specific relations between the State and individual religious denominations, that is, between sovereign and autonomous entities in their respective orders. The unilateral rules, on the other hand, fall under State jurisdiction because they aim to regulate rights and procedures relating to the generic freedom of conscience of believers, non-believers and other believers. Nevertheless, even in this second area, bilateralism between the State and ethical-religious groups is increasingly being practiced. However, this must not strictly condition State autonomy in the political order, but must aim to enhance the democratic tool of dialogue, as broad as possible, between institutions and intermediate bodies. The two forms of bilateralism (the necessary one and the broad one) are in fact structured within the processes which grant ethical-religious issues varied legal forms and give rise to different types of sources. It is essential that institutional practice does not artfully confuse the two described "bilateralisms", ending up surreptitiously managing all the heterogeneous and plural ethical-religious factor through a single, heavy and comfortable, bureaucratic method based on mere political discretionality.

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Deus ex machina. Intelligenza artificiale e libertà religiosa nel sistema costituzionale degli Stati Uniti - di Luca P. Vanoni

SOMMARIO: 1. Intelligenza artificiale, singolarità tecnologica e diritti umani: uno sguardo nel futuro - 2. Quale religione? Alla ricerca di una definizione costituzionalmente orientata - 3. Transumanesimo, tecnoscienza e religione: una relazione pericolosa? - 4. Non avrai altro Dio al di fuori di AI: Way of the Future e il culto del Dio-computer - 5. (segue) Il transumanesimo a scuola - 6. (segue) Religion or not? La libertà religiosa dei fedeli di Way of the Future - 7. Anche gli androidi sognano divinità elettriche? La libertà religiosa dei robots - 8. Conclusioni: giorni di un futuro passato.

Deus ex Machina. Artificial Intelligence and Religious Freedom in the US Constitutional framework

ABSTRACT: The raise of the digital age and the developments of Artificial Intelligence is stressing the historical and complicate relationship between science, religion and law. Concepts like technological singularity or transhumanism are rapidly changing this relationship, and a growing number of scientists are now openly describing technological progress in religious terms or even establishing new religions and churches dedicated to the worship of Artificial Intelligence. This cultural and technological revolution is raising up new legal questions: are the traditional legal definition of “Religion” and “Churches” still addressing the challenge raised by new religions based on the worship of AI? Will the Transhumanism change the legal definition of person and his religious rights? Will robots have religious rights under the law? The aim of the paper is to investigate those questions within the of the US Constitutional framework.

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Le nuove frontiere del crimine religiosamente motivato: sul metodo interculturale di prevenzione e contrasto - di Simona Attollino

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Spazio giuridico europeo e rilevanza penale della condotta - 3. Appartenenza cultural-religiosa e consapevolezza dell’agire - 4. Cultural defense e opzioni di diritto penale laico: il caso delle MGF come reato di genere - 5. Il terrorismo di ispirazione religiosa: un approccio multisettoriale per la lotta al fenomeno - 6. Brevi notazioni conclusive: mediazione interculturale e metodi di trasformative accomodation.

New Frontiers of Culturally Motivated Crimes. The Intercultural Method-Approach as a Tool to Prevent and Counter Religion-Inspired Crimes

ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the so-called culturally motivated crimes, focusing the attention on legal measures that may prevent and counter such misconducts. The Author points out some methods, such as those referring to the transformative accommodation, which may be able to solve conflicts between the need to safeguard human rights, including those related to religious freedom, and the Government's priority to protect public safety. From here stems the investigation on the so-called Islamic terrorism that, under some aspects, can be seen as a new frontier of religion-inspired crimes. This, on the other hand, suggests a multisectoral approach, which is important in order to deal with very serious threats while promoting intercultural and inter-religious integration.

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“Diritto” e “religione” nell’Australia indigena - di Riccardo Mazzola

SOMMARIO: 1. Il diritto Yolngu come “credenza religiosa” - 2. Tre xenonimi Yolngu dell’italiano ‘diritto’ - 2.1. ‘Rom’ - 2.2. ‘Madayin’ - 2.3. ‘Ngarra’ - 3. La “connessione” tra “diritto” e “religione” Yolngu: likan - 4. “Diritto” e “religione” Yolngu: una duplice correlazione.

“Law” and “religion” in Indigenous Australia

ABSTRACT: This work takes on the relationship between law and religion in Indigenous Australian societies, particularly focusing on Yolngu group (North-East Arnham Land). The essay aims to enlighten the nature of the “connection” between “legal” and “sacred” dimensions of Yolngu culture and cosmology, originally noted in several Australian judicial decisions and governamental reports. First, the essay undertakes a linguistic analysis of Yolngu terminology surrounding law, presenting three Yolngu terms translatable as “law” and discussing their meaning and bond with Yolngu sacred ancestors and ritual objects and ceremonies. Second, it explains the essence of the connection between law, sacred ancestors and ritual objects and ceremonies by presenting the Yolngu linguistic and conceptual category of “likan”. The article concludes that Yolngu law is a “sacred” one in at least a two-fold way: beacuse it was surrendered to humans by sacred ancestors; and since it arises from ritual objects and ceremonies.

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Credo ateistico organizzato e libera comunicazione propagandistica degli orientamenti ideal-spirituali - di Marco Parisi

Sommario: 1. Introduzione - 2. La dimensione della ‘non credenza’ e le direttive costituzionali - 3. Fenomeno ateistico collettivo, eguale libertà e pluralismo ideale - 4. Il libero esercizio della propaganda come strumento irrinunciabile di realizzazione della dimensione comunitaria della miscredenza.

Organized atheistic belief and free propagandistic communication of the ideal-spiritual orientations

ABSTRACT: With an its recent intervention, the Court of Cassation has clearly affirmed that the freedom of conscience of non-believers falls within the broader freedom, in religious matters, ensured by the articles 19 and 21 of the Constitutional Charter. A freedom to be understood also in the negative sense, having to exclude, within our system, any form of differentiation for the protection of the free, individual and collective, explanation both of religious faith and of atheism. In this order of ideas, any limits and prohibitions to the exercise of the right to propaganda of atheistic associations integrate the extremes of discrimination that are incompatible with the constitutional and supranational norms to guarantee the freedom of expression of thought, the ideal and confessional pluralism, the dignity of the human person and the neutrality of public authorities.

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Accomodamenti ragionevoli basati sulla religione tra diritto antidiscriminatorio e diversity management - di Barbara G. Bello

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Premessa teorica: la funzione di orientamento sociale del diritto - 2.1. Chiarezza dei messaggi normativi (a monte) - 2.2. Chiarezza dei messaggi normativi (a valle) - 3. Accomodamenti ragionevoli nel diritto antidiscriminatorio dell’Unione europea - 3.1. Perché manca una disposizione sugli accomodamenti ragionevoli basati su tutti i fattori? - 3.2. Perché ampliare la norma sugli accomodamenti ragionevoli? - 4. Dalla norma inderogabile al diversity management - 5. Ripensare il diritto antidiscriminatorio e il diversity management in una prospettiva interculturale - 6. Considerazioni conclusive.

Reasonable Accommodation Based on Religion in Law and Diversity Management

ABSTRACT: The ban on discrimination against workers grounded on religion is a fundamental principle enshrined in the European Union’s primary legislation and anti-discrimination law. However, currently, there is no binding provision at this level of legislation which imposes on employers to adopt reasonable accommodation based on this category. Many scholars promote the adoption of this measure based on religion. Still, the recent jurisprudence of the Court of Justice does not seem encouraging in this sense. In light of this situation, the article aims to investigate the reasons underlying the limitations of the hard law provisions and the implications of the shift from the level of the mandatory norm to that of policy and diversity management in accommodating religious diversity at work, with particular regard to Muslim women working in the private sector. European institutions seem to delegate the law-related function of social orientation to policy and diversity management. Various critical issues emerge from this process of de-juridification, although diversity management generates some good practices, also within the so-called Diversity Charters. With the aim to support the implementation of reasonable religion-based accommodation, this article suggests rethinking the anti-discrimination law and diversity management from an intercultural perspective.

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La religion dans les constitutions africaines: l’Afrique francophone entre héritage laïque et traditions religieuses - di Guy Bucumi

SUMMAIRE: 1. Introduction - 2. La démocratisation et l’héritage laïque - 2.1. La constitutionnalisation de la laïcité - 2.2. Une laïcité aux contours flous - 3. Ruptures et résurgence des spécificités africaines - 3.2. Réinvestissement du religieux dans l’espace public - 3.3. Références religieuses dans les nouvelles constitutions - 4. Conclusion - Références bibliographiques.

RÉSUMÉ: Alors que l’importance croissante de la religion en Afrique est un phénomène bien connu, les références religieuses dans les révisions constitutionnelles de ces dernières années est, en revanche, moins soulignée. L’héritage laïque greffé dans toutes les Constitutions d’Afrique francophone est à l’épreuve de pressantes revendications religieuses. Cette légitimation du religieux dans les chartes constitutionnelles donne lieu à son instrumentalisation par le politique et met en péril l’équilibre des forces sociales, juridiques et institutionnelles dans les pays francophones. Cette situation soulève ainsi la récurrente problématique de la réception, en Afrique, de modèles constitutionnels étrangers et plus généralement celle du statut des sources du droit en Afrique. Le rejet des modèles importés qu’on observe, sous le signe de l’authenticité africaine permettra-t-il de fonder l’État de droit sur des valeurs endogènes? Les dynamismes internes des sociétés africaines peuvent constituer des facteurs sur lesquels l’État africain peut s’appuyer pour, espérons-le, produire un modèle constitutionnel favorisant une gestion cultuelle beaucoup plus stable.

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Per un repubblicanesimo religioso. Libertà e fede nella storiografia di Maurizio Viroli - di Tommaso Greco

SOMMARIO: 1. Un’idea della politica - 2. Del rapporto costitutivo tra libertà e religione - 3. Repubblicanesimo e religione - 4. Lo spazio (pubblico) della religione.

For a religious republicanism. Freedom and faith in Maurizio Viroli's historiography

ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the Maurizio Viroli's historiographic thought, highlighting the central relationship between the spirit of freedom and the religious sentiment, from which a full knowledge of the public significance of religion descends.

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Tra economia della religione ed economia religiosa. Spigolature italiane di storia e teoria economica - di Sergio Noto

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Una rivoluzione contraddittoria - 3. Chiesa e denaro: la questione del prestito a interesse - 4. La svolta della Rerum Novarum: associazionismo e cooperazione - 5. Cattolicesimo e corporativismo - 6. Gli anni ’30 e l’eclissi dell’economia liberale - 7. Il dopoguerra italiano: un miracolo a metà - 8. Gli effetti negativi dei cattolici in politica, Giovanni Paolo II e il dialogo con il mercato.

Between the Economics of Religion and Religious Economics. Tangent Questions Regarding Italian History and Economic Theory.

ABSTRACT: The paper discusses the most important points of the relationship between social Christian thought and economic facts and how they developed in Italy, with particular reference to the application of competitive market principles. Starting with the second half of the 1800s, it is possible to argue that both the social doctrine and market theories had scarse impact on each other and more importantly, that they did not interact in a way which would have been useful. The author covers the main and most significant contributions that economists, sociologists, philosophers and politicians tried to bring to this missing debate between economic science and religious principles. In view of the creation of a society which responds to mankind’s real needs, we feel the lack of such a debate even though today we are witnessing a certain awakening.

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Un nuevo proyecto de ley de reconocimiento del matrimonio de creencia en Inglaterra: el Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill - di José Ramón Polo Sabau

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Caracteres generales del proyecto de ley: el reconocimiento del matrimonio de creencia - 3. Algunas claves jurídicas de esta nueva propuesta normativa.

A New Bill to Recognize the Belief Marriage in England: the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill

ABSTRACT: In this paper the author briefly examines the content of the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill, a proposal recently introduced in the House of Lords, which is aimed to amend the wedding law in England and Wales in order to recognise al last the humanist marriages and, more widely, the marriages of the so called belief bodies that have already been introduced in almost every other jurisdiction in the British Islands, so these new belief marriages can be granted an equivalent status to the one currently conferred to religious marriages.

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Compatibilità della finanza islamica alla normativa italiana - di Paolo Biancone Silvana Secinaro Maha Radwan

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Sharia compliant - 3. Murabah - 4. Ijaraha - 5. Istisna’a - 6. Sukuk - 7. Conclusioni.

Islamic finance compatibility with the Italian legislation

ABSTRACT: Some verses of Allah that were revealed to the Prophet Mohammad in Quran were regarding economic issues. Further they were enriched in the legal framework of reference by other sources of Islamic law “Sharia” like; the Hadith (the sayings of the Prophet transmitted first orally and then transcribed), the Sunna (the tradition dictated by the words and actions of the prophet and the remembrance of the prophet statements by his first followers), and finally of Fiqh that is the Islamic jurisprudence dictated by the doctrinal interpretation of the various juridical schools. Islamic finance products which are derived from Sharia based on religious principles are very compatible with the system of traditional financial products, except for some ethical (excluded by the Sharia supervisory board) and fiscal (to avoid double taxation measures of some Islamic finance transactions), which could enhance the market attaractiveness prespective. The present study aims to investigate and identify the regulatory changes that can be implemented in the Italian legislations to make them compatible with the applicability of the typical Islamic financial contracts.

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“A chiare lettere - Confronti” • Il papa e la sfida della pandemia - di Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: 1. Unilateralità e/o bilateralità dei provvedimenti Covid-19 e libertà della Chiesa - 2. L’esercizio della libertà religiosa di fronte alla pandemia - 3. Gli atti rituali nell’era del Covid-19 - 4. La dimensione territoriale della religione.

The Pope and the challenge of the pandemic

ABSTRACT: The measures taken to tackle the pandemic, although taken unilaterally by the State, were shared by the ecclesiastical authority without giving rise to disputes. Pope Francis unilaterally adopted ways of celebrating the rites and administering the sacraments in order to protect life. His innovative use of the media has updated the language, the forms of celebration of the rites and collective participation of the Catholic faithful, arousing perplexity in some faithful who complain about violations of religious freedom and the principle of bilaterality in Church-State relations.

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La libertà religiosa alla prova del Covid-19. Asimmetrie giuridiche nello “stato di emergenza” e nuove opportunità pratiche di socialità - di Gianfranco Macrì

SOMMARIO: 1. Breve premessa orientativa - 2. Verso dove convergere - 3. Il nuovo statuto della solidarietà - 4. Rinnovate pratiche di relazioni sociali: il laboratorio della libertà religiosa - 5. Socializzare i diritti/espandere le libertà - 6. Il test della libertà religiosa in tempi di Coronavirus - 7. Fare tesoro dell’esperienza, modulare le risposte, organizzare il futuro.

Religious freedom and the challenge of Covid-19. Legal asymmetries in the “state of emergency” and new opportunities for social actors

ABSTRACT: The essay develops some concrete, both legal and political, analyses concerning the relationship between the Covid-19 pandemic and the fundamental right of religious freedom. The "state of emergency" that came about and the consequent decisions taken by the government to contain the spread of the coronavirus, have put pressure on certain fundamental freedoms and rights of both individuals and social formations, including religious freedom - according to some, more compressed from the point of view of its practical expressions. The question arises of how much, in the mid-long term, such measures will affect the structure of relations between the State and religious confessions and, more generally, religiosity as a sentiment widespread at societal level.

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“A chiare lettere - Transizioni” • “Senza D”. La campagna Uaar tra libertà di propaganda e divieto di discriminazioni - di Jlia Pasquali Cerioli

1 - Nel tempo della pandemia l'attenzione di commentatori e studiosi si è concentrata sulle limitazioni al (diritto di riunirsi per finalità di) culto. Non sembra avere ricevuto lo stesso interesse un altro contagiato dal virus, ancor più a rischio perché malato cronico: l'esercizio della propaganda in contesto di effettivo pluralismo, sul quale grava il consueto silenzio. Il dramma che oggi tutti viviamo è favorevole a un racconto incline ad accentuare le componenti emotive dei messaggi veicolati, al fine di coinvolgere la platea più ampia di "spettatori". Trionfa così la rappresentazione, fortemente mediatizzata, delle immagini di maggior efficacia, da rendere iconiche per il loro impatto sinestetico: potenti strumenti di persuasione a svantaggio, in un circolo vizioso, delle fedi di minore "ascolto", più che mai senza voce. (segue)

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Finanza cattolica: il potere del denaro per il bene comune - di Giovanni Pirovano

Prendo spunto per iniziare il mio intervento citando il punto n. 19 del documento Oeconomicae et Pecuniariae Quaestiones (d’ora in poi, “OPQ”): “La sanità del sistema, del mercato finanziario dipende dalla sanità delle singole persone e dalle singole azioni che vi vengono attuate”. Le mie riflessioni partono dall’essere in primis cristiano e cattolico, e poi dall’essere un professionista che lavora in una determinata realtà bancaria, e che partecipa al Comitato di Presidenza dell’Associazione Bancaria Italiana, l’ABI, con deleghe sulla Corporate Social Responsibility e sull’Innovazione tecnologica. (segue)

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La delibera ʻanti-veloʼ della Giunta lombarda e il nuovo paradigma della pubblica sicurezza - di Andrea Cesarini

Sommario: 1. Società democratica e simboli religiosi - 2. La delibera di Giunta e l’ordinanza del Tribunale. La delicata sovrapposizione delle esigenze di riconoscibilità e di identificazione - 3. La sentenza di secondo grado. Il primato assiologico della pubblica sicurezza - 4. Sicurezza percepita e insicurezza dei diritti - 5. Conclusioni.

The ʻAnti-veilʼ Ruling of Lombardy Executive Committee and the New Paradigm of Public Security

ABSTRACT: On 10 December 2015, Lombardy Executive Committee approved a ruling which forbids the access to some public facilities to people who wear types of clothing aimed at covering the face. This ruling, whose object is to prevent any dangers that could affect public security, risks to discriminate Muslim women who wear an integral veil for religious reasons. With a controversial judgement, the Milan Court of Appeal confirmed the legitimacy of the provision. Contrarily to the opinion of the Court, this essay aims at proving that the Regional ruling couldn’t effectively get through a proportionality test, given the excessive intensity of the prohibition. In addition, other doubts are risen by the meaning of public security expressed by the provision.

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Libertà religiosa e Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - di Francesco Sorvillo

SOMMARIO: 1. Il diritto di libertà religiosa tra rendicontazione sui diritti umani e Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 2. Libertà religiosa, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights e RSI - 3. Libertà religiosa e standard nazionali: brevi osservazioni sul Piano d’Azione Nazionale (PAN) 2014-2016 sulla Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa e 2016-2021 su Impresa e Diritti Umani - 4. Valori religiosi e valori laici nella Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 5. Dall’RSI all’accountability: la rendicontazione sui diritti umani negli enti religiosi ETS e nell’Impresa sociale.

Religious freedom and Corporate Social Responsibility

ABSTRACT: International standards on Business and Human Rights and on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) define a system of rules currently in use to combat human rights violations in contemporary industrial societies. On the basis of these rules, governments adopt the so-called National Action Plans (NAPs), which also Italy has recently adopted. In this context, the protection of religious freedom plays a fundamental role as part of the range of needs of modern intercultural societies. This paper in this respect is divided into two parts. The first part investigates the role of religious freedom in international standards on Business and human rights and in the NAPs, paid attention to the Italian National Action Plans. The second part on the other hand, deals with the theme of accountability on human rights in the Italian non-profit area. In this context, the processes of accountability also involve entities who operate by expressing a certain tendency or religious aims. These entities can have a specific interest in the accountability on human rights because through the adherence to the so-called systems of Non-Financial Reporting (NFR) clearly reaffirm the values of the religious cultures of which they are the direct expression.

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Gli spazi pubblici e la religione - di Giovanni Di Cosimo

SOMMARIO: 1. Prospettive - 2. Duplice dovere - 3. Questioni I - 4. Questioni II - 5. L’accesso visto da Strasburgo - 6. Poteri pubblici e spazi pubblici - 7. Accesso pluralistico: regola ed eccezione.

Public spaces and religion

ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the legal issues related to the presence of religion in public spaces. The thesis is that it is necessary to consider the various issues (religious building, religious symbols in public buildings etc.) on the basis of the public character of the space. In this way it becomes possible: a) to compare the various issues; b) identify the tasks of public authorities, which must make spaces available to religion and must not discriminate access to spaces. However, there are exceptions to the rule necessary to protect children in classrooms.

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Il porto di simboli religiosi nel contesto giudiziario - di Adelaide Madera

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Simboli religiosi e sfera pubblica - 3. Il ruolo della giurisprudenza e il difficile rapporto con l’Islam - 4. Il porto di simboli religiosi nel contesto giudiziario - 5. Le pronunzie Hamidović v. Bosnia and Herzegovina e Lachiri v. Belgium - 6. Presenza o no di una base normativa che valga a giustificare la restrizione della libertà religiosa - 7. La tensione fra il test di proporzionalità e il margine di apprezzamento - 8. La connessione fra posizione individuale e istituzione pubblica …- a) … nel caso Hamidović - b) … nel caso Lachiri - 9. Disamina breve delle pronunzie in materia di porto di simboli e della loro ratio - 10. L’analisi del limite “dei diritti e delle libertà altrui” - 11. Una svolta a favore delle minoranze? - 12. La questione irrisolta di forme religiosamente motivate di face covering in ambito europeo - 13. L’uso di abbigliamento religiosamente caratterizzato nell’ambito delle aule giudiziarie in Canada: l’opinione di maggioranza nella pronunzia R. v. NS. - 14. La concurring opinion del giudice LeBel - 15. La dissenting opinion del giudice Abella - 16. Le potenziali ricadute della pronunzia canadese sulla libertà religiosa individuale e su quella del gruppo di appartenenza - 17. La giurisprudenza canadese successiva - 18. Il porto di simboli religiosi nelle aule giudiziarie negli U.S.A. – 19. Il porto del niqab nelle aule giudiziarie negli U.S.A. - 20. La questione del niqab nelle aule giudiziarie in Australia - 21. Le corti e le minoranze: un tentativo di comparazione fra la giurisprudenza dei giudici extraeuropei di common law … - 22. … e la giurisprudenza della Corte europea - 23. Lo strumento dell’„accomodamento ragionevole” negli ordinamenti extraeuropei di common law - 24. La possibilità del “trapianto” dell’accomodamento ragionevole in ambito comunitario. Il caso Eweida - 25. La conciliabilità del parametro dell’accomodamento ragionevole con gli standard della Corte europea - 26. La garanzia di propozionalità in ambito europeo e i suoi limiti - 27. Il limite del margine di apprezzamento - 28. La necessità di un più rigoroso bilanciamento fra margine di apprezzamento e principio di proporzionalità - 29 Le potenzialità del “ragionevole accomodamento” nell’ambito convenzionale europeo - 30. Una valutazione comparativa del rapporto fra libertà di espressione religiosa “privata” e spazio “pubblico” - 31. La libertà di manifestazione religiosa dei privati nelle aule giudiziarie … - a) … in ambito europeo - b) ... in ambito extraeuropeo - 32) Annotazioni riepilogative.

Religious Garb in the Courtroom

ABSTRACT: The present essay analyses the crucial issue of the freedom to wear religious garments in the courtroom. It provides a comparative survey of European, U.S., Canadian and Australian case law, investigating how they are facing the question concerning the place of religious expression in the public square, and taking into consideration different legal frameworks and their recent developments.

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Religione e sfera pubblica nella teoria del discorso di Jürgen Habermas - di Arianna Maceratini

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Linguaggio, discorso e ragione - 3. Linguaggio ordinario e linguaggi esperti - 4. Linguaggio e sfera pubblica - 5. La teoria del discorso e le tradizioni religiose: alcuni cenni sul pensiero di Habermas - 6. Il fondamentalismo religioso - 7. La “traduzione neutralizzante” - 8. Conclusioni.

Religion and public sphere in Jürgen Habermas’s discoursive theory

ABSTRACT: The relationship between religion and the public sphere, from the perspective of Habermas's theory of discourse, gives a glimpse of the possibility of a shared space, reflected in democratic decision-making procedures, which has priority over every strategic and self-referential representation of the social. The "linguisticization of the sacred" process has gradually led the author to free the theory of modernity from a rigid theory of secularization; on the other hand, the religious phenomenon, freed from obsolete dogmatisms, reveals itself as the bearer of a procedural rationality capable of operating in everyday communication practice. In this dialogic path, which is anything but linear, Habermas' communicative reason seeks to find solutions capable of safeguarding both religious dimensions and the legacy of Enlightenment thought. This, first of all, to stem the monological drift of particularistic global interests able to endorse, even in sectors of a public nature, dynamics typical of strategic-functional action that lead to the restriction of the common space and to the loss of effectiveness of the institutions traditionally deputies for the democratic representation of interests. At the resolution of these questions, the discursive reason does not offer a single answer but indicates a path of learning and constructive conciliation of the visions of the world.

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Brevi note su contratto, impresa e mercato nella dottrina sociale della Chiesa - di Emiliano Marchisio

SOMMARIO: 1. La dottrina sociale della Chiesa. Considerazioni introduttive e selezione degli argomenti oggetto di esame - 2. Una lettura tecnicamente “laica” (o laicamente “tecnica”) della storicità della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa - 3. Il contratto - 4. L’impresa - 5. La concorrenza - 6. Conclusioni di sintesi. Dalla scelta “del modello” alla selezione “dai modelli”.

Social Doctrine of the Church, contract, firm, competition

ABSTRACT: The Social Doctrine of the Church consists of the set of principles, theories, teachings and directives of the Catholic Church in social and economic matters. It is based on the principle that the human being, created in the likeness of God, is the end and not the means of social institutions, both as an individual and in his family dimension. This principle is examined, in this research, in its applications in the fields of contract, business and competition

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Mercificazione e strumentalizzazione dei simboli religiosi nello stato laico - di Gianfranco Macrì

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Fattore religioso e società multiculturale: alla ricerca di uno spazio giuridico dai contorni flessibili - 3. Crisi della rappresentanza e “resilienza laica” - 4. La politica a favore (o contro) i simboli e la funzione dello stato laico - 5. Uso patologico dei simboli religiosi e nuove “mappe giuridiche” (… oltre il diritto pattizio) - 6. Conclusioni.

Commodification and instrumentalization of religious symbols in the secular State

ABSTRACT: The article deals with religious symbols and their use in the public and legal sphere by political actors. Following some recent events, the author shows that the (mis)use of symbols in political life generates disorientation in both social and electoral dynamics. Such (mis)use is also relevant to positive and secular law, insofar this latter is called to regain its natural flexibility, to meet new needs of individuals and collective formations, induced by social changes of multicultural society.

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Sigillo sacramentale e segreto ministeriale. La tutela tra diritto canonico e diritto secolare - di Geraldina Boni

SOMMARIO: 1. Sigillum confessionis, secretum, intimitas, segreto, riservatezza, privacy - 2. Nuove questioni alla luce di recenti sviluppi sullo scenario nazionale e mondiale - 3. La disciplina del ‘segreto ministeriale’ in Italia nella normativa unilaterale e in quella bilaterale - 4. Gli interessi tutelati, tra ordinamento canonico e ordinamento italiano - 5. Un problematico arresto della Corte di Cassazione - 6. La lotta alla ‘piaga della pedofilia’ - 7. Le risposte del diritto canonico universale, in particolare l’obbligo di denuncia - 8. Le Linee guida della Conferenza Episcopale Italiana - 9. Incidenze sul tema trattato. La Nota della Penitenzieria Apostolica sull’importanza del foro interno e l’inviolabilità del sigillo sacramentale del 29 giugno 2019 - 10. Le ragioni e le strategie della protezione del segreto ministeriale. La giusta tutela della libertà religiosa.

The safeguard of the sacramental seal and the priest-penitent privilege between Canon law and Secular law

ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the interferences between - on one hand - recent developments in Canonical Penal law and in some State laws in order to strengthen the prevention and the repression of child sexual abuse committed by clerics and religious, and - on the other hand - the safeguard of the secrecy of the sacred ministers with regard to the informations that the faithful confide to them precisely because of their quality. In fact, there are currently tendencies in legislation and jurisprudence which tend to compress - if not to deny - the safeguard of the secrecy of such relations, risking to call into question the protection of an extremely important aspect of freedom of conscience and of religion, which is an outcome of a protracted historical evolution that has been safeguarded - at least in Italy - satisfactorily and effectively until now. The aim of the paper is to clarify the reasons underlying the involved juridical institutions, both in Canon law and in State law, in order to suggest solutions which - by preserving and promoting them - conform to justice.

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Populismo, religioni, diritto - di Nicola Colaianni

SOMMARIO: 1. Alla ricerca del popolo - 2. Il popolo politico - 3. Il popolo religioso - 4. L’intreccio populistico ereditato - 5. L’intreccio populistico in atto - 6. L’assalto dell’anti-pluralismo - 7. L’antidoto della laicità.

Populism, Religions, Law

ABSTRACT – The political populism has a background that is not easily detectable: the sense of religious or the sacred that enlivens the holistic view, without intermediate groups, of the people. The political populism needs symbols and goes to the ancient religious image. This tissue is looming on the law plan because aims to break up the fundamentals principles of the constitutional state, particularly the citizens equality according to their cultures and identities. To counter the innate antipluralism of the populism there soars the principle of secularism with its content of respect for the differences and, under this point of view, limit of the popular soveregnty.

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Pour une agora politique partagée autour de la méditerranée - di Alessandro Ferrari

SOMMARIO : 1. Liminaire - 2. Les transformations du droit de liberté religieuse - 3. Transformations européennes, circulation de modelés et “universalisme modeste” - 4 Pour une “saine osmose” entre sphère séculière étatique et sphère religieuse.

For a shared political agora around the Mediterranean

ABSTRACT: The right to religious freedom is in profound transformation on both sides of the Mediterranean. While the Muslim presence shows European difficulties in the treatment of the collective dimensions of this right, the southern shore is confronted with the demands connected to the individualization of beliefs. On both sides, the challenge of freedom of conscience and religion and of the construction of pluralist constitutional democracies proposes ancient questions in renewed terms, soliciting a new rediscovery of the answers given by the universalistic constitutionalism of the second post-war period.

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Il whistleblowing e la denuncia degli abusi sessuali a danno dei minori nella Chiesa - di Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa sul possibile accostamento tra whistleblowing e gli attuali strumenti ecclesiali volti ad assicurare l’emersione degli abusi sessuali del clero - 2. Cenni sulla tipica fattispecie di whistleblowing disciplinata dalla normativa anticorruzione vaticana - 3. Gli errori della gerarchia ecclesiastica nella gestione della crisi degli abusi sessuali del clero sui minori - 4. Il mutamento di approccio al problema e la normativa canonica “emergenziale” degli ultimi anni - 5. Le analogie tra la posizione di soggezione del sacerdote autore della denuncia e quella del whistleblower - 6. La permanente assenza di un obbligo “giuridico”, di fronte al significato del ribadito obbligo “morale”, di denuncia all’autorità giudiziaria statale - 7. Il conflitto tra la rivelazione della notizia di reato e l’obbligo di conservazione del segreto - 8. Rilievi conclusivi.

Italian Regulation of “Whistleblowing” and Reporting of Child Sexual Abuses in the Church

ABSTRACT: The paper deals with new rules of Catholic Church which provide whistleblower protections for all members of clergy who report clergy sexual abuse to the local Ordinary: this conduct shall not constitute a violation of office confidentiality; furthermore, prejudice, retaliation or discrimination as a consequence of having submitted a report is prohibited. On the contrary, new church law doesn’t mandate reporting of sex abuse to police. The essay faces these topics by comparing canon law with Italian regulation on “whistleblowing” as provided for by law n. 179/2017.

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Le mutilazioni genitali femminili tra misure di prevenzione e di contrasto: prospettive per l’eradicazione del fenomeno in Italia - di Tiziana Di Iorio

SOMMARIO: 1. Brevi considerazioni introduttive - 2. Mutilazioni genitali femminili: una questione anche italiana - 3. Profili risarcitori e misure repressive: il quadro normativo italiano - 4. Art. 583 bis c.p.: riflessioni sulla formulazione della norma - 5. Strategie integrate, approccio globale e multisettoriale nella lotta al fenomeno - 6. Inclusione sociale, sensibilizzazione delle coscienze e metamorfosi delle condotte nella strada maestra della prevenzione - 7. Politiche assistenziali e misure di protezione delle donne a rischio e delle vittime nelle strategie di prevenzione.

FGM between prevention and contrast measures: eradication perspectives of the phenomenon in Italy.

ABSTRACT: FGM includes practices of total or partial cutting or external genital lesions of women for no therapeutic reason. They are carried aut for socio-cultural or hygienic-prophylactic causes. Moreover, these rituals are also practiced by some religious communities despite the lack of impositive precepts in sacred texts. FGM is also widespread in Italy and it is constitute a violation of women’s human rights and child abuse. The Italian State fights the phenomenon with external and internal actions, through strategic measures of prevention, protection and assistance for victims. FGM does not exclude compensation for damage to the health of the women involved. In Italy, a new type of crime has been introduced with the art. 583 bis c.p. However, the rule has not been widely applied. This issue needs to faced up on a global level. Above all, it is necessary to persuade those who follow the practice to be the main actors of their own change.

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La libertà religiosa nella giurisprudenza delle Corti europee - di Natascia Marchei

SOMMARIO: 1. - La fisionomia del diritto di libertà religiosa nello spazio europeo: due sistemi a confronto - 2. La giurisprudenza della Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo in materia di libertà religiosa individuale: le nuove prospettive sul divieto di porto di simboli religiosi - 3. La Corte di giustizia e la libertà religiosa: l’(apparente) risvegliato interesse - 4. Brevi considerazioni conclusive.

Freedom of religion before European Courts

ABSTRACT: This essay aims to investigate the content of the right to religious freedom in the European Court of Human Rights’ and the EU Court of Justice’s case law. As a matter of fact, the approach of these courts appears to be very different. While in the Strasbourg Court’s case law this right is gradually recognized more and more clearly and the legitimate restrictions foreseen in the Convention are interpreted with increasing restraint, the Court of Luxembourg rarely applies the right recognized by art. 10 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights in a direct way and often decides the cases through the lenses of an extensive interpretation of the EU anti-discrimination law.

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Le nuove dipendenze in relazione alla incapacità a emettere un consenso matrimoniale valido - di Maria Elena Ruggiano

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. L'incapacità consensuale nel matrimonio - 3. Evoluzione della Giurisprudenza ecclesiastica - 4. Le nuove dipendenze - 5. Le radici della dipendenza patologica - 6. Sex addiction - 6a - Dipendenza da pornografia - 6b. Dipendenza da cyber pornografia - 7. Dipendenza dal lavoro (Work addiction) - 8. Il collezionismo patogeno - 9. Dipendenza dalla chirurgia estetica - 10. Dipendenza dallo shopping - 11. Dipendenza da selfie - 12. Dipendenza dal gioco d'azzardo - 12a. Dipendenza da Trading on line - 12b. Dipendenza dai videogiochi - 13. Dipendenza dallo sport o exercise addiction - 14. Internet addiction e psicotecnologie - 14a. Dipendenza da email - 15. Dipendenza dalla televisione - 16. L'incidenza delle nuove dipendenze sulla capacità di intendere e di volere - 16a. Gli effetti delle nuove dipendenze sulla capacità consensuale matrimoniale - 17. Considerazioni conclusive.

New dependencies in relation to the ability to issue a valid matrimonial consent

ABSTRACT: This article identifies and outlines the new addictions or psychiatric disorders that, whilst not deriving from the abuse of substances, still manages to make a person incapable of self-determination and make free and mature decisions. In recent years, the psychological distress in which many people find themselves living is taking on specific characteristics and is affected by social and cultural elements that make the process of developing emotional-affective skills, the possibility of having a certain identity and the achievement of stable balances very hard. To the already known pathologies are therefore added new ones often associated with borderline-narcissistic personality disorders; drug-free addictions are to be counted among the psychiatric disorders in which social, cultural, economic and psychological elements emerge. Those elements make these new problems interesting and relevant in the present-day but also difficult to insert into certain diagnostic frames.

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Sulla libertà di manifestare le proprie opinioni religiose nel luogo di lavoro: brevi note in merito ai casi Achbita e Bougnaoui - di Alex Borghi

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La pregiudiziale belga: causa C-157/15, G4S Secure Solution - 3. La pregiudiziale francese: causa C-188/15, Bougnaoui e ADDH - 4. Le pronunce “gemelle” della Grande Sezione della Corte di giustizia: la sentenza 14 marzo 2017, Achbita, EU:C:2017:203 e la sentenza 14 marzo 2017, Bougnaoui, EU:C:2017:204 - 5. Uno sguardo alla più recente dottrina ecclesiasticistica - 6. La giurisprudenza della Corte Edu: la sentenza Eweida e altri c. Regno Unito del 15 gennaio 2013 (ricorsi nn. 48420/10, 59842/10, 51671/10 e 36516/10) - 7. Osservazioni conclusive.

Freedom to express religious beliefs in the workplace: brief notes on the Achbita and Bougnaoui cases

ABSTRACT: This paper seek to address the delicate issue of religious freedom, from a juridical perspective, analyzing the Achbita and Bougnaoui cases and comparing it with the Eweida one. It intends to elaborate some of the key question of the doctrinal debate on the links between the expression of one's religious beliefs and the workplace. Can neutrality be a valid defense against discriminations? To what extent can the religious freedom of the worker be sacrificed in favor of the business freedom? These are just some of the questions that are posed to the interpreter and to the scholar of ecclesiastical law. They require a careful evaluation of the values involved and the search for solutions of high balance and responsibility.

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Sicurezza e prevenzione del terrorismo cosiddetto islamista: il disagio della libertà - di Nicola Colaianni

SOMMARIO: 1. La nuova retorica della sicurezza - 2. Il terrorismo cosiddetto islamista - 3. Il diritto penale preventivo e la libertà religiosa - 4. Deradicalizzazione e/è laicità - 5. Sicurezza e libertà: per un orientamento costituzionale.

Security and Prevention of so-called Islamic Terrorism: Freedom and its discontents

ABSTRACT: Security is becoming the priority of the western politics because of the international terrorism, so called Islamic terrorism. The preventive character that the criminal law takes in order to fight it risks hiting the religious freedom of the citizens, misinterpreted as participation to terroristic groups. The risk is high when the prevention measures consist in the deradicalization, read as religious re-education in unfundamentalist direction. In the constitutional State of law, a fair deradicalization has to aim only to the re-education about the separation between politics and religion so as to not prejudice the right of religious freedom.

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La natura giuridica delle fabbricerie alla luce della riforma del Terzo settore - di Pierluigi Consorti

SOMMARIO: 1. Singolarità della natura giuridica di ciascuna fabbriceria - 2. La controversa natura ecclesiastica delle fabbricerie - 3. Il patrimonio delle fabbricerie come “bene comune” economicamente rilevante - 4. L’interesse pubblico per la gestione comune delle fabbricerie - 5. Le poche fabbricerie attuali: una diversa dall’altra - 6. Le attuali fabbricerie: enti a esaurimento e a numero chiuso - 7. Tre diverse tipologie per le attuali fabbricerie - 8. Il controllo pubblico sulle attuali fabbricerie - 9. La controversa ecclesiasticità delle attuali fabbricerie - 10. La controversia circa la natura pubblica o privata delle attuali fabbricerie (un’eredità delle Onlus) - 11. La diversità di opinioni circa la natura giuridica delle diverse fabbricerie - 12. L’impatto della riforma del Terzo settore sulla natura giuridica delle attuali fabbricerie - 13. Quali conseguenze per le fabbricerie Onlus? - 14. L’irrilevanza giuridica di una previa qualificazione pubblica o privata comune alle attuali fabbricerie - 15. La plausibilità del ricorso da parte di alcune attuali fabbricerie alla qualificazione di “impresa sociale” - 16. Conclusione.

The legal nature of “fabbricerie” in the light of the Third Sector Law reform

ABSTRACT: The “fabbricerie” (fabrique in French: untranslatable into English) are ancient institutions responsible for the administration of the asset of some particularly important churches (for example, cathedrals). For the most part, they administer an invaluable artistic and cultural heritage. However, their legal discipline is controversial, especially after the approval of the recent reform of the Third Sector. This contribution briefly reconstructs the situation and expresses an orientation contrary to their equivalence with the new “Enti del Terzo settore”, but inclined to the possibility to give them (rectius: to some of them) the qualification of “impresa sociale”.

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La tutela della libertà religiosa del migrante nel sistema di accoglienza in Italia. Un’introduzione al tema - di Stefano Montesano

SOMMARIO: 1. Il sistema di accoglienza in Italia. Una premessa - 2. L’accoglienza per fasi e per status. Brevi cenni - 3. Le seconde accoglienze in Italia - 4. Il D.lgs n. 142 del 2015 e l’attuazione della Direttiva “Accoglienza” dopo la legge n. 132 del 2018. Un regresso di tutele? - 5. La tutela della libertà di culto nel sistema di accoglienza in Italia. L’inquadramento normativo - 6. La condizione del migrante tra libertà e dignità (negate) - 7. Dignità umana, libertà religiosa e identità del migrante nella gestione del fenomeno immigratorio in Italia. Un primo bilancio.

The Protection of Religious Freedom of Migrant in the Italian Reception System. An introduction

ABSTRACT: This essay concerns the issue of protection religious freedom in the reception system of migrants in Italy according to the current immigration legislation.

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Martini di fronte all’immigrazione e agli stranieri: prospettive per le istituzioni e la convivenza di tutti - di Paolo Bonetti

SOMMARIO: 1. Il contesto socio-politico-ecclesiale del magistero del cardinale Martini circa l’immigrazione e gli stranieri: allargamento dell’UE, caduta delle divisioni in Europa, costruzione della nuova UE, crescente immigrazione extraUE - 2. La prospettiva ideale: il personalismo cristiano e il processo di unificazione europea - 3. La presenza degli stranieri privi di sicurezza giuridica e in cerca di lavoro e di ospitalità interpella i cittadini e i cristiani nel sostegno e nell’accoglienza: l’immigrazione come forma di povertà - 4. Non ignorare, né reprimere il fenomeno migratorio, ma accogliere ogni persona come tale: l’esigenza di norme condivise improntate all’eguaglianza nella tutela dei diritti fondamentali per regolare in modo ordinario l’immigrazione e la convivenza. Risolvere i problemi degli stranieri contribuisce a risolvere anche i problemi degli italiani - 5. Non generalizzare, ma discernere i diversi tipi di migrazione in base agli effetti positivi per la persona migrante e nell’ambito di un nuovo ordine economico globale: gli Stati di origine e quelli di immigrazione contengano le cause economiche e politiche che rendono insostenibile vivere e costringono a emigrare e favoriscano l’emigrazione come libera scelta derivante da interdipendenza e da desiderio di miglioramento culturale ed economico - 6. I diritti fondamentali di ogni persona umana da riconoscere a tutti, cittadini e stranieri: occorre prevedere un cammino graduale e progressivo verso la concreta realizzazione di una “carta dei diritti del migrante” - 7. L’immigrazione non come minaccia, ma come occasione profetica di rigenerazione e cambiamento per ogni società e per ogni Stato: nei rapporti tra nord e sud del mondo superare ogni forma di razzismo e imparare a convivere pacificamente in una società multiculturale, a superare le frontiere, ad accogliere, a educare al rispetto delle differenze e a rispettare norme comuni improntate all’eguaglianza e al rispetto dei diritti fondamentali della persona - 8. Condizione per una integrabilità che non introduca germi di scontri razziali e sociali è assicurare l’accettazione e l’assimilazione da parte di tutti di un nucleo minimo di valori: il principio di eguaglianza senza discriminazioni e la dichiarazione universale dei diritti dell’uomo. Conseguenze di tali principi: l’impossibilità di importare istituti giuridici fondati su discriminazioni o contrarie alla laicità dello Stato e di adottare politiche migratorie disumane o liberticide - 9. Occorrono atteggiamenti più solidi e maturi di fronte all’immigrazione: con azioni culturali ed educative aiutare a formare la società multiculturale; evitare chiusure e ripiegamenti su sé stessi e disciplinare con leggi il processo migratorio - 10. Imparare a conoscersi e a accettarsi reciprocamente e a convivere tra diversi in una società multiculturale e multireligiosa e di immigrazione: prospettive e dilemmi del pluralismo nei rapporti interpersonali e sociali, nella comunicazione, nell’educazione interculturale e nell’integrazione sociale - 11. Le prospettive del dialogo islamo-cristiano nella vita quotidiana: educare bambini e ragazzi a conoscere e rispettare le diversità religiose e convivere pacificamente rispettando le leggi senza chiedere trattamenti speciali e senza rinnegare la propria identità - 12. Una Chiesa da genti diverse, accogliente, aperta agli stranieri, un esempio per tutti di fraternità che favorisce la convivenza: il sogno della Chiesa di Ambrogio e il sogno della Chiesa di Martini - 13. A fondamento di tutto la visione dello straniero e delle migrazioni nella Bibbia: l’uomo migrante e i tre motivi (carismatico, cristologico, escatologico) per l’accoglienza dello straniero - 14. L’eredità del magistero di Martini su immigrazione e stranieri.

ABSTRACT: The paper analyses the relevance of the thought of Carlo Maria Martini, Cardinal and Archbishop of Milano from 1979 to 2003, with regard to the legal and political choices that national and European institutions must make in order to regulate both immigration and a multicultural and multireligious coexistence. After recalling the background of Christian personalism and of European unification, the paper focuses on the institutional and legal aspects of Martini’s thinking which is founded on the biblical message as well as on a true commitment to constitutional, international and European provisions. According to Martini, migration is an ordinary phenomenon and it should be managed in an ordinary way, also as a chance to improve everyone’s conditions and to renew all States. We must therefore both prepare ourselves and educate to coexistence among people of different cultures and religions: such a coexistence will be peaceful only if everyone respects the principle of equality, the secularity of the State and the fundamental rights of each person.

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Indipendenti e sovrani: considerazioni attorno all’art. 7, primo comma, Cost. a partire dalla ricerca delle pressioni Chiesa-Stato - di Matteo Carrer

SOMMARIO: 1. Coordinate definitorie - 1.1. Aspetti metodologici - 1.2. Aspetti terminologici: pressioni, interferenze, ingerenze - 1.3. Direzione e verso - 2. Elementi generali e strutturali - 2.1. Chiesa: missione universale, laicità e sovranità - 2.2. Le divisioni (anche mediatiche) del Papa (e della CEI) - 3. Rassegna di casi - 3.1. Immigrazione - 3.2. Unioni civili - 3.3. Le elezioni politiche del 2018 e il governo Conte - 3.4. Ambientalismo - 3.5. Le elezioni europee del 2019 e l’europeismo - 4. Declinazioni giuridiche nell’analisi dell’art. 7, primo comma, Cost. - 5. Considerazioni conclusive.

Independent and sovereign: considerations about art. 7, I of the Italian Constitution from the point of view of Catholic Church thrusts on Italian Republic

ABSTRACT: The article deals with the separation of Church and State in the frame of the Italian Constitution. It compasses various examples from the last years, and in particular during the pontificate of pope Francis, where the Catholic Church expressed strong opinions about any issue above the Parliament or the Government or tried to influence public opinion in Italy. It discusses how these episodes influence the relationships between State and Church.

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La disciplina giuridica del terziario esoterico - di Raffaele Caterina

SOMMARIO: 1. Il terziario esoterico - 2. Il divieto di ciarlataneria - 3. Il terziario esoterico e la tutela del contraente/consumatore - 4. La disciplina del terziario esoterico tra pluralismo culturale e tutela del consumatore.

The Law Regulating Esoteric Services

ABSTRACT: The essay focuses on the law regulating esoteric services (fortune telling, selling of talismans, etc.). While in several legal systems the professional practice of magic was once clearly forbidden, nowadays its status is uncertain: such practices are seen as not necessarily illicit but highly suspicious from the point of view of consumer law. The essay explores the inherent tension between repression of fraud and unfair commercial practices and freedom of belief, particularly focusing on Italian case law and administrative practice.

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La presencia de la religión en la escuela pública inglesa: los actos de culto colectivo por primera vez impugnados ante la High Court - di José Ramón Polo Sabau

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción: las manifestaciones de la confesionalidad inglesa y su creciente cuestionamiento por la doctrina científica - 2. Confesionalidad estatal y sistema educativo en Inglaterra - 3. Los actos de culto colectivo en la escuela pública ante la High Court.

The Place of Religion in State-funded Schools of England: the Act of Collective Worship for the First Time on Trial at the High Court

ABSTRACT: Collective Worship that needs to be wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character is currently a statutory requirement in all State-funded schools under English law. This legal requirement, along with the inevitable presence in this same type of schools of religious education that also has to reflect the fact that the religious traditions in Great Britain are in the main Christian, whilst taking account of the teaching and practices of the other principal religions represented in Great Britain, are both two requirements that have been frequently considered as very controversial and arising from them are serious concerns about their compliance with human rights legal framework. Very recently a High Court action has been launched against this law on collective worship, in a case that will be heard on 29 November 2019 (Lee and Lizanne Harris v. Oxford Diocesan Schools Trust). This paper gives notice of this recent judicial challenge and briefly explores its main legal implications.

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L’aggravante della finalità di discriminazione ovvero come provare a combattere i pregiudizi attraverso lo strumento penale - di Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Sometimes They Come Back. Perché i fantasmi dell’intolleranza e del pregiudizio possono sempre riapparire - 2. L’approccio penalistico ai pregiudizi. L’aggravante prevista dall’art. 604-ter c.p. nel quadro degli interventi del legislatore contro gli atti di discriminazione razziale, etnica e religiosa - 3. L’apporto interpretativo della giurisprudenza - 4. Le criticità messe in luce dalla dottrina e il limitato rilievo dei problemi di composizione tra la libertà di manifestazione del pensiero, da un lato, e l’eguaglianza e pari dignità di ogni essere umano, dall’altro - 5. Lo strumento penale di fronte a nuove forme di aggressione della dignità umana: in particolare, lo scopo della repressione e la questione dell’eguaglianza quale bene giuridico oggetto di protezione penale - 6. Notazioni conclusive.

The aggravating circumstance for offences committed with the purpose of discrimination or hatred: how to try to combat prejudices through the penal instrument

ABSTRACT: The article examines the Mancino Law’s Article 3 the provides for a general aggravating circumstance for all offences committed for reasons of ethnic, national, racial or religious discrimination or hatred, or for the purpose of facilitating the activities of an organisation, associations, movement or group pursuing these goals.

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Ebraismo e cibo: un binomio antico e nuove tendenze alla prova del multiculturalismo - di Elettra Stradella

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Le regole alimentari nel contesto israeliano e l’irrisolto dualismo (anche simbolico) tra identità collettiva nazionale e religiosa - 3. L’approccio europeo al Kashrut e la questione della macellazione rituale - 4. Le relazioni tra precetti religiosi alimentari ebraici e normativa secolare negli ordinamenti della multiculturalità - 5. Le Kasher food laws negli Stati Uniti - 6. Nota conclusiva.

Judaism and Food: an ancient binomial and the new tendencies on the background of multiculturalism

Abstract: In Judaism, religion and food have always been the terms of a strong spiritual and cultural ‘binomial’, variously affecting the community as well as the individual dimension. In Jewish religious tradition, food is at the same time an instrument of religious elevation, and it represents a powerful factor of collective identity. The paper aims at deepening this binomial in a comparative perspective that takes into consideration some specific features that seem particularly relevant.  a) The role of the Constitutional Courts in the containment of sacred law, according to the Hirshl’s perspective (I. Hirshl, 2010), and in particular the case of Israel where the scope of religious authorities’ prerogative over the issue of kashrut certificates by the Chief Rabbinate represents an important part of the struggle between secular and religious attitudes. The judicial debate on Kashrut contributes to delineate the role of the Supreme Court of Israel in responding to the increased tension between Israel’s dual commitment to liberal-democratic and Jewish values. b) The new conflictual tendencies, in the relation between food and multiculturalism, concerning kosher slaughter in Europe.  c) The relationship between Jewish dietary laws, religious liberties, the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause in the United States constitutional system.  Starting from these topics, the paper will try to argue on the manifestation in food law of the intrinsic duality in the state of Israel, together Jewish and democratic, and the reflection of this duality in the other legal systems where constitutional theocracy is prevented by constitutional provisions of secularity and pluralism, but secularism appears in various and different forms.

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The Alabama Human Life Protection Act: criticità giuridiche, contraddizioni assiologiche e dinamiche politiche evolutive - di Tommaso Scandroglio

SOMMARIO: 1. Oggetto del presente contributo e metodologia di ricerca - 2. Analisi giuridica e rilievi critici - 3. Il paradigma morale interno - 4. La dinamica evolutiva - 5. Conclusioni.

The Alabama Human Life Protection Act: juridical criticisms, moral contradictions and policy implications

ABSTRACT: The paper aims at analyzing and highlighting potential juridical criticism of the recent abortion law referred to as The Alabama Human Life Protection Act and verifying if the positive judgments, expressed by the international pro-life movement, and the potential legal, social and policy developments, triggered by this legislation, are consistent with the moral principles of the movement itself.

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Integrazione europea, nuove generazioni e dottrina sociale della Chiesa cattolica - di Filippo Vari

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. L’obiettivo dell’integrazione e le nuove generazioni - 3. L’appannamento dell’obiettivo - 4. La via per uscire dalla crisi … - 5. … e i giovani - 6. Osservazioni finali: la stella polare.

European Integration, Youth and the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church

ABSTRACT: This article deals with the topic of European integration from the point of view of the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church, that is the part of the Teaching that focuses on the res publica. With a particular regard to the relationship between youth and European Union the article gives an analysis of the goals the European integration and the legitimation crisis of the Union’s institutions. As a possible way out of this crisis it suggests a re-focalisation of the “federalizing process” on the centrality of the human person and a valorisation of the fraternitas principle.

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“Chiesa dalle genti”, il sinodo minore della diocesi di Milano. Profili canonistici - di Giorgio Feliciani

SOMMARIO: 1. La convocazione - 2. Le ragioni della convocazione - 3. La qualificazione del sinodo come “minore” - 4. Il tema del sinodo - 5. La commissione di coordinamento - 6. Il documento preparatorio - 7. Lo strumento di lavoro per i consigli diocesani - 8. I sinodali - 9. Le costituzioni -10. Valutazioni critiche.

"Chiesa dalle genti", the minor synod of the diocese of Milan. Profiles of Canon law

ABSTRACXT: In order to ensure a better pastoral care of foreigners the new archbishop of Milan has convened a minor synod. This form of ecclesial assembly is not contemplated by the Code of Canon Law, but has been practiced for centuries in the Ambrosian diocese. The archbishop renewed this tradition by inviting the diocesan presbyteral and pastoral councils to participate at the event. The decisions taken have had a significant impact on the life of the entire diocese, also as regards the territorial organization and the structure of the offices of the archiepiscopal curia. Overall, the synod can be considered exemplary in composition, procedure and efficiency, and hopefully will be imitated by other dioceses.

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“More sinned against than sinning”: la Corte Suprema pakistana e il caso Asia Bibi - di Deborah Scolart

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La blasphemy law - 3. Un campo di falsa, un sorso d’acqua e il “peccato” contro Asia Bibi - 4. La sentenza della Corte Suprema - 5. Leading case o moral suasion?

“More sinned against than sinning”:  the Pakistan Supreme Court and Asia Bibi case

ABSTRACT:  Asia Bibi case, a Christian woman falsely accused of being a blasphemer, finds her ‘judge in Berlin’ in the Supreme Court of Pakistan. The Court does not address the ratio legis of blasphemy law but points out how contrary to the spirit of Islam is the misuse of law for political purposes. The wide international echo of the case makes this SC verdict a possible leading case in theme of presumption of innocence.

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La Chiesa Ortodossa Russa e le riforme dell’inizio del XX secolo - di Giovanni Codevilla

SOMMARIO: 1. La riforma di Pietro il Grande e la paralisi della Chiesa - 2. La diffusa aspirazione a ridefinire i rapporti tra Stato e Chiesa - 3. Verso il superamento dell’intolleranza religiosa - 4. Le prese di posizione di Antonij (Vadkovskij) e di Sergej Witte - 5. La reazione del Pobedonoscev – 6. Il Memorandum dei 32 - 7. Il riconoscimento della tolleranza religiosa - 8. I vescovi e la riforma ecclesiastica - 9. Il Manifesto del 17 ottobre e i ritardi nella convocazione del Concilio.

The Russian Orthodox Church at the Beginning of the 20th Century

ABSTRACT: Peter the Great abolished the Patriarchate and entrusted the direction of the Church to a Holy Synod led by a laymen (Ober-prokuror). This reform had the consequence to paralyze the Church, as pointed out by F.M. Dostoevskij and by several outstanding Russian scholars. At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century the necessity to overcome the relationship of subjection of the Church to the State was clearly perceived both by the intellectuals and inside the Church. The Tsar himself realized that there was a need of a change: the Fundamental laws were consequently modified and religious tolerance was acknowledged on April 17th 1905. Of paramount importance was the role played by the Prime-minister Sergej Witte and by the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg Antonij (Vadkovskij) to overcome the conservative ecclesiastical policy carried out by the Ober-prokuror Konstantin Pobedonoscev. The answers given by the bishops to a questionnaire issued by the Holy Synod on July 27th, 1905, confirmed that the problem was clearly felt also inside the Church. The Council of the Russian Church, which was supposed to be gathered at the beginning of the century, was summoned several years later, at the eve of the bolshevik coup d’état.

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La questione della liceità della circoncisione “rituale” tra tutela dell’identità religiosa del gruppo e salvaguardia del diritto individuale alla integrità fisica - di Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Notazioni introduttive - 2. La circoncisione “terapeutica” e quella “profilattica” - 3. La circoncisione “tradizionale” e quella (propriamente) “rituale” - 4. L’orientamento che giudica la pratica contraria ai diritti fondamentali del minore - 5. La circoncisione rituale ebraica e la legge 8 marzo 1989, n. 101 - 6. La circoncisione rituale tra libertà religiosa, diritto alla salute e diritto all’integrità fisica - 7. Osservazioni conclusive.

The issue of lawfulness of “ritual” circumcision: protection of collective religious identity versus violation of individual’s right to physical integrity

ABSTRACT: The present essay deals with the issue regarding the lawfulness of male “ritual” circumcision, that is performed for non-therapeutic reasons. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered as a violation of human rights in the Western world; on the contrary, male circumcision for non-therapeutic reasons is currently tolerated. However, in many Countries experts hightlighted the permanent effect of circumcision on bodily integrity and the special importance of the right to self-determination. The Author stresses problems that the circumcision poses in the Italian legal system, considering special legislation related to Jewis (law No. 101/1989) and case law that assesses the practice lawful in case it is performed with the parents’ consent and according to the rules of medical art.

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Etica e pastorale in Attilio Nicora - di Carlo Cardia

SOMMARIO: 1. La personalità di Attilio Nicora, negoziatore, diplomatico, uomo di fede - 2. La formazione culturale, il rigore del metodo, la matrice montiniana - 3. Le lezioni della storia, la laicità, i rapporti tra Stato e Chiesa - 4. Volontà riformatrice, il coraggio dell’innovazione - 5. Le qualità del diplomatico, le sofferenze del Pastore - 6. Le virtù di Attilio Nicora, la sua eredità spirituale e culturale.

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Vulnerabilità, morte e pietas. L’atto della sepoltura e le sue implicazioni giuridiche - di Serena Vantin

SOMMARIO: 1. Una chiarificazione concettuale - 2. Vulnerabilità e diritto - 3. L’atto della sepoltura - 4. Il diritto alla sepoltura - 5. Conclusioni.

Vulnerability, Death and Pietas. The Act of Burial and its Legal Implications

ABSTRACT: This paper offers a conceptual clarification of the concept “vulnerability”, focusing in particular on the legal meanings it has recently assumed. Considering the cultural legacy relative to the act of burial, the reflection will also lead to put at stake, through the vulnerability’s perspective, the need for a harmonization and an updating of the legislation referred to cemeteries and sepulchres.

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Sur le film “Matilda“ dans le contexte de la protection de la dignité des croyants - di Igor V. Ponkin Victor I. Slobodtchikov Vsevolode Yu. Troytskiy Alexandre Yu. Evdokimov

SOMMAIRE: 1. Introduction - 2. Méthodes appliquées dans la recherche et le domaine de la réalité objective et analytique; objet de la recherche - 3. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 1 - 4. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 2 - 4.1. Recherche et l’appréciation de l’image formée et retransmise par le film “Matilda“ de l’Empereur de Russie Nicolas II (Romanov) canonisé par l’Eglise Orthodoxe Russe - 4.2. Recherche et l’appréciation de l’image formée et retransmise par le film “Matilda“ de l’épouse de l’Empereur Nicolas II, Alexandre Féodorovna, canonisée par l’Eglise Orthodoxe Russe - 5. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 3 - 6. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la Question № 4.

About the film “Matilda” in the context of protecting the dignity of believers

ABSTRACT: In 2017, the film «Matilda» caused a strong controversy in Russia. This article is devoted to the study of this film. The authors explore the film in the context of protecting the human dignity and the rights of believers, protecting their religious feelings. Critics of the film "Matilda" indicated that this film represents mockingly offensive images of those persons who are religiously revered by Orthodox Christian believers. The authors of the article check the validity of such critical assessments.

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Religione e guarigione: libertà religiosa e principio di autodeterminazione in materia di salute mentale (salus aegroti suprema lex o voluntas aegroti suprema lex) - di Cristiana Maria Pettinato

SOMMARIO: 1. Linee di lettura - 2. La guarigione forzata: i fatti di Vilnius - 3. Il percorso giudiziario che conduce alla decisione di Strasburgo - 4. La dissenting opinion: brevi appunti sul metodo -5. Il sofferto cammino della libertà religiosa tra fede, stregoneria e follia - 6. La forza terapeutica della libertà religiosa: “capacità-libertà” di credere e diritto di guarire - 7. La funzione politica della religione in terra lituana: semi di neo-confessionismo - 8. La sfida dell’inclusione dell’altro da sé: scelte etero-spirituali e prudentia iuris.

Religion and healing: religious freedom and the principle of self-determination in matters of mental health (Salus aegroti suprema lex o voluntas aegroti suprema

ABSTRACT: The case before the Court of Strasbourg, projects us into the most sacred and private dimension of the life of the human being: that of religious options. In the present case, a young woman with behavioral disorders, manifested even before joining the group close to the Movement founded by the Indian Master Osho, following undergoes a series of medical treatments obligatory that force her to the suspension of the religious practices to which she usually devotes for her own psychophysical well-being. But according to the opinion of the doctors these practices compromised the applicant's mental health status, representing a serious and ascertained danger. The doctor becoming the promoter of his patient's health, ends up interfering in the personal sphere of the girl's religious sentiment, trying to modify the choices deemed to be non-conforming to tradition and prejudicial to health, without scientific evidence and, exclusively, on basis of presumptions and religious prejudices. The facts give rise to some considerations on the methods and criteria for balancing the protection of the right to health, and self-determination in therapeutic choices, and the exercise of religious freedom in conditions of compromised mental health, and the risk of a reviving confessional in Lithuania.

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Le libre exercice du culte dans la République populaire de Chine - di Andrea Tigrino

SOMMAIRE: 1. Une prémisse historique sur la Chine en tant que société multi-religieuse - 2. Les dispositions constitutionnelles relatives à la liberté de croyance avant 1982 - 3. La liberté religieuse dans l'actuelle Constitution de 1982 et la législation suivant en la matière - 4. Liberté religieuse et protection des droits de l'homme dans la Chine actuelle.

The free exercise of Religion in People’s Republic of China

ABSTRACT: After some historical reflections on the spread of multiple religious doctrines on the Chinese territory between the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, the Author considers the attitude of the central government with respect to the right of religious freedom from the time of the Cultural Revolution to today, paying particular attention to the constitutional and criminal law provisions attached to this issue. It seems clear how the Chinese legal tradition is not based on a balance of interest theory as known in the Western legal systems, given the prevalence of the higher communist principles rooted in time. Last pages are reserved for the systematic violations of human rights reported by numerous international observatories, as well as the ancient grudge between China and the Holy See caused by the question of the appointment and formal recognition of new bishops. The provisional agreement signed on 22 September 2018, while marking a step towards finding a solution to this tensions, doesn’t offer a definitive solution to the problem.

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Religious hate speech, libertà di religione e libertà di espressione. Intersezioni tra forma e sostanza dei diritti nella società multiculturale - di Cristiana Cianitto

SOMMARIO: 1. Premesse - 2. Un possibile modello alternativo di tutela: la forma della tutela - 3. Un possibile modello alternativo di tutela: la sostanza della tutela - 4. Alcuni casi pratici - 4.1. Il leader politico - 4.2. Il leader religioso - 5. Conclusioni.

Religious hate speech, freedom of religion and freedom of expression. Reshaping the rights in the multicultural societies

ABSTRACT: In the multicultural societies, lawyers are more and more often engaged in identifing useful tools to solve the rising conflicts between fundamental rights. The exercise of freedom of religion and freedom of expression can led into this kind of phenomena that could be taken into consideration by law, like hate speech and religious hate speech. The paper tries to approach two particular form of hate speech, the political and the religious one, to check if some alternative models of protection could be implemented to assure an effective protection of minorities without any sacrifice of individual fundamental rights.

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Trattamenti sanitari, diritto all’autodeterminazione ed etiche di fine vita dopo l’ordinanza n. 207 del 2018 della Corte costituzionale - di Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. L’ordinanza n. 207 del 2018 della Consulta e la rilevanza costituzionale del “bene vita” - 3. L’„assolutezza” del diritto all’autodeterminazione terapeutica e la sua prevalenza sulla “indisponibilità” del diritto alla vita - 4. Il necessario riconoscimento del diritto all’aiuto al suicidio a tutela della visione personale della “dignità” nel morire ... - 5. ... e del divieto di discriminazioni nel darsi la morte attraverso il distacco delle macchine di sostegno vitale - 6. La “laicità” del biodiritto e il governo delle questioni “eticamente sensibili” - 7. L’apparente “neutralità” dell’opzione pro choice e la disciplina giuridica delle scelte di fine vita.

Health Treatments, Right to Self-determination and End-of-life Choices after Constitutional Court Ordinance No. 207/2018

ABSTRACT: The present essay deals with the issue regarding end-of-life choices after Italian Constitutional Court ruling No. 207/2018, which has prefigured, in certain exceptional situations, the partial unconstitutionality of the provision prohibiting aid to suicide (Article 580 of the Italian Criminal Code). The Author stresses that the patient’s right to refuse or interrupt life-saving treatment can be deemed to be protected by the Constitution, while the enactment of a right to assisted suicide into Italian law would require an ethical choice, which should instead be left to the discretionary assessment of the lawmakers.

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Identità negate. Mutilazioni genitali femminili: la lotta dell’Europa contro una silenziosa violenza - di Tiziana Di Iorio

SOMMARIO: 1. Le pratiche di manipolazioni degli organi genitali femminili - 2. Procedura esercutiva e conseguenze degli atti di alterazione dei caratteri sessuali delle donne - 3. Radici socio-culturali delle pratiche di MGF - 4. Fattore religioso e atti modificativi dei genitali femminili - 5. Le strategie di prevenzione e di contrasto delle MGF nell’Unione europea - 6. Politiche legislative nella lotta contro le MGF - 7. Conclusioni.

Denied identities. Female genital mutilation: the fight of Europe against a silent violence

ABSTRACT: FGM refers to rituals of manipulation female genitalia and other procedures against female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Usually the practice is carried out on young girls, from childhood to teenagers. These rituals are carried out for cultural, religious and social reasons in the mistaken belief that they will produce a benefit to the girl (to safeguard her virginity, to prepare for marriage, etc.). No religious text prescribes the practice, but is rooted in the culture and beliefs of the communities that practice it. However some religious communities practice the FGM. Rituals do not help the health of the girl subjected, but they can lead to serious health complications or even to death of victim. So FGM is recognised a form of child abuse and a violation of women’s human rights. The EU is committed to eliminating FGM through strategic actions and legislative measures, but mainly changes in attitudes and beliefs among relevant communities are important to ensure FGM is abandoned. It is also important to fight FGM with direct involvement of the religious and political leaders of the communities where the rituals are diffuse. European States are called to cooperate with each other with strategic internal and external actions.

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Considerazioni sul genocidio: ipotesi di comparazione e conseguenze nella tutela del diritto di libertà religiosa - di Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa: le origini del dibattito sul genocidio e la difficile genesi della sua giuridificazione - 2. Processi ermeneutici e tentativi espansivi in merito alla nozione di genocidio: rischi e problematiche. Il ruolo dei profili religiosi - 3. Qualificazioni tipologico-effettuali del genocidio. Percorsi e prospettive - 4. Appunti per una casistica giurisdizionale internazionale del genocidio: riscontri formali e casi controversi - 5. Disagevoli profili conclusivi: l’attualità del genocidio e delle sue conseguenze istituzionali nel cuore dell’Europa.

Observations about the genocide: hypotheses of comparison and consequences on the legal protection of religious freedom

ABSTRACT: Talking about the genocide implies to recall a wide doctrinal processing, including refined strategies to put into effects the legal definition of genocide itself. This conceptual effort should combine the historical reconstruction with a dramatic but intransigent analysis of the most recent massacres. The constant presence of religious conflicts in concrete representations of genocide undoubtedly shows how the stance for religious freedom shall be definitely urgent and participated, because genocides are a maybe surprising but anyway unquestionable part of our most recent legal history and systems, including the institutional development of the European Union.

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Confessioni e comunità religiose nell’Europa dell’Est, pluralismo religioso e politiche legislative degli Stati - di Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: Sistemi di classificazione dei rapporti e individuazione degli interlocutori istituzionali delle confessioni religiose - 2. Il “laboratorio” dell’Europa dell’Est come luogo di sperimentazione del pluralismo intra confessionale - 3. La gestione delle relazioni tra Stato e confessioni religiose attraverso gli uffici - 4. I problemi nuovi posti dal moltiplicarsi delle confessioni nei diversi paesi europei - 4.1. L’area baltica - 4.2. (segue) Le Repubbliche russofone - 4.3. (segue) Le Repubbliche dell’Europa Centrale - 4.4. (segue) I Balcani Orientali - 4.5. (segue) I territori della ex Repubblica Jugoslava - 4.6. (segue) Le scelte differenziate delle Repubbliche ex jugoslave in materia di Rapporti tra Stato e confessioni religiose - 5. La felice anomalia albanese - 6. Un contributo all’elaborazione di linee guida ai rapporti tra Stato e confessioni religiose in Europa.

Confessions and religious communities in Eastern Europe, religious pluralism and legislative policies of the States

ABSTRACT: The intervention reconstructs the supporting lines of the activity of the national office of each legal system in charge with the maintenance of the relations between the State and the confessions and religious communities in the Eastern European countries. Through this perspective, the ecclesiastical politics of 19 countries is reconstructed, highlighting the genesis and the peculiar characteristics of their legislations and highlighting the underlying lines that are at the root of the choices of their systems. Particular attention is dedicated to the definition of the different models to which the States refer in relation to their effectiveness in maintaining religious peace while respecting the principle of equality and freedom among the various religious confessions. The article aims to be a contribution to the development of guidelines for relations between the state and religious confessions in Europe.
 

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Radicalizzati jihadisti: profilazione e deradicalizzazione Constitution-compliant - di Laura Sabrina Martucci

SOMMARIO: 1. Gli scenari preventivi: il terrorismo a chiamata individuale - 2. Le prevent strategies. I livelli di intervento - 3. L’islamista, ovvero il type consumer del messaggio radicalizzante - 4. La pericolosità sociale indicatore laico-giudiziario di radicalizzazione - 5. Schedatura, provvedimenti di deradicalizzazione e laicità della “reazione” dello Stato - 6. I radicalizzati: indexing risk factors Constitution-compliant.

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Le istituzioni educative nella Costituzione italiana - di Pasquale Lillo

SOMMARIO: 1. Ricognizione costituzionale del fenomeno educativo - 2. L’educazione familiare - 3. L’educazione scolastica - 4. L’educazione religiosa.

Educational Institutions in the Italian Constitution

ABSTRACT: According to the current Constitution, Italy presents itself as a pluralist and participatory democracy, in which certain functions aimed at enhancing the human person are not taken directly by the State – except in exceptional cases in which the public authorities intervene, for reasons of necessity, in a subsidiary or supplementary way – but they are normally assigned to specific social subjects (or formations), among which the educational institutions have a special and qualified position. The present contribution intends to highlight that the Italian “social State” does not present itself as a “educating State” in its own educational models that the public structures impose in an authoritarian way on the single components of the national collectivity. On the other hand, the Italian Constitution, in recognizing social relevance to the educational function, assigns its concrete management to certain “"pedagogical agencies” or “educational institutions” operating autonomously within the civil society: among which the qualified family holds a qualified position. School and religious confessions. They do not operate in the name or on behalf of the State, but operate within a framework of legal, cultural and institutional guarantees and pluralism, within a normative framework dictated in this regard by the constitutional text and by ordinary legislation. By carrying out the special role assigned to them by the Italian legal system, educational institutions participate in the democratic dynamics of the country, contributing with their work to the construction and evolution of the civil and national community.

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La religione atea di Dworkin e la divinizzazione del valore - di Andrea Porciello

SOMMARIO: 1. Ateismo religioso e valori - 2. Ateismo moderato, neo-ateismo e ateismo religioso - 3. Alcune considerazioni su indipendenza e inevitabilità dei valori - 4. Conclusioni.

Dworkin’s Atheistic Religion and the Divinization of Value

ABSTRACT: This essay critically discusses some of the central ideas of Ronald Dworkin’s last book, Religion Without God. In particular, it will be argued that the idea of “religion without God” is not a form of atheism, as Dworkin claims, but a pure religious attitude in which the idea of “theistic entity” of traditional religion is replaced by a new and not less problematic entity, the idea of “value”.

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Opinion on act (decision), adopted by the Holy Synod of the Patriarchate of Constantinople on 11 October 2018 - di Igor V. Ponkin

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Main Part. An Examination - 3. Complete exhaustion of the subject of the executive act adopted by the Patriarchate of Constantinople in 1686 - 4. Assessment of the actions from the perspective of the legislation of the Republic of Turkey - 5. Conclusions.

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Le regole alimentari religiose e i menù delle mense scolastiche: una sfida per la laicità? - di Corrado Del Bò

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La libertà religiosa e le regole alimentari religiose - 3. Le regole alimentari religiose e la laicità dello Stato - 4. Il menù quaresimale - 5. L’immunità dall’esposizione - 6. Conclusioni.

Religious dietary rules and school lunch menus: a challenge for secularism?

ABSTRACT: The paper starts from a case of dietary pluralism to discuss the possibility to justify menus sensitive to different religious dietary rules in schools’ canteens. Building on an analysis of the idea of secularism, both in its legal interpretation and in its philosophical understanding in terms of neutrality, I try to show that providing for menus sensitive to different religious dietary rules does not amount to a breach of secularism; it is, rather, a legitimate consequence of the protection of individuals’ rights to freedom of conscience and religion. Moreover, whenever institutions take action to devise and implement such menus they can be taken to act on a commitment to respecting the beliefs of minority groups in society without expecting that these groups, which are often migrant communities suffering of well-known problems of social integration, take on the burden to put forward public claims.

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Pluralismo religioso e integrazione europea: le nuove sfide - di AA. VV. (Angelucci e altri) Antonio Angelucci Maria Ilia Bianco Wojciech Brozowski Marco Croce Lucia Giannuzzo Sina Haydn-Quindeau Corinne Maioni Francesca Mauri Joshua Moir Stefano Montesano Costanza Nardocci Alessandro Negri Marcello Toscano Alessia Tranfo Julia Wagner Giovanni Zaccaroni Marco Parisi Filippo Croci Rosa Geraci

Il 28 settembre 2018, presso l’Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, si è tenuto un convegno internazionale co-finanziato dall’Unione Europea, che ha visto la partecipazione di giovani studiosi delle più diverse discipline giuridiche, italiani e stranieri. I relatori, selezionati in seguito ad una “call for papers”, cui è stata data ampia pubblicità in Italia e all’estero, si sono confrontati sul tema del pluralismo religioso nel sistema europeo e, soprattutto, nella recente giurisprudenza delle Corti sovranazionali. (continua)

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Le origini del fondamentalismo cristiano: profili comparatistici e prospettive di ricerca - di Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive sul fondamentalismo odierno: alcune differenze rispetto ai movimenti omologhi dei decenni precedenti - 2. L’influenza del fondamentalismo sulla demografia religiosa e sul contenzioso giurisdizionale negli Stati Uniti d’America - 3. Il fondamentalismo americano protestante e le omologhe istanze etiche e giuridiche di gruppi religiosi contemporanei - 4. La Chiesa di Gesù Cristo dei Santi degli Ultimi Giorni: le origini di una protesta contro la teologia ottocentesca - 5. L’escatologia teocratica dei Testimoni di Geova e le conseguenze ordinamentali - 6. Possibili conclusioni: il ruolo del fondamentalismo cristiano nella conformazione attuale delle istituzioni statunitensi.

The origins of the Christian fundamentalism: comparative approaches and research perspectives

ABSTRACT: The aim of this essay is to demonstrate the Christian roots of the public discourse concerning fundamentalism, its disciplines, groups and legal consequences. This issue implies to go back to the first Christian fundamentalist experiences born and raised during last two centuries in America (with a peculiar focus on the United States). By reconsidering a wide historical period and a not simple variety of local religious communities, it will be possible to underline a substantial and concurrent beginning for similar movements in the progressive development of Jehovah’s Witnesses, new wave Lutheran and Baptist Churches, Church of Latter Day Saints: some of the same faiths and cults still effecting the American recent ecclesiastical controversies.

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