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Ortodossia, pandemia e legislazione degli Stati dell’Est Europa a tutela della salute - di Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La Chiesa Ortodossa del Patriarcato di Mosca come confessione multinazionale - 3. Le disposizioni rituali di contrasto alla pandemia da parte delle Chiese auto amministrate appartenenti al Patriarcato di Mosca - 4. La Chiesa Ortodossa Rumena di fronte alla pandemia - 5. Il Patriarcato Ecumenico e l’orientamento delle Chiese Autocefale.

Orthodoxy, Pandemic, and Legislation of Eastern European Countries for the Safeguard of Health

ABSTRACT: The article examines the attitude and the regulations adopted by the clergy and believers of the major Orthodox Churches in relation to the pandemic. In this perspective, the modifications requested by States in the field of public religious functions and ritual celebrations are the object of the current analysis. Furthermore, the modalities of the administration of the sacraments and the carrying out of religious functions in relation to the protection of religious freedom are critically assessed and commented.

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Ordine pubblico “internazionale” e ordine pubblico così detto “concordatario”: il contenuto del limite alla luce della recente giurisprudenza di legittimità - di Natascia Marchei

SOMMARIO: 1. La clausola generale di ordine pubblico nei rapporti con l’ordinamento matrimoniale canonico: luci e ombre di un percorso tortuoso e accidentato - 2. Il contenuto del limite nella recente giurisprudenza di legittimità in materia di riconoscimento di sentenze e provvedimenti stranieri - 3. Brevi considerazioni conclusive: ordine pubblico e principi confessionali.

‘International’ public order and so-called ‘concordatarian’ public order: the content of the limit in the light of the recent jurisprudence of legitimacy

ABSTRACT: The limit of public order at the entry of judgments and provisions of external legal orders is interpreted by the jurisprudence of legitimacy with an increasingly attentive meaning to the subjective interests of the people involved. Thus, the clause is regressively oriented towards the protection of the internal harmony of the legal order, whilst it is progressively oriented towards guaranteeing the rights of individuals, recognized by the Constitutional Charter and the European Charters. This orientation leads to a subjectivized public order, the operation of which is often left to the availability of the parties.

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Diversità e diritto internazionale privato: il ripudio islamico e la sua rilevanza nell’ordinamento giuridico italiano alla luce di due recenti pronunce della Corte di Cassazione - di Daniela Milani

SOMMARIO: 1. Dal riconoscimento degli effetti civili delle sentenze ecclesiastiche di nullità matrimoniale alla trascrizione del ripudio islamico - 2. Le specificità dell’istituto del ripudio - 3. I dubbi di compatibilità sollevati dal ripudio alla prova della recente giurisprudenza di legittimità - 4. La sentenza n. 16804 del 7 agosto 2020 e l’intrascrivibilità di un ripudio sciaraitico pronunciato in Palestina - 5. L’ordinanza n. 17170 del 14 agosto 2020 sulla trascrivibilità di un divorzio unilaterale pronunciato in Iran - 6. Annotazioni conclusive: ordine pubblico e diversità religiosa alla prova degli effetti generati dalla trascrizione.

Diversity and Private International Law: Islamic repudiation and its relevance into the Italian legal system in the light of two recent judgments of the Court of Cassation

ABSTRACT: Two recent judgments of the Court of Cassation lead to the center of attention the issue of recognition in Italy of repudiation orders issued abroad by Sharia courts. The general clause of international public order becomes thus the filter to measure the degree of openness of our legal system to other values, clearly foreign to the Italian and European legal horizon.

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Le minoranze religiose escluse. Introduzione al tema - di Silvio Ferrari

Questo incontro nasce da un dato di fatto che è sotto i nostri occhi: in Italia non tutte le minoranze religiose sono uguali o, meglio, sono trattate nello stesso modo dall’ordinamento giuridico. Nel 1978 Giorgio Peyrot poteva definire le minoranze religiose in Italia un “coacervo anonimo degli indistinti”. Aveva ragione perché allora vi era una divisione netta tra la Chiesa cattolica da un lato, i cui rapporti con lo Stato italiano erano regolati dai Patti lateranensi, e tutte le altre comunità religiose dall’altro, che ricadevano sotto la disciplina della legge sui culti ammessi del 1929. Ora non è più così e continuare a parlare di maggioranza e minoranze religiose, come se esse fossero due blocchi monolitici, sarebbe fuorviante. All’interno di quello che era “il coacervo anonimo degli indistinti”, è necessario distinguere almeno due grandi gruppi di minoranze religiose, quelle incluse nel sistema giuridico italiano e quelle che invece ne restano ai margini e che nel titolo di questo incontro sono definite “le minoranze religiose escluse”.

Religious minorities escluded. A thematic introduction

ABSTRACT: In the contest of a wider pluralism of the Italian and of the European society at large, it is more and more necessary to try to guarantee an equal treatment to all religious minorities. But how to identify what a religious minority is? This paper points three possible ways and finally proposes a new possible tool to analyse the legal status of religious minorities in Europe.

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Le minoranze religiose in Italia. Una prospettiva storico-religiosa - di Giovanni Filoramo

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. Minoranze religiose e costruzione della nazione - 3. Per una storia delle minoranze religiose.

Religious minorities in Italy: a historical-religious perspective

ABSTRACT: The history of religious minorities in unitary Italy has been deeply linked to the construction of the national state both in its formative phase (the Risorgimento) and in the period of liberal Italy. The responses ranged between a desire for integration, as in the Jewish case, and an occasional and missionary presence, as in the case of certain Evangelical communities. The Great War, first, the twenty years of Fascism, then, profoundly changed this situation, further marginalizing the religious minorities also as a consequence of the 1929 Concordat.

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La disciplina giuridica delle minoranze religiose (escluse).Le diseconomie esterne del favor religionis - di Francesco Alicino

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Alle radici del pluralismo della disparità - 3. Le definizioni a contrario - 4. Le minoranze nel sentiero del principio di laicità - 5. Le minoranze religiose alle prese con il genus e la species della laicità - 6. La rilevanza legale delle minoranze religiose - 7. L’autonomia delle confessioni diverse - 8. Le diseconomie esterne del diritto comune delle intese - 9. Come ridurre le diseconomie esterne negative - 10. Conclusioni e prospettive.

The Legal Discipline of Minority Religions. The External Diseconomy of Italy’s Favor Religionis

ABSTRACT: This article analyses the State’s legal discipline regulating minority religions, which are part of the current religious pluralism in Italy. Pluralism is not new in the Italian context. Various minority religions have long been part of the national scene and often enjoyed a level of public consideration far superior compared to their numerical consistency. However, today in Italy there are religious organizations that, in the light of the traditional ex parte Ecclesiæ favor religionis and the method of state-church(es) relations, stress some difficulties of constitutional relevance. In particular, these difficulties have increasingly come to be seen in terms of “negative externalities”: while creating privileges for the Catholic Church and few minority denominations, it produces unreasonable discriminations against all other religions. That is particularly the case of legal status of “new” minority religious, made up mainly of immigrants.

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Le minoranze religiose in Italia. Nuovi problemi (?) - di Cristiana Cianitto

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La libertà di espressione e la libertà di coscienza - 3. Le tematiche bioetiche - 4. I simboli e l’identità - 5. Considerazioni conclusive.

Religious minorities in Italy. New problems (?)

ABSTRACT: In the contest of a wider pluralism of the Italian society, legislation still struggles to guarantee an real equal treatment to all religious minorities. Religious denominations - who ratified an intesa with the Government - are for sure in a privileged position compared to those who are still regulated by the general law. Among the last ones, the Italian jurisprudence is playing an important role to find a balance especially on those issues that ask for a more decise government of religious diversity.

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La Chiesa di Scientology. Narrazione religiosa e configurazione giuridica - di Germana Carobene

SOMMARIO: 1. Sulla nozione di religione, confessione, setta - 2. La Chiesa di Scientology e il suo inquadramento - 3. Problematiche giurisprudenziali nel riconoscimento di Scientology - 4. La configurazione del reati di associazione per delinquere - 5. Il plagio e l’abus de faiblesse - 6. I movimenti “anti-sette”. Considerazioni conclusive.

Scientology. Religious narrative and legal rules

ABSTRACT: Scientology is an exemplary case, in the definition of "religious confession", both because it is a movement of rupture with respect to the common religious feeling, and because its recognition as confession has taken place, in Italy, following a process that developed, with alternating events, for twenty years, until the final judgment of 2000. It is particularly interesting to reflect on the alleged crimes, which are anomalous if they relate to a religious context, but also on similar trials that have taken place in France and, more recently, in Belgium. In addition, it is important to stress that the three judicial procedures examined were also influenced by two important factors, which were not always explicitly stated in the course of the proceedings: the subject of mental manipulation and the action of anti-cult movements in public debate. If in Italy, plagiarism has been decriminalized by a ruling of the Constitutional Court, in France and Belgium laws have recently been introduced against the abuse of weakness in sectarian movements which, however, have not been recalled in the Scientology trials. Very dangerous is, moreover, the public action of the anti cult movements that can act as a sounding board of news not always reliable and that, often, are financed with public money. All these considerations offer interesting insights into the level of democratic secularism and the protection of religious freedom.

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Intorno all’intesa con i Testimoni di Geova - di Pierangela Floris

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La confessione dei Testimoni di Geova e il nodo dei principi religiosi tra politica e diritto - 3. Il nodo dell’intesa. Le tappe del negoziato - 4. L’impasse e le difficili vie d’uscita.

On the State-Christian Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses agreement

ABSTRACT: To date, the State-Christian Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses agreement is waiting to complete the procedure within the meaning of article 8, paragraph 3, of the Italian Constitution. The latest statements by the government refer to the need for further information on health matters, evoking the issue of refusal of blood transfusion treatments. On a legal level, there are difficulties in overcoming the impasse in which the agreement is, also because there isn't a legislative discipline of the procedure prefigured in the article 8 of the Constitution; furthermore the statements made in 2016 by the Constitutional Court on the political nature of the government's choices regarding the agreements can be an obstacle. The paper deals with these points, also taking into account the application to the ECHR presented by the Christian Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses against the Italian Republic.

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I sikh, ‘calvinisti’ in Val Padana - di Paolo Naso

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. L’etica del lavoro - 3. I simboli identitari - 4. Il gurdwara come risorsa sociale - 5. Il kirpan - 6. Il valore di un riconoscimento.

Sikhs, Calvinists in the Po Valley

ABSTRACT: Sikhs are an important component of the New Religious Pluralism (NRP) that, especially due to the migratory flows of last decades, we record in Italy today. Many Sikh workers are employed in the dairy farming sector and, at least in the North of the country, they appear to be well integrated. This process has been facilitated by strict work ethics grounded in their theology. Nevertheless, to date the Sikh community has not been legally recognized as a religious body. Efforts by Sikh representatives to adopt a kirpan (ritual dagger) compatible with Italian law have not produced the desired results. However, there is still an urgent need for legal recognition of a faith community that has achieved important and successful integration processes in just a few decades.

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Le nuove Chiese evangeliche e pentecostali in Italia, senza fissa dimora, esposte a ragionevoli discriminazioni - di Enzo Pace

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il complesso mondo protestante in Italia - 3. Come pensano le istituzioni - 4. Conclusione.

The new Evangelical and Pentecostal Churches in Italy, homeless, exposed to reasonable discrimination

ABSTRACT: The religious geography in Italy is changing. It is not only Islam, and the growth of the parishes of the various Orthodox Churches, that makes the religious panorama more lively. The spread of many and different Evangelical and Pentecostal Churches represent a sign of renewed vitality for the historical minority Churches that refer to the Reformation present for a long time. These new Churches have been able to rely on the hospitality offered by the various Protestant Churches. Another part, perhaps the most substantial, had to wander from one place to another, more or less precarious or resulting, to be able to offer their faithful a religious service worthy of the name. The article focuses on these homeless Churches exposed to the double contingency of being, on the one hand, more easily the target of reasonable discrimination by Regions and local authorities and, for another, without sufficient voice of the many small communities of believers. The public institutions continue to represent the socio-religious reality following the Ptolemaic scheme that considers the existence of a majority religion, Catholicism, versus small religious minorities, without asking whether this perspective can manage the diversity of increasing religious diversities.

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(Non)conclusioni: tre questioni su minoranze e laicità positiva negli attuali anni Venti - di Jlia Pasquali Cerioli

Gli interventi degli autorevoli relatori al convegno odierno mi suggeriscono di disattendere il compito che gli organizzatori della giornata mi hanno benevolmente affidato. Non credo infatti sia possibile azzardare alcuna conclusione, oggi, al nostro dibattito su Le minoranze religiose escluse. Il pluralismo religioso in Italia tra politica e diritto; con un'eccezione che credo sia difficilmente discutibile: il mutamento della geografia delle fedi nel nostro Paese necessita di un'analisi degli strumenti, anche giuridici, di inclusione aggiornata alle caratteristiche, del tutto peculiari, di una società ormai modellata sull'iperrealtà.

(Not a) Conclusion: three issues regarding minorities and positive '"laicità" in the current Twenties

ABSTRACT: Closing a debate on religious minorities, the Author poses three central issues for further investigation: the notion of minority itself, the politicisation of relations between the State and religious denominations and the contemporary evolution of positive "laicità".

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Il crocifisso di nuovo in Cassazione. Note da amicus curiae - di Nicola Colaianni

SOMMARIO: 1. Un simbolo religioso - 2. Una laicità pluralista - 3. Modelli di laicità e simboli religiosi - 4. Il crocifisso - 5. … e la sua “democratizzazione” - 6. Bilanciamento e non discriminazione - 7. Tutela e autotutela.

The Crucifix back to Supreme Court of Cassation. Notes by amicus curiae.

ABSTRACT: The display of a crucifix in the classrooms breaks the separatism principle and, although voted by the majority of the class, is discriminatory versus the unfavorable pupils and teacher. The protection of the freedom of consciency permits the teacher himself in case to displace  the icon throughout his lesson.
 

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Identity, Technology, and Religion: Sources of a legal culture for the global age - di Joseph P. Garske

SUMMARY: 1. The Medieval Age - 2. Becoming Modern - 3. Anglophone and Civilian - 4. Empire and Nation - 5. Global and Postmodern.

ABSTRACT: There are many ways to understand the project of globalization as it unfolds in the twenty-first century. It is often viewed in terms of technological advance, finance and trade, or travel and communication. Each of these describe aspects of the project, yet none of its parts is more important than the legal basis upon which a regimen of global governance is being constructed. It is a legal regime of two parts, the coercive, or adjudicative and the persuasive, or educative. It involves the ordering of persons and things on a global scale as well as shaping the mind and thought of a global public. But the sources of this expansive framework of authority are neither recent nor modern. Instead, they are derived from two historic legal traditions, Anglophone and Civilian, as those traditions carry forward many accoutrements of the legal past. Among these are techniques and instruments for shaping human identity and human understanding in ways that fulfill the requirements of legal rule. In fact, the global project follows on a long tradition of employing religion as the educative instrument of governance. However, the new project of global rule is unprecedented in that it is intended to include all peoples in all regions of the earth. The project is also taking on a unique character, becoming Anglicized as the adaptability of Anglophone law subsumes many features of Civilian practice. But the great challenge is not only to impose judicial authority, it is also to instill attitudes of acceptance and habits of compliance among a global public. The purpose of what follows is to provide perspective on the project of globalization in both its adjudicative and educative aspects, with a special emphasis both on the use of technology to shape human understanding, and the use of religion as an instrument of legal rule. To do so this paper will focus on a broad historical context and on continuing historical themes in the development of a twenty-first century global law.

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Enseñanza religiosa, identidad y ciudadanía. A propósito de la reforma de la Ley de Educación española - di Silvia Meseguer Velasco Belén Rodrigo Lara

SUMARIO: 1. Enseñanza religiosa, identidad y ciudadanía - 2.- La nueva Ley de Educación - 2.1. Un cambio normativo con escasa participación ciudadana y durante una pandemia - 2.2. Los enfoques adoptados en la nueva Ley de Educación - 2.3.- El nuevo currículo basado en competencias - 3. Algunas cuestiones controvertidas sobre la enseñanza de la religión - 3.1. La ausencia de asignatura alternativa - 3.2. El valor de la asignatura de Religión en el expediente académico - 3.3. Enseñanza no confesional de Cultura de las Religiones - 3.4. Calendario de implantación de la LOMLOE y cuestiones pendientes de desarrollo reglamentario - 4. Consideraciones finales: Una reforma operada de espaldas a la sociedad civil.

Religious Education, Identity and Citizenship. Regarding the Reform of the Spanish Education Law

ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to analyze some issues raised by the teaching of religion in the Spanish legal system in the light of the current legislation in which some aspects of special relevance are modified. Specifically, it analyses the rejection generated by the absence of a mesured debate in which the most controversial aspects could have been discussed and a consensus reached, which would have required giving a more active role to the educational community and citizens. A proper approach requires, on the contrary, bringing together positions that truly balance the differents rights and guarantees at stake.

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Ritual Circumcisions of Minors: Civil and Criminal Perspectives - di Agustín Motilla

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Parental authority and the inherent rights of the minor. The best interests of the minor - 2.1. Conflicting rights. The current understanding of parental authority - 2.2. Limits to parental authority. Personality rights - 2.3. The minor’s consent in surgical procedures - 2.4. Circumcision and the best interests of the minor. An act which falls within parental authority? - 3. Criminal responsibility in acts of circumcision for religious motives - 3.1. The criminal approximation to female genital mutilation - 3.2. Circumcision in criminal jurisprudence - 4. Concluding remarks. De iure condendo contributions.

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Diritto canonico e formazione giuridica. L’eredità di un Maestro: Arturo Carlo Jemolo (1891-1981) - di Beatrice Serra

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa. L’insegnamento di un Maestro per un problema del presente: la ridefinizione della formazione universitaria del giurista - 2. Sull’attribuzione al diritto canonico dello statuto di materia facoltativa. Jemolo e le funzioni della presenza del diritto della Chiesa nelle Università statali: a) la funzione didattica: rendere possibile la comprensione della disciplina statale sul fenomeno religioso; b) la funzione scientifica: costituire un campo di indagine vasto e fecondo, capace di condurre a risultati di ricerca innovativi - 3. La prolusione bolognese del 1923 e quella romana del 1933: il problema della natura del diritto canonico e della posizione della Chiesa e delle sue norme nell’ordinamento statale. La giuridicità originaria dell’ordinamento canonico e il dato, peculiare e oggettivo, della comunanza di soggetti e territorio tra Stato e Chiesa. La terza funzione dello studio del diritto canonico nelle Università statali: essere un momento privilegiato di verifica della tenuta e della validità teorica delle categorie generali sulle quali si fonda la preparazione del giurista - 4. La questione metodologica. Direttive sul diritto canonico quale oggetto di insegnamento e ricerca: a) l’attenzione privilegiata per i temi congruenti con la formazione del giurista statale; b) l’indirizzo storico-dogmatico - 5. Un esito concreto: l’istituzione di una cattedra autonoma di diritto canonico nella Facoltà di Giurisprudenza dell’Università degli Studi di Roma Sapienza. Le linee di indirizzo per lo studio del diritto della Chiesa proposte da Jemolo quali parti integranti del progetto culturale e scientifico della scuola laica italiana del diritto canonico - 6. I profili che contraddistinguono la figura di Jemolo all’interno della scuola laica italiana del diritto canonico: a) l’esposizione del diritto canonico quale frutto dell’equilibrio tra la necessità di non alterare la natura del diritto della Chiesa e il bisogno di tradurre tale diritto in un linguaggio comprensibile al giurista statale: b) il distacco da ogni fattore ideologico o confessionale. Jemolo cristiano esigente e profeta ascoltato dai laici - 7. L’eredità di Jemolo canonista: il paradigma epistemologico da lui elaborato per il diritto della Chiesa e l’atteggiamento spirituale e intellettuale con il quale si è accostato a una realtà giuridica che nasce da un vissuto di fede. La persistente attualità di tale lascito.

Canon law and legal education. The legacy of a Master: Arturo Carlo Jemolo (1891-1981)

ABSTRACT: Forty years after Arturo Carlo Jemolo passed away, this paper reconstructs the Master's thought on the function of canon law studies in state Universities in order to respond to a need of our present: the need to rethink the university education of the jurists.

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Il Regno dell’Imperatore: tipicità e contraddizioni del modello istituzionale giapponese di regolazione dei culti - di Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. Le ragioni di rinnovata attualità di una ricerca storica, religiosa e normativa sulla spiritualità giapponese - 2. Riflessi di natura costituzionale: la costruzione giuridica di un ordinamento nuovo, tra vestigia imperiali e modernità internazionale - 3. Le religioni tradizionali, tra continuità ed elaborazione progressiva - 4. Uno sguardo alle condizioni materiali dei culti di minoranza: problemi e prospettive per un nuovo sincretismo diffuso - 5. I segni di una precisa spiritualità collettiva nel disposto costituzionale e nella legislazione recente: possibili aperture per nuovi studi - 6. Conclusioni in progress: il paradigma nipponico come modello extra-regionale.

The Kingdom of the Emperor. Typicality and contradictions in the Japanese institutional paradigm of religious regulation

ABSTRACT: The history of Japanese legal institutions has probably known in recent years a lack of attention due to the affirmation of other legal paradigms in the same Asian continent. It could seem a plausible underestimation because Japan has usually reached a leading role in the constant evolution of constitutional rules and concrete everyday praxes. An important aspect of this tradition certainly consists in the peculiar Japanese religious approach: a form of customary culture and not only a specific regulation, crossing many spiritual teachings and belongings (Confucianism, Buddhism and Shintoism, with a more recent but truly significant monotheistic nationwide proselytism). The main purpose of this analysis is to notice how this objectively composite religious framework has surprisingly influenced the shape and the implementation of constitutional principles, still offering an interesting overview able to clear up misunderstandings in the intercultural debate between the Western constitutionalism and the Eastern mentality.

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Libertà di scelta della terapia e violenza medica. Brevi considerazioni sul rifiuto delle trasfusioni di sangue dei Testimoni di Geova - di Pierluigi Consorti

SOMMARIO: 1. - Il “caso Oneda” - 2. -Evoluzione successiva e stato attuale - 3. - La violenza medica - 4. Conclusioni - Appendice.

Freedom of choice of therapy and medical violence. Brief Considerations on the Refusal of Blood Transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses

ABSTRACT: This short essay considers the change in the jurisprudential orientation on the matter in the light of the recent regulatory and healthcare evolution. In Italy the debate began with the Oneda case, which saw the conviction of two parents who opposed the transfusions of their daughter - at the time the only known therapy to combat a severe form of anemia. Nowadays, this question must be contextualized in the light both of the principle of health self-determination and the possibility of the "bloodless" treatment. Therefore, the Court of Tivoli (the sentence is attached in appendix) recently convicted a doctor who transfused a dissenting patient for “private violence”.

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Le frontiere europee della religious accommodation. Spunti di comparazione - di Greta Pavesi

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La religious accommodation in Europa - 3. (segue) Gli sviluppi più recenti - 4. Il ruolo della giurisprudenza europea: primi segnali di apertura all’accomodamento religioso - 5. Il know-how statunitense e canadese: modelli giurisprudenziali a confronto e possibili interazioni - 6. La religious accommodation in Europa: una prospettiva de iure condendo.

The European frontiers of religious accommodation. Starting points for comparison

ABSTRACT: In the last years several scholars pointed out the desirability to extend the accommodation beyond disability. Currently, indeed, a duty of reasonable accommodation is exclusively provided in favour of people with disabilities (art. 5 dir. 2000/78/CE). Previous contributions, however, have stressed how the existing lack of a provision on religious accommodation can result not only in a low level of protection of religious freedom, but also in the rise of a hierarchy related to discrimination grounds in which religion and belief seem to be left at the bottom. Recently, also the European Courts (especially the ECtHR) have apparently open to the extension of the concept of reasonable accommodation, in line with the sensitivity of the Supreme Courts of USA and Canada, where the religious accommodation was first stated. Moving from the comparison between the American and Canadian jurisprudences and the European one, this paper argues about the transposability of the religious accommodation in Europe, in order to strengthen, even in the workplace, the protection of the freedom of religion.

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“La sfera e la croce”, ovvero i feti abortiti come rifiuto da distruggere o come resti mortali da onorare - di Abramo Dentilli

SOMMARIO: 1. L’art. 7 del d.p.r. n. 285 del 1990 - 2. Parti anatomiche amputate e rifiuti infettivi - 3. Riflessioni sul trattamento dei feti abortiti - 4. Qualche precisazione su temi connessi - 5. A mo’ di conclusione.

“The Ball and the Cross”: the fetuses aborted as medical waste to be destroyed or as mortal remains to be honoured

ABSTRACT: Is there an obligation for Italian hospitals to destroy aborted fetuses as infectious waste? Yes, for a recently published paper. On the contrary, we’ll se that, even without an explicit application of the mother, the hospital has the right not to destroy the aborted fetus, proceeding to its burial or cremation. In fact, it is necessary to interpret correctly the article 7 of the Decree of the President of the Republic n. 285 of 1990, also applying the rules on the treatment of medical waste. So it will be clear that the same regulations for the treatment of recognizable body parts must be applied to the treatment of aborted fetuses.

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Identità religiosa e diritto alla salute. Interazioni classiche ed emergenti - di Gaetano Marcaccio

Sommario: PARTE I: LE INTERAZIONI CLASSICHE - 1. Salute e religione, un tema tradizionale in evoluzione - 2. La “religione” come cura. Santoni e guaritori - 3. Libertà religiosa versus tutela della salute. Le pratiche di mutilazione genitale femminile - 4. (segue) La circoncisione maschile - PARTE II: LE INTERAZIONI EMERGENTI - 5. Il dissenso religioso al trattamento sanitario. Il caso dei testimoni di Geova, e non solo - 6. Le nuove frontiere di tutela della salute nella legge n. 219 del 2017. Gli effetti sull’identità religiosa del paziente-fedele - 7. (segue) Gli spazi di obiezione di coscienza del personale medico sanitario.

Religious identity and right to health. Classic and emerging interactions

ABSTRACT: The relationship existing between health and religion is innate. Legal systems started dealing with it since the first formulations about freedom of religion and right to health, in order to take care of the individual and collective needs. Taking this premise into account, the first part of the essay analyzes the classic interactions between health and religion, in which the latter replaces official medicine or prescribes harmful conduct. Consequently, legal systems have developed resolutive dialectics which can be applied to new specific cases brought by multiculturalism, like infibulation. In the second part, the essay examines the emerging interactions caused by a third party - the medical health personnel - owner of the duty of care and freedom of conscience, recreating the solutions offered by doctrine and law. Lastly, it focuses on the objections which can be moved by the medical health personnel, which are connected to early end-of-life dispositions (law n. 219/2017), proposing solutions to the lack of regulation left by the law.

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Da homo erectus a homo Deus. Breve riflessione sulle nuove religioni scientifico-tecnologiche: il Transumanesimo - di Maria Elena Ruggiano

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Definizione di Transumanesimo e i suoi principi – 3. Criticità e limiti del Transumanesimo - 4. Considerazioni conclusive.

From homo erectus to homo Deus. Brief reflection on the new scientific-technological religions: Transhumanism

ABSTRACT: The contribution aims to be a brief reflection on a new way of conceiving man and the future of humanity, no longer linked to physical-psychological decay but capable of becoming immortal. The Transhumanists, so called those who share this new ideology, are convinced that, thanks to technological development, by 2030 it will be possible to achieve objectives that today may seem surreal but which will give us, instead of man made of flesh, bones and passions, a cyborg able to think and live like a man but with much more developed and lasting potential.

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Dialogo interculturale e minoranze religiose in Europa al tempo del Covid-19. L’apporto degli ecclesiasticisti - di Salvatore Berlingò

SOMMARIO: 1. Il cambio di paradigma indotto dalla pandemia - 2. Complessità sociali e complessità giuridiche: le loro scansioni temporali - 3. L’obiettivo di “vivere insieme in una società democratica” - 4. L’esemplare negativo della pronunzia S.A.S. c. Francia - 5. La critica alla “cecità interculturale” del secolarismo - 6. La “laicità all’europea” e il principio del “dualismo giurisdizionale” - 7. L’apporto degli ecclesiasticisti: il contributo dell’ ‘accademia’ a una politica del diritto più inclusiva - 8. Il ritorno in auge dei paradigmi euro-mediterranei e gli sviluppi delle democrazie pluraliste.

Cross-cultural Dialogue and Religious Minority in Europe at the COVID-19's time. The Contribution of the Ecclesiasticists.

ABSTRACT: The spread of the pandemic COVID-19, together with the measures of social distance and lockdown, paradoxically have contributed to making the need to recognize what is in common between the most diverse realities increasingly felt. Europe has greater legal resources than other regions of the world to ensure genuine cross-cultural and pluralistic development of the democratic systems.

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Il fondamento etico del diritto - di Carlo Cardia

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa. I confini del diritto - 2. La dimensione etica, prima base dell’Ordinamento - 3. Il rapporto pubblico-privato, la stagione delle Riforme. Le nuove relazioni ecclesiastiche - 4. La laicità, fonte delle leggi, coerente con la dignità della persona.

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Il crocifisso e i diritti del lavoratore nell’ambiente scolastico (aspettando le Sezioni Unite della Cassazione) - di Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Un nuovo tipo di approccio alla vexata quaestio della legittimità dell’esposizione del crocifisso nelle aule scolastiche italiane - 2. L’ordinanza della Cassazione 18 settembre 2020, n. 19618: i fatti di causa e lo svolgimento del giudizio di merito - 3. I diritti nell’ambiente scolastico rivendicati dal ricorrente e l’inquadramento della vicenda operato dalla Cassazione - 4. L’(ingiustificata) esclusione dalla sfera applicativa del regio decreto n. 965 del 1924 delle scuole secondarie superiori - 5. I presupposti per far valere una discriminazione indiretta ai danni del lavoratore - 6. L’incongruenza della tesi che desume l’esistenza di una “finalità legittima” del trattamento differenziato dall’esigenza del rispetto della “coscienza morale e civile degli alunni” come declinata dalla “volontà della maggioranza” dei medesimi - 7. La diversa ipotesi della “finalità legittima” del trattamento differenziato dipendente da una decisione rientrante nelle competenze degli organi di autogoverno della scuola - 8. Gli scenari futuribili.

Crucifix and workers’ rights in the school environment (waiting for the United Sections of the Court of Cassation)

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the question of whether the display of crucifixes in public school classrooms is compatible with workers’ rights, in particular the right of teachers not to be discriminated against. To do so, it takes as its starting point a recent ruling by the Court of Cassation, which referred the matter to the United Sections of the same Court for a decision.

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A come aborto: la “lettera scarlatta” del XXI secolo nel Giardino degli angeli - di Silvia Baldassarre

SOMMARIO: 1. Il caso - 2. La normativa di riferimento - 3. Interruzione di gravidanza e diritto alla privacy - 4. Nel nome della madre e del figlio mai nato - 5. I cimiteri dei feti - 6. Osservazioni conclusive.

A for abortion: The Scarlet Letter in XXI century in the “Garden of angels”.

ABSTRACT: The work analyzes in a juridical key the story of the burial of an abortive product, in the "garden of the angels" (Flaminio cemetery in Rome). The burial, which took place without the mother's consent, is marked by a cross with the woman's personal data. This circumstance raises several critical profiles, examined in the article, regarding the right to privacy, the right to self-determination and freedom of conscience.

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Suiza y el veto al burqa - di Agustín Motilla

El pasado 7 de marzo se celebró en Suiza un referéndum, propiciado por un partido de la derecha del país, a fin de prohibir el uso del burqa y el niqab islámico en los espacios públicos; aunque encubierta bajo la propuesta, aparentemente neutral, del veto a toda indumentaria que oculte el rostro de la persona. Los resultados arrojan la victoria de los partidarios del sí por una exigua mayoría (el 52% de los votos); lo cual refleja la división social existente. Ahora deberá ser el Gobierno suizo el que presente una ley en este sentido para su aprobación parlamentaria. Los carteles de propaganda del partido Unión Democrática de Centro, propugnador de la consulta, reflejan bien la motivación del veto. La cara de una mujer con el niqab a la que solo se ven los ojos se acompaña con un pie de cartel con la siguiente leyenda: “Paremos el extremismo. Sí a la prohibición”. Lo más llamativo es la expresión de la escasa zona del rostro de la mujer que se ve: el entrecejo fruncido, las cejas curvadas hacia el centro enmarcan unos ojos coléricos. Se diría que está amenazando al espectador. El cartel de propaganda es revelador del mensaje que se intenta transmitir, el mensaje del miedo; o, más allá, la identificación del musulmán con el violento, el terrorista. (segue)

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La sfida del pluralismo educativo nella prospettiva sovranazionale e interna - di Nadia Spadaro

SOMMARIO: 1. La sfida del pluralismo educativo - 2. Il pluralismo educativo secondo l’elaborazione giurisprudenziale della Corte Europea dei diritti dell’Uomo - 3. La prospettiva antidiscriminatoria ed economica della Corte di Giustizia dell’Unione Europea - 4. L’effettività dell’istruzione pluralistica nell’ordinamento italiano - 5. Conclusioni.

The challenge of educational pluralism from a supranational and internal perspective

ABSTRACT: Whereas education plays a fundamental role in the construction of an inclusive society, the paper tries to outline the delicate balance between respect for pluralistic demands and state discretion in the educational field, with particular reference to Italy, where an increasingly multi-ethnic society is accompanied by deeply rooted cultural and religious traditions. The analysis will focus on the different approach of supranational and national Courts on issues that are now crucial in educational pluralism both in the perspective of pluralism for the school and in the school.

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Minoranze etnico-religiose in tempi di Covid-19: la Cina e la minoranza uigura, tra violazioni dei diritti umani e (mancata) tutela del diritto alla salute - di Silvia Angioi

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Il caso della minoranza uigura come caso studio, tra identità etnico-religiosa, violazioni dei diritti umani e misure di contrasto all’epidemia di Covid-19 - 3. (segue) in particolare, il problema dei campi d’internamento nello Xinjiang e l’epidemia di Covid-19 - 4. Il contrasto tra le norme internazionali sui diritti umani e le misure adottate nei confronti della minoranza uigura: in particolare, il problema dei campi d’internamento - 5. Il contrasto tra le norme internazionali in materia di diritto alla salute e lotta alle pandemie e le misure adottate nello Xinjiang in tempi di Covid-19 - 6. Conclusioni.

Ethnic-religious minorities in times of Covid-19: China and the Uighur minority, between violations of human rights and violations of the right to health

ABSTRACT: The recent outbreak of Covid-19 that originated in China, has brought the matter of state sponsored persecution of the Uighur minority in Xinjiang to the attention of the international community. The problem of discrimination and persecution of such ethno-religious minority is not new. However, the spread of epidemic, has represented an opportunity for the Chinese national authorities to tighten the measures which have long been adopted against the Uighur minority. This paper aims at highlighting the great impact Covid-19 has had on the repression of Uighur minority since it has led to a dramatic escalation of the systematic violation of human rights which includes not only mass detention in internment camps but also the violation of other fundamental human rights such as the right to health and to access healthcare

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Charity sector e Chiesa d’Inghilterra - di Raffaele Granata

SOMMARIO: 1. Lo status di charity - 2. L’amministrazione del patrimonio nella Comunione anglicana e nella Chiesa d’Inghilterra - 3. La promozione della religione nelle decisioni della Charity Commission - 4. Un possibile contributo all’attuazione della riforma del terzo settore.

Charity sector and Church of England

ABSTRACT: The undertstanding signed on 30 july 2019 between the Italian Republic and Association “Church of England”, representing in Italy the Anglican Confession Church of England, renewed the doctrinal debate on ecclesiastical entities and their location in the non profit universe, organically revised by legislative Decree n. 117/2017. In particular, art. 8, third paragraph, of the agreement in question allows the recognition in Italy of ecclesiastical entities that carry out overseas a "prevalent religion and cult activity", for the implementation of which the use of trust is widespread. It’s, therefore, essential, in order to understand the systematic consequences of this choice of undertstanding, to define the characteristics of the third sector in the British legal system, showing particolar attention to the heterogeneous modes of attribution of charitable status, to the regulatory and taxes linked to it and, even more, the concept of advancement of religion as elaborated by the decision of the Charity Commission and, in the review, the High Court. For the same purpose it’s indispensabile to begin the study of the administration of ecclesastical goods in the Church of England and in the Anglican Communion, together with the principles on which it is inspired.

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Eterodossia e minoranze religiose: il Tardo Antico, al termine di un lungo percorso - di Antonio Banfi

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. L’esperienza “classica”: Atene - 3. L’esperienza “classica”: Roma - 4. Il IV secolo fra continuità e rotture.

Heterodoxy and religious minorities. Late Antiquity, at the end of a long journey

ABSTRACT: This paper aims to encourage some reflections on the issue of the origins of religious intolerance and on the issues related to the treatment of minorities in Greek and Roman antiquity. In particular, a significant moment in this affair, destined to have prolonged effects, is constituted by the anti-Jewish revolts in Alexandria, in the mid-first century. A.D.

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Svizzera e Italia: soluzioni di triage e medicina intensiva a confronto - di Federica Botti

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La strategia elvetica per fare fronte alla pandemia e le osservazioni da parte della Conferenza Episcopale Svizzera - 3. La situazione italiana di fronte alla pandemia e le scelte in campo medico. I limiti all’autodeterminazione attraverso la proposta di introdurre l’obiezione di coscienza - 4. Conclusioni.

Switzerland and Italy: triage and intensive medicine solutions in comparison

ABSTRACT: Italy and Switzerland are two very different countries. This diversity is particularly evident in the health sector, not only in terms of its organization and management, but above all in the different approach that each country has with regard to the health of its members. The exaltation of therapeutic self-determination by Switzerland clashes with the medical paternalism to which Italy remains nostalgically linked, despite the fact that the needs of Italian society have changed profoundly. However, the dramatic choices to which the spread of Covid-19 has led have created the conditions for an inevitable reversal of the trend on the part of Italy and its approach to Swiss policies in terms of defending the freedom of choice of the individual.

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L’identità (religiosa) della persona migrante e l’accoglienza in Italia, tra le derive securitarie e le politiche di integrazione civica.  Brevi considerazioni - di Stefano Montesano

SOMMARIO: 1. Il migrante e il suo Dio: prove di identificazione e input di integrazione? - 2. L’identità (anche religiosa) della persona migrante. Dalle politiche discriminatrici all’integrazione civica nel modello di accoglienza italiano. Profili critici - 3. Una (prima e utopica) conclusione: la ridefinizione dell’ordine costituente a partire dall’Altro.

The (religious) identity of the migrant person in the reception system, between security drifts and civic integration policies. Brief considerations.

ABSTRACT: The essay takes into consideration some general profiles relating to the issue of immigration. Particular attention is paid to the critical issues that can be found in the context of the reception system in Italy that compromise the migrant's right to religious identity.

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L’esercizio episcopale dell’economia/dispensa e Querida Amazonia - di Salvatore Berlingò

SOMMARIO: 1. Dal climax, al bioma, all’habitat dell’umano - 2. Il bioma panamazzonico e l’ecologia integrale - 3. La Conferenza ecclesiale dell’Amazzonia - 4. Le nuove forme di sinodalità e la Chiesa sacramento universale di salvezza - 5. Il munus petrinum e la presidenza nella carità - 6. La Vicaría Christi vescovile urbi et orbi vocata - 7. Il metodo per “accompagnare” le vicende sinodali: discernimento e gradualità - 8. La Chiesa cattolica fra universale e locale. - 9 . Il poliedro dell’oeconomia/dispensatio Ecclesiae - 10. L’esperienza episcopale panamazzonica pietra miliare dei “cammini sinodali” di tutta la Chiesa.

The exercise of episcopal power and the oecononomia/dispensatio Ecclesiae in Querida Amazonia

ABSTRACT: The essay aims to explain how the Pan-Amazonian synodal experience, because of a particularly compromised and suffering reality - as emerged above all during the current pandemic event -, have pushed the Church to a closer interpenetration of the own universal dimension with the local one and therefore to an exercise of episcopal power more in line with the original oeconomia / dispensatio Ecclesiae.

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Rischi e dinamiche di riassorbimento del privato nel pubblico. Ricerche recenti sull’etica normativa confuciana - di Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. L’uso politico dell’etica confuciana nelle transizioni costituzionali. Una premessa sui primi casi di studio - 2. Il valore della tradizione: formazione individuale, conforto spirituale e proiezioni pubblicistiche- 3.Tra diritto e non diritto: una rappresentazione simbolica della pratica di governo - 4. Dal governo degli uomini al governo negli uomini: introiettare il senso della misura - 5. Profili possibili per l’evidenziazione della questione di genere nel pensiero confuciano: le forme e i tipi di un potere ancora maschile - 6. Incognite conclusive: dal merito di un’elaborazione inclusivistica e plurale al rischio di un confucianesimo fungibile per ogni istanza e perciò privo di contenuto.

Risks and dynamics of reintegration of the individual private dimension into the public sphere. Recent researches on normative Confucian ethics

ABSTRACT: If it seems substantially correct to deny a proper religious qualification for Confucianism, it does not mean that this kind of moral and legal teachings is irrelevant to shape a precise conception of human behavior, rites and relationships between citizenship and government. Finally adequately considered by the Western juridical doctrine, Confucianism and the Confucian scholars are now experiencing an uncritical acclaim too much vague to clarify rigorously the core sense of the first Confucian moral positioning. Some of the finest and the most exhaustive contemporary researches about Confucianism are now going back to the roots of the Chinese political thought, reaching new and more refined interpretations of the same ancient sources. This current renewal could be an excellent opportunity even for the European and Western jurists: the possibility to release an enduring phase of confrontation between the Continental and the Asian constitutionalism.

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Lo specchio rotto del Liebeskonzil: un caso di blasfemia nell’Impero guglielmino - di Carlo Sabbatini

SOMMARIO: 1. Panizza, un suddito infedele - 2. Scalpori e processi - 3. La pietra dello scandalo - 4. Un “teologo [...] eretico pittore di immagini sacre” - 5. Una scelta [quasi] obbligata - 6. Una foresta di simboli performativi - 7. Ordine religioso e ordine politico: l’ecosistema del processo - 8. Un “martire” a processo - 9. Martedì 30 aprile 1895, ore 19: la condanna - 10. Panizza sulla censura - 11. Morale religiosa come morale sessuale - 12. Manicomio, prigione, fuga - 13. “Un uomo fuori dal mondo”: ontologia di un blasfemo - 14. Istituzioni che succhiano il sangue.

The broken mirror of Liebeskonzil: a case of blasphemy in the Wilhelminian Empire

ABSTRACT: In 1895, due to the publication of the play Liebeskonzil, the writer Oskar Panizza was sentenced to one year imprisonment for blasphemy. Starting with such exemplary conviction, the essay reconstructs some aspects of the writer's existential and creative path, treating his vitriolic satires of religion as an access key to the political and social situation during the Wilhelminian Empire, where press laws and targeted use of crimes such as lèse majesté, obscenity and profanity, highlight the tenacity of Government, right-wing parties and Catholic Centre Party in pursuing the common purpose of silencing the opponents of the status quo.

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La resilienza della laicità a fronte del terrorismo cosiddetto islamista - di Nicola Colaianni

1 - Sul giornale “il manifesto” del 4 novembre scorso compariva una vignetta raffigurante un coltello da cucina piantato a 60-70 gradi sull’orizzonte con la scritta “terrorismo - la curva sale”. Come quella dei contagiati dalla pandemia, a salire era anche la curva degli attentati terroristici. L’ultimo, e più devastante con quattro persone uccise e altre ventidue ferite, era avvenuto poco più di ventiquattr’ore prima, il 2 novembre, a Vienna ma neppure una settimana prima, il 29 ottobre, s’era registrato l’assassinio del sacrista e di due donne colpevoli di pregare nella cattedrale di Nizza, che aveva fatto seguito a quello del professore Samuel Paty il 16 ottobre nella regione di Parigi. L’efferata sequenza Parigi - Nizza - Vienna nel giro di due settimane confermava che il terrorismo sedicente di ispirazione religiosa non conosce sospensioni temporali neppure nell’anno del coronavirus ed è capace di operare ovunque in Europa. (segue)

The Resilience of the Secularism in front of the so-called Islamic Terrorism

ABSTRACT – The latest attacks by so called islamic terrorism in Europe highlighted the existence of severe  investigative and pre-emptive shortcomings.  However the bills France and Austria are debating about plan to counter a misleading “radical Islam” or “politic Islam” with rules that end up compressing the freedom of worship  of the Muslims. Against the separatisms, permeable by the terrorist narrative, the public space, that promotes the living together, remains the place of de-radicalization and resilience of the secularism.

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Scienza e coscienza ai tempi dell’emergenza sanitaria da Covid-19 - di Maria d'Arienzo

SOMMARIO: 1. Il dilemma etico ai tempi della pandemia da Covid-19 -2. Le Raccomandazioni di etica clinica della SIIARTI del 6 marzo 2020 - 3. I criteri selettivi di accesso ai reparti di terapia intensiva in Svizzera, Quebec (Canada) e Alabama (USA) - 4. Triage in emergenza pandemica. Possibile contrasto di alcuni criteri selettivi con i valori religiosi ed etici del personale sanitario -5. Emergenza sanitaria e “clausola di coscienza” in Italia.

Science and conscience at the time of the Covid-19 health emergency

ABASTRACT: The Covid-19 pandemic crisis and the saturation of the intensive care wards have made it necessary to prepare patient selection criteria in case of lack of available places. The spread of various "selective criteria", in different regulatory realities, starting in Italy from the Ethical Recommendations of the SIIARTI (Italian Society of Anaesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care) of March 6, 2020, as well as for reasons of distributive justice and appropriate allocation of limited health resources, was also necessary to relieve medical staff from part of the responsibility in the choices to be made, sometimes particularly onerous. The rationale behind the "medicine of catastrophes" documents, however, may conflict with the ethical values of medical personnel, undoubtedly capable of influencing their professional choices. The present contribution aims to verify the configurability of a space within which to give prominence, even in emergency conditions, to the ethical-religious beliefs of health personnel, in accordance with the rules of medical and nursing ethics that allow the individual operator to invoke the "conscience clause" to justify the refusal of services considered contrary to their conscience or their technical-scientific beliefs, even in cases not recognized by laws that expressly provide for "conscientious objection".

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La legge sul divorzio e la riforma del diritto di famiglia in Italia negli anni 1970-’75 - di Sergio Lariccia

SOMMARIO: 1. La legge sul divorzio e la sua conferma nel referendum del 1974 – 2. La riforma del diritto di famiglia: legge 19 maggio 1975, n. 151 - 3. Bibliografia.

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Tra conversione del peccatore e punizione del reo. Le contraddizioni del processo penale canonico, oggi - di Francesco Zanchini

SOMMARIO: 1. Le ascendenze remote di un moderno pasticcio legislativo - 2. (segue) Per una politica della pena opposta a quella del libro VI del CIC - 3. (segue) Inefficacia sanzionatoria voluta, o pseudo-riforma? – 4. Su alcune urgenze contestuali di graduale riforma vera, non simulata.

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Laicità e progetti per una legge generale sulla libertà religiosa - di Laura De Gregorio

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. 1990-2020: trent’anni di progetti per una legge generale sulla libertà religiosa - 3. Norme sulla libertà religiosa e laicità: indicazioni per un’indagine - 4. Quale laicità nei progetti di legge? - 5. Le leggi sulla laicità: alcuni esempi, molte suggestioni, qualche dubbio - 6 Nessuna nuova. Cattiva nuova.

Secularism and drafts law on Religious Freedom

ABSTRACT: This paper focuses the attention on the drafts law on Religious Freedom and aims to examine the links between Secularism and Freedom of Religion.

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L’interazione fra esenzioni religiose e diritti LGBT sul luogo di lavoro: nuove traiettorie giudiziarie al crocevia fra narrative plurali - di Adelaide Madera

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Il frammentato quadro normativo in materia di LGBT rights - 3. Il caso Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia - 4. L’impatto della pronunzia Bostock sulle istituzioni religiose - 5. La tutela offerta dal Title VII all’esercizio della libertà religiosa - 6. La Section 702(a) del Title VII e le questioni interpretative irrisolte - 7. Nuove letture giurisprudenziali della Section 702(a) - 8. L’interazione fra esenzioni religiose ex Section 702(a) e sex discrimination: possibili futuri scenari alla luce del caso Bostock - 9. La specificità delle istituzioni impegnate nel settore dell’istruzione - 10. La ministerial exception e i limiti della sua applicabilità - 11. Il RFRA - 12. I rischi derivanti da un utilizzo over-expansive del RFRA - 13. La Free Exercise Clause - 14. Le vie percorribili per recepire nuove prospettive valoriali - 15. Il mancato intervento del Congresso - 16. Principio di non discriminazione ed esercizio della libertà religiosa: un binomio incompatibile? - 17. L’esempio della legislazione sui same-sex marriages - 18. La tutela dell’istituzionalismo religioso e i suoi “ragionevoli” limiti - 19. Conclusioni.

The interplay between religious exemptions and LGBT rights in the workplace: new judicial trajectories at the crossroads of plural narratives

ABSTRACT: A recent U.S. Supreme Court judgement found that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act covers discriminations founded on gender identity and sexual orientation. The present paper analyses the effect of this judgement on the exercise of religious freedom of faith-based organizations and investigates the possibility of finding ways to reconcile competing interests.

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Internet, culture e religioni. Spunti di riflessione per un web interculturale - di Raffaele Santoro Federico Gravino

SOMMARIO: 1. Sviluppo tecnologico, internet e dinamiche interculturali - 2. I nuovi mezzi di comunicazione sociale nel magistero della Chiesa cattolica - 3. Strategie confessionali e prospettive interculturali: il caso delle app religiose - 4. Il download di una app tra tutela della privacy e sicurezza sociale.

Internet, Cultures, Religions. Some insights for an intercultural web.

ABSTRACT: The article aims to investigate the relationship between the Internet and religions. Technological evolution has produced important consequences on society and relationships between people, also involving religious denominations. The latter have defined new ways of professing and excercizing their belief: creation of Christian communities on line, Internet as window of knowledge of monastic life or proselytizing tools, propaganda through religious videogames, app for smartphones and tablets. Such tools can contribute to the formation of an intercultural web. The use of the Internet and of modern technologies questions jurists about the protection of sensitive data of religious interest and of social security. Downloading an app on smatphones and tablets allows the provider to access even the user’s sensitive data, including their religious affiliation. This requires the intervention of Italian Data Protection Authority, whose task is to check whether the processing of sensitive data is carried out in compliance with the applicable regulations. The improper use of the Internet can also involve the protection of social security, through the denigration of a particularly weak social group and as a tool of spreading and inciting hatred (hate speech). The legislator is therefore called upon to define the sanctioning capacity of the existing legal systems.

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Costituzione e religione in Italia al tempo della pandemia - di Francesco Alicino

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Libertà di culto e pandemia - 3. Logica deontica e bilancia costituzionale - 4. Le critiche agli interventi governativi - 5. Logica giuscostituzionale - 6. Libertas ecclesiae e pandemia - 7. Conclusioni e prospettive.

Constitution and Religion in Italy in a Time of Pandemic

ABSTRACT: In the first half of 2020, in Italy the coronavirus (Covid-19) has spread quickly, putting the country in an unprecedented emergency. From here stemmed the Government’s measures, which were (and are) without parallel in the history of the Italian State. These measures have led to an animated debate, especially when associated to the limitations imposed on the public liturgical life of the Catholic Church. That was also incorporated into the discussion concerning the long-standing principle-method of bilateralism, as established in Articles 7.2 and 8.3 of the Italian Constitution. With this article the Author analyses this debate in the light of the constitutional duty to protect human health, in the individual and collective sense of the terms.

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Il diritto dei minori alla libertà religiosa: tra norme e prassi internazionali - di Marcella Distefano

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Brevi cenni sul contesto normativo internazionale - 3. La valenza della prassi internazionale: in particolare, il ruolo degli organismi internazionali indipendenti - 4. La giurisprudenza della Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo e la rilevanza delle convinzioni religiose dei genitori - 5. Segue: il rispetto del diritto all’educazione dei minori - 6. Il limitato rilievo dei principi generali a tutela dei minori e la necessità di riconoscere loro un locus standi in sede processuale.

Children's right to religious freedom: between international norms and practice

ABSTRACT: Religious freedom is considered a cornerstone of democratic societies, a vital element that contributes to forming the identity of believers and, with reference to minors, the course of their education and upbringing, accompanying them to adulthood. In international law studies, the right of minors to religious freedom, understood as the set of international obligations imposed on States, in both the negative and positive senses inherent in its achievement, has been little explored. The paper aims to identify systematic elements to help reconstruct the “minimum” content of a child’s right to religious freedom, pursuing two main lines of investigation: one relating to the exercise of freedom of worship in the various social contexts in which minors grow up; the other inherent in the educational project that leads them to adulthood. Recognition of the child of a locus standi in the independent court of law compared to that of the family members in charge of his care will help to realize the subjectivity of the child even in such a sensitive subject matter as religious freedom.

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Oltre il pluralismo religioso.Il veganismo come convincimento di coscienza - di Federico Colombo

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il caso Casamitjana Costa v. The League Against Cruel Sports - 3. Il veganismo nella giurisprudenza italiana - 4. Pari dignità delle coscienze … - 5. (segue) e specificità del fenomeno confessionale - 6. Definire le convinzioni personali tra libertà del singolo e necessità di accertamento - 7. Spunti conclusivi.

Beyond religious pluralism. Veganism as an expression of freedom of conscience

ABSTRACT: A recent judgement of the Employment Tribunals and a following one of the Tribunal of Bologna recognized veganism as a belief worth of protection. The two judges went beyond the bounds of the religious sphere, exploring the horizon of cultural pluralism, which the Italian Republic, as a secular state, should guarantee. The sentences therefore represent a starting point for addressing the complex issue of the relationship between law and conscience, which recently acquired major importance. As a matter of fact, according to an authoritative doctrine, there is a tendency in all Western legal systems to leave moral or ethical matters to individual self-determination, in accordance with the personalist and pluralist principle. This contribution will then start from the examination of the sentences and then it will deal with some of the main problems concerning freedom of conscience and its protection.

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I musulmani di Tracia e la sentenza CEDU Molla Sali c. Grecia: un itinerario storico-giuridico tra pluralismo religioso e istanze d’uguaglianza - di Andrea Miccichè

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: le tappe di un leading case controverso - 2. La presenza dei musulmani in Tracia: un itinerario storico tra fonti interne e internazionali - 3. Il quadro normativo vigente al momento della causa - 4. La Corte e il suo legal reasoning tra equità e uguaglianza - 5. Conclusione: il soft law come substrato valoriale di una decisione annunciata.

The Muslims of Thrace and the case Molla Sali c. Greece. A historical and legal itinerary between religious pluralism and demands for equality

ABSTRACT – The article is inspired by the Molla Sali v. Greece case, resolved by the ECHR. Starting from this case, the article analyzes the complex historical development of the legislation relating to the Muslim minority in the Greek region of Thrace. In particular, the article deals with the prerogatives of the mufti in the judicial field and the application of Islamic law to relations among private individuals. In addition to the treaties concluded between the decaying Ottoman Empire and the main European powers, the article explores the corresponding implementing rules in the Greek legal system. Finally, the article proposes some critical considerations about balancing the principle of equality and the rights of minorities.

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L’antinomia del reato culturalmente motivato. Ipotesi giusfilosofiche per un ripensamento - di Rosaria Pirosa

SOMMARIO: 1. La figura del “reato culturalmente motivato” e l’idea di multiculturalismo - 2. L’eterogeneità della categoria dei reati culturalmente motivati. Il principio di offensività come canone ermeneutico e veicolo di un approccio interdisciplinare - 3. Il “porto” del kirpan: l’approccio ‘fonografico’ del giudice di legittimità nell’ordinamento italiano - 4. La reasonable accomodation nell’interpretazione pluralista della Corte Suprema Canadese attraverso il caso Multani. Spunti per una comparazione - 5. L’„accomodation” alla prova del paradigma sicuritario. La vicenda del riconoscimento della personalità giuridica della comunità sikh in Italia.

Rethinking the antinomy of the cultural offence. Hypotheses from a legal-philosophical perspective

ABSTRACT: The essay is intends to problematize the epistemological perspective which, in the Italian system, upholds the judicial interpretation related to the cases that can be ascribed to the category of the so-called cultural offence. In this regard, t he article is focused on the case-law concerning the religious practices of the sikh believer and on the legal recognition affair of Sikhism in Italy, identifying this empirical field as a privileged observatory. The topic of the analysis, through the Canadian approach, makes it possible to assess the canons of the prevailing hermeneutics in matter and to envisage hypotheses toward a rethinking of the theoretical assumptions underlying the criminal law enforcement, especially considering non offensive conduct of a religious nature.

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Società multiculturali e tutela dell’identità alimentare: alcune riflessioni sulle macellazioni rituali - di Cristina Gazzetta

SOMMARIO: 1. Cibo e religione (e mercato) - 2. L’evoluzione storica del rapporto tra cibo e religione - 3. Elementi utili per una definizione giuridica di macellazione rituale - 4. La questione dello stordimento - 5. La sentenza della Grande Chambre della Corte di giustizia del 29 maggio 2018 (causa C-426/16): la posizione dell’Avvocato Generale Nils Wahl - 6. La sentenza della Grande Chambre della Corte di giustizia del 26 febbraio 2019 (causa C-497/17) - 7. Alcune considerazioni (non) conclusive.

Multicultural societies and protection of food identity: some reflections on ritual slaughter.

ABSTRACT: The intensification of migratory flows and the demographic increase of the population of the Islamic religion in Europe now make it unavoidable to consolidate that process of cultural integration between different ethnic, linguistic and religious components, which had already begun a few decades ago in Western countries and aimed at defining of a new model of open and pluralist society. This process calls into question, in various areas - including that of food protection - the values ​​of dignity, freedom and equality on which European democracies are founded, imposing the search for new balances between potentially conflicting interests. This contribution aims to investigate the compatibility profiles between respect for the food identity of religious minorities, the protection of human health and food safety and the prohibition of causing unnecessary suffering to animals, to highlight whether the principle of neutrality accepted by the current EU legislation is indeed the most suitable for promoting the fundamental values ​​of European society.

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Alevism in Turkey and in Transnational Space: Negotiated Identities between Religion, Culture and Law - di Erdoğan Gedik Hande Birkalan-Gedik Adelaide Madera

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Alevi Population in Turkey and in Europe - 3. What is Alevism? Who are the Alevis? - 4. Discrimination against Alevis and Alevi Massacres from the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic - 5. Alevi Migration in Turkey and to Europe - 6. Alevi Organizations in Europe: Cultural, Social, and Historical Perspectives - 7. Discourses of “Other” vs “Equal” on Alevis - 8. Alevi Associations in Europe: Legal Perspectives - 9. Alevism in the Turkish Legal Setting - 10. Alevism at the European Court of Human Rights - 11. Concluding Remarks on Legal Issues - 12. Concluding Remarks on Social and Cultural Issues.

ABSTRACT: Using interdisciplinary lenses, this article examines the cultural, social, and juridical status of the Alevis in Turkey and Western Europe. The ongoing social exclusion and discrimination against Alevis in Turkey make their everyday lives challenging. In Europe, Alevis organized themselves in associations, forming vibrant transnational communities. They struggled for recognition of their cultural-religious rights, and in some European countries, they are given special status. As we will illustrate, their recognition in Europe significantly effected in their case in Turkey but failed to emancipate them fully and posed further issues to tackle with and for the Alevis in Turkey. Gedik and Birkalan-Gedik present sociological, historical, and political contexts to understand the current realities of Alevis in Turkey and Europe, mostly based on their ethnographic studies. Madera examines five cases between 2007-2016 which were presented by the Alevis to the European Court. We conclude that currently, Turkey does not try to suffice the European requirements, namely, the implementation of policies aimed at guaranteeing adequate protection of the collective dimension of religious freedom in a way consistent with European directives.

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Culturally Motivated Crimes: the Cultural Test in the Italian Jurisprudence. A Comparative Study - di Sophie Charlotte Monachini

SUMMARY: 1. Key terms and definitions - 2. Two ways to look at culturally motivated crimes: the case of the kirpan in the Italian and in the Canadian jurisprudence - 3. Moving forward: the Italian Court of Cassation n. 29613/2018 - 3.1. Cultural tests: a comparative insight - 3.2. The cultural test in the Italian judgment of 2018 - 4. Final remarks.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to analyze culturally motivated crimes with a comparative focus and a case law approach. First of all, a set of definitions is given to have a common and shared understanding of the topic at stake. What is culture and what do we mean by culturally motivated crimes? Secondly, a comparative case-law study helps to focus the possible different solutions given to the cultural factor in criminal law. In fact, some legal systems -such as the Canadian one - appear to be more willing than others to make concrete accommodations of cultural differences. Lastly, the latest Italian Court of Cassation suggests a possible direction to be taken to better treat culturally motivated crimes in today’s multicultural society. What does it mean for criminal law to be culturally sensitive? How can courts take into consideration cultural factors through a proper legal method? These are the main questions on which criminal doctrine has focused its attention trying to reshape a criminal model which can be responsive to those different cultural values, needs and interests.

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Normativa “anti estremismo” e libertà religiosa nella Federazione Russa. Il caso dei Testimoni di Geova - di Germana Carobene

SOMMARIO: 1. Gli interventi contro i Testimoni di Geova nella Federazione Russa - 2. La presenza storica dei Testimoni di Geova nel Paese - 3. La libertà religiosa nella normativa dell’Unione Sovietica - 4. Le leggi sulla libertà di coscienza degli anni ’90 - 5. La legislazione “anti estremismo” e antiterrorismo - 6. Considerazioni conclusive.

“Anti-extremism” Legislation and Religious Freedom in the Russian Federation. The case of Jehovah's Witnesses

ABSTRACT: The application of "anti-extremism" legislation to minority religious groups in the Russian Federation has led to a progressive institutional tightening of the persecution and heavy discrimination, especially against Jehovah's Witnesses. Although many of these legislative instruments have existed for over a decade, the Russian government has only recently begun to use them in sustained campaigns designed to punish or exclude "non-traditional" religions and movements. In the specific case of Jehovah's Witnesses, these measures have taken on the purpose of delegitimising an entire community, solely because of the religious faith being persecuted, with accusations ranging from missionary activity to offending the religious feelings of believers. Overall, these interventions are part of a wider process of ideological control over society, aimed at curbing, if not stifling, the forces of political and religious dissent. It is well known that secularism is based on two fundamental principles: the inviolability of human rights, which constitute the prodrome of political power and therefore of the State, and, secondly, the importance of a culture and institutions that guarantee the effectiveness of pluralism. The analysis of the Russian history is, in this sense, an important perspective because it calls into question the European model of recognition and guarantee of religious pluralism.

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Gloria e miseria della teologia politica - di Sergio Ferlito

SOMMARIO: 1. Breve storia di un storia lunga - 2. La teologia giuridica di Hans Kelsen - 3. La teologia politica di Carl Schmitt - 4. Intermezzo - 5. Il lascito di Schmitt - 6. Il dito e la luna - 7. La religione del valore di Ronald Dworkin - 8. Una conclusione, … per iniziare.

Glory and misery about political theology

ABSTRACT. This paper deals with the interactions between religions and law. In particular, it analyses and discusses Kelsen’s, Schmitt’s, and Dworkin’s theories on legal and/or political theology. Although in different ways, these authors have well perceived a large number of links between religion and law; nevertheless their conceptions about religion are narrow and remains strictly Christian-centred. A wider concept of religion - as it has been conceptualized by anthropological and social studies - could reveals how many religious concepts underlie legal systems all over the world, and how much (Christian) religion is masked even in western secular law and institutions.

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Some preliminary remarks on the impact of COVID-19 on the exercise of religious freedom in the United States and Italy - di Adelaide Madera

Summary: 1. Introduction - 2. Italian legal responses to COVID-19: the Italian constitutional and legal framework on religious freedom - 3. The suspension of religious assemblies during phase one of the pandemic - 4. A “cautious resumption” of religious gatherings during the phase two in Italy - 5. U.S. legal responses to COVID-19: U.S. constitutional and legal framework about religious freedom - 6. The legal patchwork because of the pandemic - 7. Judicial balance between individual liberties and the preservation of health - 8. Litigation in lower courts about the exercise of religious freedom during Covid-19 - 9 New creative ways of worshipping in Covid-19 times: drive-in religious services - 10. Third-party burdens and the successful nondiscrimination approach - 11. Department of Justice statements - 12 Supreme Court intervention in temporary state restrictions on religious assemblies - 13. “Religious America” and “secular” Italy during Covid-19 phase one - 14. Management of religious freedom during the pandemic and the lack or presence of a statute governing religious freedom - 15. Effect of the pandemic on the question of whose religious freedom should be protected - 16. Guaranteeing a fair level of religious accommodation during a pandemic - 17. Enhanced need to balance the exercise of religious freedom with third-party harm during a pandemic - 18. Impact of the pandemic on the exercise of religious freedom in the long term.

ABSTRACT: The so-called lockdown, imposed to restrain (or at least limit) the spread of COVID-19, has, in the over four seemingly endless months since it started, had an overwhelming impact not only on our personal lives, but also on domestic regulatory frameworks. Legal systems responded individually, and with differences to the pandemic emergency, ranging from a complete interruption of the collective exercise of religious worship (Italy), to a more cautious recognition of forms of religious accommodation (United States). The present paper compares the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on the exercise of religious freedom in the United States and the Italian legal contexts, and investigates how the pandemic crisis emphasized underlying judicial, political, sociocultural, and economic challenges, giving rise to a tension between competing rights and exacerbating concerns about the “special” role of religion. As the COVID situation is changing so rapidly in the United States, in Italy, and around the world, I clarify that the information in the present paper relates at the situation as at the end of June 2020.

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The Development of Laws and Jurisprudence in Islam: Religious and Imperial Legacies - di Gloria M. Morán García

SUMMARY: 1. Scholar challenges and epistemological pitfalls - 2. Traditional Muslim hermeneutics and the development of schools of Jurisprudence - 3. Jurist’s authority and ruler’s governance from a comparative perspective - 4. Muslim legal tradition of plural jurisdictions - 5. The open scholar question of reciprocal legal influences with other juridical systems - 6. Conclusive remarks.

ABSTRACT: This article analyzes several open scholar debates regarding the Muslim legal system, from the conventional narrative of its formation and the triumph of the Traditionalist movement to the disputed question of reciprocal legal influences with other religious and secular juridical systems. This research tries to avoid two epistemological risks: first, the dangers of a simplistic binary debate like traditionalists v. revisionists, religious v. secular, or even Sunnis v. Shiite reducing the analysis to an ideologically polarized and ineffective dispute; and second, the improper use of juridical neologisms applied to the Islamic legal system, mainly from codified European continental law and English common law as a result of the Orientalist, colonialist, and secularist mentalities that, instead clarification create confusion. From a hermeneutical point of view, two characteristics to keep in mind: 1) the notion of divine law and its legal implications; and 2) the relationship between law and theology that is not correlative to the connection between secular legislation and ideology. From a comparative point of view, three challenging questions to address: 1) the distinction between Usul al-fiqh and Usul al-qanun often blurred in practice showing the complexities of the relationship among religious, legal, and political structures under Muslim ruling; 2) the intertwined relationship among Sharia, fiqh, and siyasa with pre-Islamic administrative, legal, and judicial traditions; 3) Jurisdictional pluralism in the Islamic legal practice concerning non-Muslim minorities.

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Il cardinale Gasparri, Francesco Saverio Nitti e la basilica di Santa Sofia - di Giovanni B. Varnier

Venerdì 24 luglio 2020 la Turchia, o meglio il suo premier Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, ha riaperto al culto islamico il simbolo stesso di Istanbul rappresentato dal complesso monumentale di Santa Sofia. Una vicenda triste per la civiltà, che vede un gioiello artistico di valore universale piegato al nazionalismo religioso. Per la verità l’edificio non è nuovo ai cambi d’uso, come non lo sono altri manufatti di pregio che hanno attraversato i secoli, ma in questo caso non si tratta di un nuovo utilizzo ma di un ritorno al tempo della dominazione ottomana.  Tuttavia, questo non è un ritorno alle origini, perché - come sappiamo - Santa Sofia, costruita per l’imperatore Giustiniano in soli cinque anni dal 532 al 537, è considerata il capolavoro della nuova architettura basilicale bizantina quale espressione della “romanità cristiana e universale della cultura giustinianea”.

Cardinal Gasparri, Francesco Saverio Nitti and the basilica of Hagia Sophia

In reference to the current events that see the return to the destination for Islamic worship of the ancient Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, a Vatican document of the years immediately after the First World War is recalled which presents positions opposite to those prevalent today.

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Un panorama sullo stato laico e sulle sue implicazioni nel modello brasiliano - di Natammy L. de Aguiar Bonissoni

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La religione e la vita nella società - 3. Quello che il principio di laicità non è - 4. Lo Stato laico brasiliano - 5. Considerazioni finali.

The secular State and its implications on the brazilian model

ABSTRACT: For many years Law and Religion were subjects considered unnecessary by some, and, by others, analyzed with reservations and featured as a not legal topic. However, both of the matters has become important issues in the political, legal and social discussions, especially during political campaign, when moral, ethical and religious issues are brought to debate. Although many countries, as Brasil - for example, have been disussing the subject, the numerous and different interfaces between them, most of the time do not take into consideration the constitutional foundations, axiological and cultural values, and pasrticularly the spiritual aspect of the human being as the structuring of human life. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to clarify the conceptual unfolding of the Principle of Secularity and the characterization of the Secular State in Brazil, with the aim of demonstrating that the Brazilian model of Secularity does not mean the absence of religiosity in the public sphere, but the guarantee and safeguard all your expressions.

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I “nuovi accordi” Stato-confessioni in Italia tra bilateralità necessaria e diffusa - di Fortunato Freni

SOMMARIO: 1. La bilateralità “necessaria” e i suoi limiti - 2. Le intese apicali e il generale regime di libertà religiosa - 3. Le intese paraconcordatarie e la delegificazione - 4. La bilateralità “diffusa” e le intese ulteriori - 5. Le differenti bilateralità: una questione di metodo?

The "new agreements" State - religious denominations between necessary bilateralism and broad bilateralism

ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the system of sources of Italian ecclesiastical law in its two pillars of agreed rules and unilateral rules. The former are necessarily the result of an agreement between different legal systems because they govern the specific relations between the State and individual religious denominations, that is, between sovereign and autonomous entities in their respective orders. The unilateral rules, on the other hand, fall under State jurisdiction because they aim to regulate rights and procedures relating to the generic freedom of conscience of believers, non-believers and other believers. Nevertheless, even in this second area, bilateralism between the State and ethical-religious groups is increasingly being practiced. However, this must not strictly condition State autonomy in the political order, but must aim to enhance the democratic tool of dialogue, as broad as possible, between institutions and intermediate bodies. The two forms of bilateralism (the necessary one and the broad one) are in fact structured within the processes which grant ethical-religious issues varied legal forms and give rise to different types of sources. It is essential that institutional practice does not artfully confuse the two described "bilateralisms", ending up surreptitiously managing all the heterogeneous and plural ethical-religious factor through a single, heavy and comfortable, bureaucratic method based on mere political discretionality.

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Normativa anti Covid vs. Free Exercise Clause nella giurisprudenza della Corte Suprema USA: un ritorno alla dottrina della “neutralità” nell’interpretazione dei principi costituzionali in materia religiosa? - di Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. L’intervento della Suprema Corte federale americana in tema di compatibilità della normativa emergenziale con la Free Exercise Clause - 2. I termini della questione originariamente sollevata e la pronunzia del giudice di primo grado - 3. L’appello dinanzi alla Corte del Nono Circuito e l’opinione dissenziente del giudice Collins - 4. Il problema della costituzionalità delle misure restrittive incidenti sulla libertà di culto nei contrapposti orientamenti seguiti dalle Corti inferiori - 5. Gli argomenti posti a fondamento del ricorso alla Corte Suprema - 6. La contrapposizione tra judicial deference e lettura rigorosamente neutrale dei termini della vicenda portata all’esame dei giudici - 7. Una riproposizione dei canoni di stretta neutralità anche nell’interpretazione dei principi costituzionali in materia religiosa? - 8. Notazioni conclusive.

Anti-Covid Law vs. Free Exercise Clause in US Supreme Court Case Law: is it a Return to the Doctrine of “Neutrality” in the Interpretation of Religious Clauses of the First Amendment?

ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the question of wheter the Stay-at-Home Order and the Reopening Plan that were issued by the State of California to combat the Covid-19 pandemic discriminate against places of worship in violation of the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. In South Bay United Pentecostal Church vs. Newsom, the Supreme Court of the United States upholds California’s guidelines for places of worship that limit religious worship services to 25% of a building’s capacity or a maximum of 100 attendees, because similar restrictions apply to comparable secular gatherings.

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Deus ex machina. Intelligenza artificiale e libertà religiosa nel sistema costituzionale degli Stati Uniti - di Luca P. Vanoni

SOMMARIO: 1. Intelligenza artificiale, singolarità tecnologica e diritti umani: uno sguardo nel futuro - 2. Quale religione? Alla ricerca di una definizione costituzionalmente orientata - 3. Transumanesimo, tecnoscienza e religione: una relazione pericolosa? - 4. Non avrai altro Dio al di fuori di AI: Way of the Future e il culto del Dio-computer - 5. (segue) Il transumanesimo a scuola - 6. (segue) Religion or not? La libertà religiosa dei fedeli di Way of the Future - 7. Anche gli androidi sognano divinità elettriche? La libertà religiosa dei robots - 8. Conclusioni: giorni di un futuro passato.

Deus ex Machina. Artificial Intelligence and Religious Freedom in the US Constitutional framework

ABSTRACT: The raise of the digital age and the developments of Artificial Intelligence is stressing the historical and complicate relationship between science, religion and law. Concepts like technological singularity or transhumanism are rapidly changing this relationship, and a growing number of scientists are now openly describing technological progress in religious terms or even establishing new religions and churches dedicated to the worship of Artificial Intelligence. This cultural and technological revolution is raising up new legal questions: are the traditional legal definition of “Religion” and “Churches” still addressing the challenge raised by new religions based on the worship of AI? Will the Transhumanism change the legal definition of person and his religious rights? Will robots have religious rights under the law? The aim of the paper is to investigate those questions within the of the US Constitutional framework.

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Le nuove frontiere del crimine religiosamente motivato: sul metodo interculturale di prevenzione e contrasto - di Simona Attollino

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Spazio giuridico europeo e rilevanza penale della condotta - 3. Appartenenza cultural-religiosa e consapevolezza dell’agire - 4. Cultural defense e opzioni di diritto penale laico: il caso delle MGF come reato di genere - 5. Il terrorismo di ispirazione religiosa: un approccio multisettoriale per la lotta al fenomeno - 6. Brevi notazioni conclusive: mediazione interculturale e metodi di trasformative accomodation.

New Frontiers of Culturally Motivated Crimes. The Intercultural Method-Approach as a Tool to Prevent and Counter Religion-Inspired Crimes

ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the so-called culturally motivated crimes, focusing the attention on legal measures that may prevent and counter such misconducts. The Author points out some methods, such as those referring to the transformative accommodation, which may be able to solve conflicts between the need to safeguard human rights, including those related to religious freedom, and the Government's priority to protect public safety. From here stems the investigation on the so-called Islamic terrorism that, under some aspects, can be seen as a new frontier of religion-inspired crimes. This, on the other hand, suggests a multisectoral approach, which is important in order to deal with very serious threats while promoting intercultural and inter-religious integration.

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La via francese alla limitazione delle libertà e il dialogo con le religioni al tempo del coronavirus - di Maria Cristina Ivaldi

SOMMARIO: 1. Cenni introduttivi - 2. Le limitazioni normative alle libertà personali - 3. Il dialogo e la collaborazione delle autorità statali con le autorità religiose e morali del Paese - 4. La libertà religiosa tra preparazione e prima attuazione della fase del cosiddetto deconfinamento - 5. La decisione del Conseil d’État e il successivo intervento governativo - 6. Il graduale ritorno alla “normalità”. Brevi conclusioni interlocutorie.

The French way to the restriction of freedoms and the dialogue with religions at the time of the coronavirus

ABSTRACT: The essay focuses on the French legal system at the time of the Coronavirus and the analysis of two different profiles, even if they are intimately related to each other. The first involves the analysis of the legal mechanisms through which the State has achieved the restriction of personal freedoms, including religious freedom. The second, instead, essentially concerns the analysis of the relations maintained, in this circumstance, by the State institutions, with the different religious groups and conversely.

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“Diritto” e “religione” nell’Australia indigena - di Riccardo Mazzola

SOMMARIO: 1. Il diritto Yolngu come “credenza religiosa” - 2. Tre xenonimi Yolngu dell’italiano ‘diritto’ - 2.1. ‘Rom’ - 2.2. ‘Madayin’ - 2.3. ‘Ngarra’ - 3. La “connessione” tra “diritto” e “religione” Yolngu: likan - 4. “Diritto” e “religione” Yolngu: una duplice correlazione.

“Law” and “religion” in Indigenous Australia

ABSTRACT: This work takes on the relationship between law and religion in Indigenous Australian societies, particularly focusing on Yolngu group (North-East Arnham Land). The essay aims to enlighten the nature of the “connection” between “legal” and “sacred” dimensions of Yolngu culture and cosmology, originally noted in several Australian judicial decisions and governamental reports. First, the essay undertakes a linguistic analysis of Yolngu terminology surrounding law, presenting three Yolngu terms translatable as “law” and discussing their meaning and bond with Yolngu sacred ancestors and ritual objects and ceremonies. Second, it explains the essence of the connection between law, sacred ancestors and ritual objects and ceremonies by presenting the Yolngu linguistic and conceptual category of “likan”. The article concludes that Yolngu law is a “sacred” one in at least a two-fold way: beacuse it was surrendered to humans by sacred ancestors; and since it arises from ritual objects and ceremonies.

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Credo ateistico organizzato e libera comunicazione propagandistica degli orientamenti ideal-spirituali - di Marco Parisi

Sommario: 1. Introduzione - 2. La dimensione della ‘non credenza’ e le direttive costituzionali - 3. Fenomeno ateistico collettivo, eguale libertà e pluralismo ideale - 4. Il libero esercizio della propaganda come strumento irrinunciabile di realizzazione della dimensione comunitaria della miscredenza.

Organized atheistic belief and free propagandistic communication of the ideal-spiritual orientations

ABSTRACT: With an its recent intervention, the Court of Cassation has clearly affirmed that the freedom of conscience of non-believers falls within the broader freedom, in religious matters, ensured by the articles 19 and 21 of the Constitutional Charter. A freedom to be understood also in the negative sense, having to exclude, within our system, any form of differentiation for the protection of the free, individual and collective, explanation both of religious faith and of atheism. In this order of ideas, any limits and prohibitions to the exercise of the right to propaganda of atheistic associations integrate the extremes of discrimination that are incompatible with the constitutional and supranational norms to guarantee the freedom of expression of thought, the ideal and confessional pluralism, the dignity of the human person and the neutrality of public authorities.

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Il diritto al cibo religiosamente orientato al tempo di pandemia - di Angela Valletta

SOMMARIO: 1. I diritti fondamentali al tempo di pandemia - 2. Il “diritto al cibo” – 3. La normativa speciale anti-epidemica sulla libertà di movimento - 4. Diritti garantiti o libertà compresse?

The religion-oriented right to food during pandemic time

ABSTRACT: In this historical period, the epidemiological emergency has prompted governments, both local and national, to issue a series of measures aimed at tackling the pandemic, with the consequent and inevitable compression of citizens' fundamental freedoms, in particular those regarding movement and religious freedom, on the base of the predominant right to health. In relation to these rights, the problem arises regarding the purchase of religiously oriented food or particular foods for people suffering from certain diseases or allergies. Is it worth to compress, in pandemic times, the fundamental freedom in the name of the predominant right to health? The right to health and the right to food should be to guarantee to all citizens, therefore also to those suffering from particular pathologies or those professing specific religious faith in such a way they are not forced to eat “harmful or impure” food for their psychophysical health.

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Accomodamenti ragionevoli basati sulla religione tra diritto antidiscriminatorio e diversity management - di Barbara G. Bello

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Premessa teorica: la funzione di orientamento sociale del diritto - 2.1. Chiarezza dei messaggi normativi (a monte) - 2.2. Chiarezza dei messaggi normativi (a valle) - 3. Accomodamenti ragionevoli nel diritto antidiscriminatorio dell’Unione europea - 3.1. Perché manca una disposizione sugli accomodamenti ragionevoli basati su tutti i fattori? - 3.2. Perché ampliare la norma sugli accomodamenti ragionevoli? - 4. Dalla norma inderogabile al diversity management - 5. Ripensare il diritto antidiscriminatorio e il diversity management in una prospettiva interculturale - 6. Considerazioni conclusive.

Reasonable Accommodation Based on Religion in Law and Diversity Management

ABSTRACT: The ban on discrimination against workers grounded on religion is a fundamental principle enshrined in the European Union’s primary legislation and anti-discrimination law. However, currently, there is no binding provision at this level of legislation which imposes on employers to adopt reasonable accommodation based on this category. Many scholars promote the adoption of this measure based on religion. Still, the recent jurisprudence of the Court of Justice does not seem encouraging in this sense. In light of this situation, the article aims to investigate the reasons underlying the limitations of the hard law provisions and the implications of the shift from the level of the mandatory norm to that of policy and diversity management in accommodating religious diversity at work, with particular regard to Muslim women working in the private sector. European institutions seem to delegate the law-related function of social orientation to policy and diversity management. Various critical issues emerge from this process of de-juridification, although diversity management generates some good practices, also within the so-called Diversity Charters. With the aim to support the implementation of reasonable religion-based accommodation, this article suggests rethinking the anti-discrimination law and diversity management from an intercultural perspective.

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La religion dans les constitutions africaines: l’Afrique francophone entre héritage laïque et traditions religieuses - di Guy Bucumi

SUMMAIRE: 1. Introduction - 2. La démocratisation et l’héritage laïque - 2.1. La constitutionnalisation de la laïcité - 2.2. Une laïcité aux contours flous - 3. Ruptures et résurgence des spécificités africaines - 3.2. Réinvestissement du religieux dans l’espace public - 3.3. Références religieuses dans les nouvelles constitutions - 4. Conclusion - Références bibliographiques.

RÉSUMÉ: Alors que l’importance croissante de la religion en Afrique est un phénomène bien connu, les références religieuses dans les révisions constitutionnelles de ces dernières années est, en revanche, moins soulignée. L’héritage laïque greffé dans toutes les Constitutions d’Afrique francophone est à l’épreuve de pressantes revendications religieuses. Cette légitimation du religieux dans les chartes constitutionnelles donne lieu à son instrumentalisation par le politique et met en péril l’équilibre des forces sociales, juridiques et institutionnelles dans les pays francophones. Cette situation soulève ainsi la récurrente problématique de la réception, en Afrique, de modèles constitutionnels étrangers et plus généralement celle du statut des sources du droit en Afrique. Le rejet des modèles importés qu’on observe, sous le signe de l’authenticité africaine permettra-t-il de fonder l’État de droit sur des valeurs endogènes? Les dynamismes internes des sociétés africaines peuvent constituer des facteurs sur lesquels l’État africain peut s’appuyer pour, espérons-le, produire un modèle constitutionnel favorisant une gestion cultuelle beaucoup plus stable.

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L’intesa tra la Repubblica italiana e la Chiesa d’Inghilterra. Un’analisi genealogica - di Federico Colombo

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il profilo soggettivo: la confessione Chiesa d’Inghilterra - 3. I contenuti: un’analisi genealogica - 4. (segue) la carenza di specificità - 5. Spunti conclusivi.

The Agreement between the Italian State and the Church of England. A Genealogy

ABSTRACT: On 30 July 2019, the Church of England signed an Agreement with the Italian State pursuant to art. 8, last paragraph, of the Italian Constitution. The Agreement is the first following Sentence no. 52 of 2016 by the Italian Constitutional Court, a judgement which was highly criticized by the doctrine as it gave too few attentions to concrete problems which affect minority denominations. As expected, the Agreement presents the same flaws of the previous ones to which is actually similar. More precisely, it seems to borrow entire articles from them, simply making systematic adjustments of the provisions. For these reasons, it seems possible to make ‘a genealogy’ of it in order to detect the juridical roots of its content and, therefore, a sort of evolution in the process of standardization. The operation seems to reveal a progressive loss of relevance of the negotiations on content, as the sole purpose of the Agreements seems to be to grant to denominational parties the set of privileges consolidated over time.

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“A chiare lettere - Confronti” • Brevi considerazioni in materia di governance delle pratiche di culto tra istanze egualitarie, soluzioni compiacenti e protocolli (quasi) “fotocopia” - di Gianfranco Macrì

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. I pezzi si muovono sulla scacchiera - 3. Azioni e reazioni (cenni) - 4. La libertà religiosa non è a rischio: il problema sta altrove - 5. “Predicare bene e razzolare male” - 6. Un protocollo ti salva la vita - 7. Un passo avanti … e due indietro - Appendice.

Short remarks on the governance of religious practices between egalitarian requests and complaisant solutions

ABSTRACT: In Italy, in the context of the Covid-19 emergency, issues concerning the governance of religious practices have emerged and have been faced by different religious groups. In this contribution political and legal distortions are analyzed in the context of the non-coherent (according to the author) reading of the constitutional framework by the Italian government.

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L’evoluzione del concetto di ordine pubblico nel giudizio di delibazione - di Paolo Cavana

SOMMARIO: 1. Alle origini del concetto di ordine pubblico nel giudizio di delibazione (Corte cost., sent. n. 18 del 1982) - 2. L’interpretazione giurisprudenziale: il criterio della “maggiore disponibilità” verso l’ordinamento canonico e il principio di tutela dell’affidamento incolpevole (Cass. civ., S.U., sent. 1° ottobre 1982, n. 5026) - 3. La delibazione nella nuova disciplina concordataria del 1984 e l’autonomia delle parti - 4. Il decorso del tempo, la convivenza dei coniugi e le esigenze di riforma del regime degli effetti patrimoniali della delibazione (Cass. civ., S.U., sent. 20 luglio 1988, n. 4700) - 5. L’evoluzione dell’ordinamento italiano e la sua incidenza sul concetto di ordine pubblico - 6. La tipicità dei vizi di nullità come espressione dell’accresciuta rilevanza del rapporto coniugale nella disciplina civilistica del matrimonio. La convivenza dei coniugi come elemento ostativo alla delibazione (Cass. civ., S.U., sent. 18 luglio 2008, n. 19809) - 7. Le successive oscillazioni della giurisprudenza: verso la pronuncia delle Sezioni Unite del 2014 - 8. Ragioni del progressivo allontanamento dell’ordine pubblico italiano dal sistema matrimoniale canonico - 9. Le esigenze di protezione della persona e il principio della parità dei coniugi alla base della rilevanza assunta dal rapporto coniugale nell’evoluzione dell’ordine pubblico in materia matrimoniale - 10. Criticità delle pronunce delle Sezioni Unite del 2014 - 11. Il superamento della pregiudiziale economica e i suoi effetti sul processo canonico - 12. Osservazioni conclusive.

The development of the concept of public order in the judicial proceeding of exequatur for ecclesiastical judgements of marriage nullity in Italy

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the controversial development of the concept of public order in the judicial proceeding of exequatur in the decisions of the Italian Supreme Court. Under the current Concordat between Italy and the Holy See (1984) the concept of public order represents a limit for the civil recognition (“delibazione”) of a declaration of marriage nullity. The paper then focuses on the effects of the latest judgements issued by the United Sections of the Supreme Court (2014), banning the exequatur of ecclesiastical nullity sentences for marriages lasting over three years. It provides a critical view of this restrictive move in the light of the deep transformations undergone by Italian family law in the last decades.

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Per un repubblicanesimo religioso. Libertà e fede nella storiografia di Maurizio Viroli - di Tommaso Greco

SOMMARIO: 1. Un’idea della politica - 2. Del rapporto costitutivo tra libertà e religione - 3. Repubblicanesimo e religione - 4. Lo spazio (pubblico) della religione.

For a religious republicanism. Freedom and faith in Maurizio Viroli's historiography

ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the Maurizio Viroli's historiographic thought, highlighting the central relationship between the spirit of freedom and the religious sentiment, from which a full knowledge of the public significance of religion descends.

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Un nuevo proyecto de ley de reconocimiento del matrimonio de creencia en Inglaterra: el Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill - di José Ramón Polo Sabau

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Caracteres generales del proyecto de ley: el reconocimiento del matrimonio de creencia - 3. Algunas claves jurídicas de esta nueva propuesta normativa.

A New Bill to Recognize the Belief Marriage in England: the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill

ABSTRACT: In this paper the author briefly examines the content of the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill, a proposal recently introduced in the House of Lords, which is aimed to amend the wedding law in England and Wales in order to recognise al last the humanist marriages and, more widely, the marriages of the so called belief bodies that have already been introduced in almost every other jurisdiction in the British Islands, so these new belief marriages can be granted an equivalent status to the one currently conferred to religious marriages.

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Compatibilità della finanza islamica alla normativa italiana - di Paolo Biancone Silvana Secinaro Maha Radwan

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Sharia compliant - 3. Murabah - 4. Ijaraha - 5. Istisna’a - 6. Sukuk - 7. Conclusioni.

Islamic finance compatibility with the Italian legislation

ABSTRACT: Some verses of Allah that were revealed to the Prophet Mohammad in Quran were regarding economic issues. Further they were enriched in the legal framework of reference by other sources of Islamic law “Sharia” like; the Hadith (the sayings of the Prophet transmitted first orally and then transcribed), the Sunna (the tradition dictated by the words and actions of the prophet and the remembrance of the prophet statements by his first followers), and finally of Fiqh that is the Islamic jurisprudence dictated by the doctrinal interpretation of the various juridical schools. Islamic finance products which are derived from Sharia based on religious principles are very compatible with the system of traditional financial products, except for some ethical (excluded by the Sharia supervisory board) and fiscal (to avoid double taxation measures of some Islamic finance transactions), which could enhance the market attaractiveness prespective. The present study aims to investigate and identify the regulatory changes that can be implemented in the Italian legislations to make them compatible with the applicability of the typical Islamic financial contracts.

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“A chiare lettere - Confronti” • Il papa e la sfida della pandemia - di Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: 1. Unilateralità e/o bilateralità dei provvedimenti Covid-19 e libertà della Chiesa - 2. L’esercizio della libertà religiosa di fronte alla pandemia - 3. Gli atti rituali nell’era del Covid-19 - 4. La dimensione territoriale della religione.

The Pope and the challenge of the pandemic

ABSTRACT: The measures taken to tackle the pandemic, although taken unilaterally by the State, were shared by the ecclesiastical authority without giving rise to disputes. Pope Francis unilaterally adopted ways of celebrating the rites and administering the sacraments in order to protect life. His innovative use of the media has updated the language, the forms of celebration of the rites and collective participation of the Catholic faithful, arousing perplexity in some faithful who complain about violations of religious freedom and the principle of bilaterality in Church-State relations.

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La libertà religiosa alla prova del Covid-19. Asimmetrie giuridiche nello “stato di emergenza” e nuove opportunità pratiche di socialità - di Gianfranco Macrì

SOMMARIO: 1. Breve premessa orientativa - 2. Verso dove convergere - 3. Il nuovo statuto della solidarietà - 4. Rinnovate pratiche di relazioni sociali: il laboratorio della libertà religiosa - 5. Socializzare i diritti/espandere le libertà - 6. Il test della libertà religiosa in tempi di Coronavirus - 7. Fare tesoro dell’esperienza, modulare le risposte, organizzare il futuro.

Religious freedom and the challenge of Covid-19. Legal asymmetries in the “state of emergency” and new opportunities for social actors

ABSTRACT: The essay develops some concrete, both legal and political, analyses concerning the relationship between the Covid-19 pandemic and the fundamental right of religious freedom. The "state of emergency" that came about and the consequent decisions taken by the government to contain the spread of the coronavirus, have put pressure on certain fundamental freedoms and rights of both individuals and social formations, including religious freedom - according to some, more compressed from the point of view of its practical expressions. The question arises of how much, in the mid-long term, such measures will affect the structure of relations between the State and religious confessions and, more generally, religiosity as a sentiment widespread at societal level.

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“A chiare lettere - Transizioni” • “Senza D”. La campagna Uaar tra libertà di propaganda e divieto di discriminazioni - di Jlia Pasquali Cerioli

1 - Nel tempo della pandemia l'attenzione di commentatori e studiosi si è concentrata sulle limitazioni al (diritto di riunirsi per finalità di) culto. Non sembra avere ricevuto lo stesso interesse un altro contagiato dal virus, ancor più a rischio perché malato cronico: l'esercizio della propaganda in contesto di effettivo pluralismo, sul quale grava il consueto silenzio. Il dramma che oggi tutti viviamo è favorevole a un racconto incline ad accentuare le componenti emotive dei messaggi veicolati, al fine di coinvolgere la platea più ampia di "spettatori". Trionfa così la rappresentazione, fortemente mediatizzata, delle immagini di maggior efficacia, da rendere iconiche per il loro impatto sinestetico: potenti strumenti di persuasione a svantaggio, in un circolo vizioso, delle fedi di minore "ascolto", più che mai senza voce. (segue)

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Finanza cattolica: il potere del denaro per il bene comune - di Giovanni Pirovano

Prendo spunto per iniziare il mio intervento citando il punto n. 19 del documento Oeconomicae et Pecuniariae Quaestiones (d’ora in poi, “OPQ”): “La sanità del sistema, del mercato finanziario dipende dalla sanità delle singole persone e dalle singole azioni che vi vengono attuate”. Le mie riflessioni partono dall’essere in primis cristiano e cattolico, e poi dall’essere un professionista che lavora in una determinata realtà bancaria, e che partecipa al Comitato di Presidenza dell’Associazione Bancaria Italiana, l’ABI, con deleghe sulla Corporate Social Responsibility e sull’Innovazione tecnologica. (segue)

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L’esperienza del dolore e le ragioni della speranza. Riflessioni sulla recente evoluzione del dibattito giurisprudenziale in tema di dignità umana e fine vita - di Jessica Mazzuca

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa di metodo - 2. Giustizia limiti e sacralità del “fine vita” - 3. Tra indisponibilità della vita e diritto di autodeterminazione individuale. La prospettiva della Corte EDU … - 4. … e le prudenti soluzioni del diritto italiano tra leggi e prassi giurisprudenziale - 5. Considerazioni conclusive: esiste la libertà di congedarsi dal mondo?

The experience of pain and the reasons for hope. Reflections on the end of life of postmodern man

ABSTRACT: The surprising development of biotechnology, new knowledge and unprecedented possibilities of intervention on human beings, have strongly affected the natural events of being born and dying, bringing out new rights and new instances of protection, aimed at ensuring respect for individual self-determination and human dignity in the face of the increasingly pressing intrusiveness of science and technology. Nonetheless, these possibilities offered by science may, for some, not coincide with the ideal conception of life and human dignity, since these are interventions capable of prolonging survival in often very critical conditions, not always adequate to guarantee a life worth living. At this point, the question is whether there is a way to pursue a harmonious composition between the concepts of life and human dignity, in the extreme variety of cases where there is a question of their protection, especially with regard to end-of-life issues.

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“A chiare lettere – Confronti” • La libertà di culto al tempo del coronavirus: una risposta alle critiche - di Vincenzo Pacillo

SOMMARIO: 1. Parole e toni - 2. La bilateralità dimenticata - 3. L’art. 14 dell’Accordo di Villa Madama preso sul serio - 4. L’uomo non è un’idea.

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La delibera ʻanti-veloʼ della Giunta lombarda e il nuovo paradigma della pubblica sicurezza - di Andrea Cesarini

Sommario: 1. Società democratica e simboli religiosi - 2. La delibera di Giunta e l’ordinanza del Tribunale. La delicata sovrapposizione delle esigenze di riconoscibilità e di identificazione - 3. La sentenza di secondo grado. Il primato assiologico della pubblica sicurezza - 4. Sicurezza percepita e insicurezza dei diritti - 5. Conclusioni.

The ʻAnti-veilʼ Ruling of Lombardy Executive Committee and the New Paradigm of Public Security

ABSTRACT: On 10 December 2015, Lombardy Executive Committee approved a ruling which forbids the access to some public facilities to people who wear types of clothing aimed at covering the face. This ruling, whose object is to prevent any dangers that could affect public security, risks to discriminate Muslim women who wear an integral veil for religious reasons. With a controversial judgement, the Milan Court of Appeal confirmed the legitimacy of the provision. Contrarily to the opinion of the Court, this essay aims at proving that the Regional ruling couldn’t effectively get through a proportionality test, given the excessive intensity of the prohibition. In addition, other doubts are risen by the meaning of public security expressed by the provision.

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Il rifiuto delle vaccinazioni obbligatorie per motivi di coscienza. Spunti di comparazione - di Maria Luisa Lo Giacco

SOMMARIO: 1. Le “nuove” obiezioni di coscienza nelle società multiculturali. Il rifiuto dell’obbligo vaccinale - 2. Religioni e vaccini - 3. La situazione negli altri Paesi, in particolare il caso degli USA - 4. L’obbligo vaccinale in Italia - 5. È configurabile il diritto all’obiezione di coscienza rispetto alle vaccinazioni obbligatorie?

The Refusal of Mandatory Vaccinations for Conscientious Reasons. A Comparative Overlook

ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the possibility to design a new shape of conscientious objection : the refusal of mandatory vaccinations due to religious or ideological reasons. Some religions are against vaccines because of the ingredients they contain. In other cases the refusal to be vaccinated is based on the idea that only God can protect health. The legislatures of some Countries recognize the conscientious objection to mandatory vaccinations. The paper focuses the topic in a comparative perspective, paying attention to the italian and european context.

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Libertà religiosa e Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - di Francesco Sorvillo

SOMMARIO: 1. Il diritto di libertà religiosa tra rendicontazione sui diritti umani e Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 2. Libertà religiosa, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights e RSI - 3. Libertà religiosa e standard nazionali: brevi osservazioni sul Piano d’Azione Nazionale (PAN) 2014-2016 sulla Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa e 2016-2021 su Impresa e Diritti Umani - 4. Valori religiosi e valori laici nella Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 5. Dall’RSI all’accountability: la rendicontazione sui diritti umani negli enti religiosi ETS e nell’Impresa sociale.

Religious freedom and Corporate Social Responsibility

ABSTRACT: International standards on Business and Human Rights and on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) define a system of rules currently in use to combat human rights violations in contemporary industrial societies. On the basis of these rules, governments adopt the so-called National Action Plans (NAPs), which also Italy has recently adopted. In this context, the protection of religious freedom plays a fundamental role as part of the range of needs of modern intercultural societies. This paper in this respect is divided into two parts. The first part investigates the role of religious freedom in international standards on Business and human rights and in the NAPs, paid attention to the Italian National Action Plans. The second part on the other hand, deals with the theme of accountability on human rights in the Italian non-profit area. In this context, the processes of accountability also involve entities who operate by expressing a certain tendency or religious aims. These entities can have a specific interest in the accountability on human rights because through the adherence to the so-called systems of Non-Financial Reporting (NFR) clearly reaffirm the values of the religious cultures of which they are the direct expression.

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The Italian Experience with Halal Certification: the Case of Halal Italia - di Rossella Bottoni

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Brief Remarks on the Notion of Halal - 3. The Interests at Stake in Halal Certification - 4. Actors and Instruments Involved in Halal Certification - 5. The Constitutional Regulation of the Religious Factor and Its Impact on Halal Certification - 6. Halal Italia and the 2010 Inter-Ministerial Convention - 7. Conclusion.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to examine the Italian experience with halal certification and, in particular, the case of Halal Italia. After some brief preliminary remarks on the notion of halal, I will examine the general context of halal certification, by focusing on the interests at stake and on the actors and instruments involved. Next, I will take into account the impact of the constitutional regulation of the religious factor on halal certification. Finally, my analysis will turn to the trademark Halal Italia and the 2010 Inter-Ministerial Convention.

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Gli spazi pubblici e la religione - di Giovanni Di Cosimo

SOMMARIO: 1. Prospettive - 2. Duplice dovere - 3. Questioni I - 4. Questioni II - 5. L’accesso visto da Strasburgo - 6. Poteri pubblici e spazi pubblici - 7. Accesso pluralistico: regola ed eccezione.

Public spaces and religion

ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the legal issues related to the presence of religion in public spaces. The thesis is that it is necessary to consider the various issues (religious building, religious symbols in public buildings etc.) on the basis of the public character of the space. In this way it becomes possible: a) to compare the various issues; b) identify the tasks of public authorities, which must make spaces available to religion and must not discriminate access to spaces. However, there are exceptions to the rule necessary to protect children in classrooms.

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La funzione della pena nel magistero di Papa Francesco - di Nicola Fiorita Luigi Mariano Guzzo

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: ambiti e obiettivi della ricerca - 2. Il diritto penale nel paradigma dell’ecologia integrale quale espressione del principio della misericordia - 3. La funzione della pena secondo Papa Francesco: i principi generali - 4. La pena di morte e la sua inconciliabilità con il Vangelo - 5. L’ergastolo come “pena di morte nascosta” e la tortura come “peccato mortale” - 6. Conclusioni.

The Function of Punishment in the Teachings of Pope Francis

ABSTRACT: This article analyses the doctrine about the function of punishment and the criminal justice system in the teachings of Pope Francis. The reflection about punishment is understood in the light of the principles of the Mercy of God and the Integral ecology. The central idea is represented by the concept of reparative justice. Particularly, it will be take in consideration the questions of death penalty, life sentence and torture, and - in the conclusions - a brief comparative analysis with the Italian legal justice system.

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Il porto di simboli religiosi nel contesto giudiziario - di Adelaide Madera

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Simboli religiosi e sfera pubblica - 3. Il ruolo della giurisprudenza e il difficile rapporto con l’Islam - 4. Il porto di simboli religiosi nel contesto giudiziario - 5. Le pronunzie Hamidović v. Bosnia and Herzegovina e Lachiri v. Belgium - 6. Presenza o no di una base normativa che valga a giustificare la restrizione della libertà religiosa - 7. La tensione fra il test di proporzionalità e il margine di apprezzamento - 8. La connessione fra posizione individuale e istituzione pubblica …- a) … nel caso Hamidović - b) … nel caso Lachiri - 9. Disamina breve delle pronunzie in materia di porto di simboli e della loro ratio - 10. L’analisi del limite “dei diritti e delle libertà altrui” - 11. Una svolta a favore delle minoranze? - 12. La questione irrisolta di forme religiosamente motivate di face covering in ambito europeo - 13. L’uso di abbigliamento religiosamente caratterizzato nell’ambito delle aule giudiziarie in Canada: l’opinione di maggioranza nella pronunzia R. v. NS. - 14. La concurring opinion del giudice LeBel - 15. La dissenting opinion del giudice Abella - 16. Le potenziali ricadute della pronunzia canadese sulla libertà religiosa individuale e su quella del gruppo di appartenenza - 17. La giurisprudenza canadese successiva - 18. Il porto di simboli religiosi nelle aule giudiziarie negli U.S.A. – 19. Il porto del niqab nelle aule giudiziarie negli U.S.A. - 20. La questione del niqab nelle aule giudiziarie in Australia - 21. Le corti e le minoranze: un tentativo di comparazione fra la giurisprudenza dei giudici extraeuropei di common law … - 22. … e la giurisprudenza della Corte europea - 23. Lo strumento dell’„accomodamento ragionevole” negli ordinamenti extraeuropei di common law - 24. La possibilità del “trapianto” dell’accomodamento ragionevole in ambito comunitario. Il caso Eweida - 25. La conciliabilità del parametro dell’accomodamento ragionevole con gli standard della Corte europea - 26. La garanzia di propozionalità in ambito europeo e i suoi limiti - 27. Il limite del margine di apprezzamento - 28. La necessità di un più rigoroso bilanciamento fra margine di apprezzamento e principio di proporzionalità - 29 Le potenzialità del “ragionevole accomodamento” nell’ambito convenzionale europeo - 30. Una valutazione comparativa del rapporto fra libertà di espressione religiosa “privata” e spazio “pubblico” - 31. La libertà di manifestazione religiosa dei privati nelle aule giudiziarie … - a) … in ambito europeo - b) ... in ambito extraeuropeo - 32) Annotazioni riepilogative.

Religious Garb in the Courtroom

ABSTRACT: The present essay analyses the crucial issue of the freedom to wear religious garments in the courtroom. It provides a comparative survey of European, U.S., Canadian and Australian case law, investigating how they are facing the question concerning the place of religious expression in the public square, and taking into consideration different legal frameworks and their recent developments.

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Religione e sfera pubblica nella teoria del discorso di Jürgen Habermas - di Arianna Maceratini

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Linguaggio, discorso e ragione - 3. Linguaggio ordinario e linguaggi esperti - 4. Linguaggio e sfera pubblica - 5. La teoria del discorso e le tradizioni religiose: alcuni cenni sul pensiero di Habermas - 6. Il fondamentalismo religioso - 7. La “traduzione neutralizzante” - 8. Conclusioni.

Religion and public sphere in Jürgen Habermas’s discoursive theory

ABSTRACT: The relationship between religion and the public sphere, from the perspective of Habermas's theory of discourse, gives a glimpse of the possibility of a shared space, reflected in democratic decision-making procedures, which has priority over every strategic and self-referential representation of the social. The "linguisticization of the sacred" process has gradually led the author to free the theory of modernity from a rigid theory of secularization; on the other hand, the religious phenomenon, freed from obsolete dogmatisms, reveals itself as the bearer of a procedural rationality capable of operating in everyday communication practice. In this dialogic path, which is anything but linear, Habermas' communicative reason seeks to find solutions capable of safeguarding both religious dimensions and the legacy of Enlightenment thought. This, first of all, to stem the monological drift of particularistic global interests able to endorse, even in sectors of a public nature, dynamics typical of strategic-functional action that lead to the restriction of the common space and to the loss of effectiveness of the institutions traditionally deputies for the democratic representation of interests. At the resolution of these questions, the discursive reason does not offer a single answer but indicates a path of learning and constructive conciliation of the visions of the world.

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Brevi note su contratto, impresa e mercato nella dottrina sociale della Chiesa - di Emiliano Marchisio

SOMMARIO: 1. La dottrina sociale della Chiesa. Considerazioni introduttive e selezione degli argomenti oggetto di esame - 2. Una lettura tecnicamente “laica” (o laicamente “tecnica”) della storicità della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa - 3. Il contratto - 4. L’impresa - 5. La concorrenza - 6. Conclusioni di sintesi. Dalla scelta “del modello” alla selezione “dai modelli”.

Social Doctrine of the Church, contract, firm, competition

ABSTRACT: The Social Doctrine of the Church consists of the set of principles, theories, teachings and directives of the Catholic Church in social and economic matters. It is based on the principle that the human being, created in the likeness of God, is the end and not the means of social institutions, both as an individual and in his family dimension. This principle is examined, in this research, in its applications in the fields of contract, business and competition

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Sigillo sacramentale e segreto ministeriale. La tutela tra diritto canonico e diritto secolare - di Geraldina Boni

SOMMARIO: 1. Sigillum confessionis, secretum, intimitas, segreto, riservatezza, privacy - 2. Nuove questioni alla luce di recenti sviluppi sullo scenario nazionale e mondiale - 3. La disciplina del ‘segreto ministeriale’ in Italia nella normativa unilaterale e in quella bilaterale - 4. Gli interessi tutelati, tra ordinamento canonico e ordinamento italiano - 5. Un problematico arresto della Corte di Cassazione - 6. La lotta alla ‘piaga della pedofilia’ - 7. Le risposte del diritto canonico universale, in particolare l’obbligo di denuncia - 8. Le Linee guida della Conferenza Episcopale Italiana - 9. Incidenze sul tema trattato. La Nota della Penitenzieria Apostolica sull’importanza del foro interno e l’inviolabilità del sigillo sacramentale del 29 giugno 2019 - 10. Le ragioni e le strategie della protezione del segreto ministeriale. La giusta tutela della libertà religiosa.

The safeguard of the sacramental seal and the priest-penitent privilege between Canon law and Secular law

ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the interferences between - on one hand - recent developments in Canonical Penal law and in some State laws in order to strengthen the prevention and the repression of child sexual abuse committed by clerics and religious, and - on the other hand - the safeguard of the secrecy of the sacred ministers with regard to the informations that the faithful confide to them precisely because of their quality. In fact, there are currently tendencies in legislation and jurisprudence which tend to compress - if not to deny - the safeguard of the secrecy of such relations, risking to call into question the protection of an extremely important aspect of freedom of conscience and of religion, which is an outcome of a protracted historical evolution that has been safeguarded - at least in Italy - satisfactorily and effectively until now. The aim of the paper is to clarify the reasons underlying the involved juridical institutions, both in Canon law and in State law, in order to suggest solutions which - by preserving and promoting them - conform to justice.

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Populismo, religioni, diritto - di Nicola Colaianni

SOMMARIO: 1. Alla ricerca del popolo - 2. Il popolo politico - 3. Il popolo religioso - 4. L’intreccio populistico ereditato - 5. L’intreccio populistico in atto - 6. L’assalto dell’anti-pluralismo - 7. L’antidoto della laicità.

Populism, Religions, Law

ABSTRACT – The political populism has a background that is not easily detectable: the sense of religious or the sacred that enlivens the holistic view, without intermediate groups, of the people. The political populism needs symbols and goes to the ancient religious image. This tissue is looming on the law plan because aims to break up the fundamentals principles of the constitutional state, particularly the citizens equality according to their cultures and identities. To counter the innate antipluralism of the populism there soars the principle of secularism with its content of respect for the differences and, under this point of view, limit of the popular soveregnty.

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Pour une agora politique partagée autour de la méditerranée - di Alessandro Ferrari

SOMMARIO : 1. Liminaire - 2. Les transformations du droit de liberté religieuse - 3. Transformations européennes, circulation de modelés et “universalisme modeste” - 4 Pour une “saine osmose” entre sphère séculière étatique et sphère religieuse.

For a shared political agora around the Mediterranean

ABSTRACT: The right to religious freedom is in profound transformation on both sides of the Mediterranean. While the Muslim presence shows European difficulties in the treatment of the collective dimensions of this right, the southern shore is confronted with the demands connected to the individualization of beliefs. On both sides, the challenge of freedom of conscience and religion and of the construction of pluralist constitutional democracies proposes ancient questions in renewed terms, soliciting a new rediscovery of the answers given by the universalistic constitutionalism of the second post-war period.

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Il whistleblowing e la denuncia degli abusi sessuali a danno dei minori nella Chiesa - di Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa sul possibile accostamento tra whistleblowing e gli attuali strumenti ecclesiali volti ad assicurare l’emersione degli abusi sessuali del clero - 2. Cenni sulla tipica fattispecie di whistleblowing disciplinata dalla normativa anticorruzione vaticana - 3. Gli errori della gerarchia ecclesiastica nella gestione della crisi degli abusi sessuali del clero sui minori - 4. Il mutamento di approccio al problema e la normativa canonica “emergenziale” degli ultimi anni - 5. Le analogie tra la posizione di soggezione del sacerdote autore della denuncia e quella del whistleblower - 6. La permanente assenza di un obbligo “giuridico”, di fronte al significato del ribadito obbligo “morale”, di denuncia all’autorità giudiziaria statale - 7. Il conflitto tra la rivelazione della notizia di reato e l’obbligo di conservazione del segreto - 8. Rilievi conclusivi.

Italian Regulation of “Whistleblowing” and Reporting of Child Sexual Abuses in the Church

ABSTRACT: The paper deals with new rules of Catholic Church which provide whistleblower protections for all members of clergy who report clergy sexual abuse to the local Ordinary: this conduct shall not constitute a violation of office confidentiality; furthermore, prejudice, retaliation or discrimination as a consequence of having submitted a report is prohibited. On the contrary, new church law doesn’t mandate reporting of sex abuse to police. The essay faces these topics by comparing canon law with Italian regulation on “whistleblowing” as provided for by law n. 179/2017.

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Sull’impresa sanitaria cattolica e il diritto d’impresa - di Antonio Maria Leozappa

SOMMARIO: 1. Le finalità dell’impresa sanitaria cattolica nel Messaggio di Papa Francesco per la XXVII Giornata mondiale del malato - 2. Lo scopo di lucro e il vincolo di economicità nell’art. 2082 c.c.: la sfera di auto-nomia dell’imprenditore - 2.1. L’alternativa del modello anglosassone della filantropia d’impresa - 3. La dimensione solidaristica: il progetto dell’impresa “comunità di uomini” - 3.1. Il ruolo dell’etica nella forma organizzativa e nell’attività d’impresa - 3.2. La centralità dei “bisogni fondamentali della comunità” e l’assetto economico-funzionale dell’impresa: l’esigenza di bilanciamento degli interessi - 3.3. L’assetto organizzativo e il modello partecipativo. Il ruolo dell’informazione - 3.4. La domanda di salute tra efficienza economica ed efficienza sanitaria - 3.5. L’offerta di salute: il mercato e il principio di responsabilità - 4. Sulla fisionomia dell’impresa sanitaria cattolica - 5. Lo statuto normativo e la forma organizzativa dell’impresa sanitaria cattolica - 6. L’impresa sanitaria cattolica e lo scopo di lucro.

On Catholic healthcare organizations and business law

ABSTRACT: The essay deals with the characteristics of the healthcare company inspired by the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church and the methods of pursuing its true values according to the enterprise law.

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Le mutilazioni genitali femminili tra misure di prevenzione e di contrasto: prospettive per l’eradicazione del fenomeno in Italia - di Tiziana Di Iorio

SOMMARIO: 1. Brevi considerazioni introduttive - 2. Mutilazioni genitali femminili: una questione anche italiana - 3. Profili risarcitori e misure repressive: il quadro normativo italiano - 4. Art. 583 bis c.p.: riflessioni sulla formulazione della norma - 5. Strategie integrate, approccio globale e multisettoriale nella lotta al fenomeno - 6. Inclusione sociale, sensibilizzazione delle coscienze e metamorfosi delle condotte nella strada maestra della prevenzione - 7. Politiche assistenziali e misure di protezione delle donne a rischio e delle vittime nelle strategie di prevenzione.

FGM between prevention and contrast measures: eradication perspectives of the phenomenon in Italy.

ABSTRACT: FGM includes practices of total or partial cutting or external genital lesions of women for no therapeutic reason. They are carried aut for socio-cultural or hygienic-prophylactic causes. Moreover, these rituals are also practiced by some religious communities despite the lack of impositive precepts in sacred texts. FGM is also widespread in Italy and it is constitute a violation of women’s human rights and child abuse. The Italian State fights the phenomenon with external and internal actions, through strategic measures of prevention, protection and assistance for victims. FGM does not exclude compensation for damage to the health of the women involved. In Italy, a new type of crime has been introduced with the art. 583 bis c.p. However, the rule has not been widely applied. This issue needs to faced up on a global level. Above all, it is necessary to persuade those who follow the practice to be the main actors of their own change.

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La libertà religiosa nella giurisprudenza delle Corti europee - di Natascia Marchei

SOMMARIO: 1. - La fisionomia del diritto di libertà religiosa nello spazio europeo: due sistemi a confronto - 2. La giurisprudenza della Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo in materia di libertà religiosa individuale: le nuove prospettive sul divieto di porto di simboli religiosi - 3. La Corte di giustizia e la libertà religiosa: l’(apparente) risvegliato interesse - 4. Brevi considerazioni conclusive.

Freedom of religion before European Courts

ABSTRACT: This essay aims to investigate the content of the right to religious freedom in the European Court of Human Rights’ and the EU Court of Justice’s case law. As a matter of fact, the approach of these courts appears to be very different. While in the Strasbourg Court’s case law this right is gradually recognized more and more clearly and the legitimate restrictions foreseen in the Convention are interpreted with increasing restraint, the Court of Luxembourg rarely applies the right recognized by art. 10 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights in a direct way and often decides the cases through the lenses of an extensive interpretation of the EU anti-discrimination law.

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Le nuove dipendenze in relazione alla incapacità a emettere un consenso matrimoniale valido - di Maria Elena Ruggiano

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. L'incapacità consensuale nel matrimonio - 3. Evoluzione della Giurisprudenza ecclesiastica - 4. Le nuove dipendenze - 5. Le radici della dipendenza patologica - 6. Sex addiction - 6a - Dipendenza da pornografia - 6b. Dipendenza da cyber pornografia - 7. Dipendenza dal lavoro (Work addiction) - 8. Il collezionismo patogeno - 9. Dipendenza dalla chirurgia estetica - 10. Dipendenza dallo shopping - 11. Dipendenza da selfie - 12. Dipendenza dal gioco d'azzardo - 12a. Dipendenza da Trading on line - 12b. Dipendenza dai videogiochi - 13. Dipendenza dallo sport o exercise addiction - 14. Internet addiction e psicotecnologie - 14a. Dipendenza da email - 15. Dipendenza dalla televisione - 16. L'incidenza delle nuove dipendenze sulla capacità di intendere e di volere - 16a. Gli effetti delle nuove dipendenze sulla capacità consensuale matrimoniale - 17. Considerazioni conclusive.

New dependencies in relation to the ability to issue a valid matrimonial consent

ABSTRACT: This article identifies and outlines the new addictions or psychiatric disorders that, whilst not deriving from the abuse of substances, still manages to make a person incapable of self-determination and make free and mature decisions. In recent years, the psychological distress in which many people find themselves living is taking on specific characteristics and is affected by social and cultural elements that make the process of developing emotional-affective skills, the possibility of having a certain identity and the achievement of stable balances very hard. To the already known pathologies are therefore added new ones often associated with borderline-narcissistic personality disorders; drug-free addictions are to be counted among the psychiatric disorders in which social, cultural, economic and psychological elements emerge. Those elements make these new problems interesting and relevant in the present-day but also difficult to insert into certain diagnostic frames.

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Sulla libertà di manifestare le proprie opinioni religiose nel luogo di lavoro: brevi note in merito ai casi Achbita e Bougnaoui - di Alex Borghi

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La pregiudiziale belga: causa C-157/15, G4S Secure Solution - 3. La pregiudiziale francese: causa C-188/15, Bougnaoui e ADDH - 4. Le pronunce “gemelle” della Grande Sezione della Corte di giustizia: la sentenza 14 marzo 2017, Achbita, EU:C:2017:203 e la sentenza 14 marzo 2017, Bougnaoui, EU:C:2017:204 - 5. Uno sguardo alla più recente dottrina ecclesiasticistica - 6. La giurisprudenza della Corte Edu: la sentenza Eweida e altri c. Regno Unito del 15 gennaio 2013 (ricorsi nn. 48420/10, 59842/10, 51671/10 e 36516/10) - 7. Osservazioni conclusive.

Freedom to express religious beliefs in the workplace: brief notes on the Achbita and Bougnaoui cases

ABSTRACT: This paper seek to address the delicate issue of religious freedom, from a juridical perspective, analyzing the Achbita and Bougnaoui cases and comparing it with the Eweida one. It intends to elaborate some of the key question of the doctrinal debate on the links between the expression of one's religious beliefs and the workplace. Can neutrality be a valid defense against discriminations? To what extent can the religious freedom of the worker be sacrificed in favor of the business freedom? These are just some of the questions that are posed to the interpreter and to the scholar of ecclesiastical law. They require a careful evaluation of the values involved and the search for solutions of high balance and responsibility.

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Sicurezza e prevenzione del terrorismo cosiddetto islamista: il disagio della libertà - di Nicola Colaianni

SOMMARIO: 1. La nuova retorica della sicurezza - 2. Il terrorismo cosiddetto islamista - 3. Il diritto penale preventivo e la libertà religiosa - 4. Deradicalizzazione e/è laicità - 5. Sicurezza e libertà: per un orientamento costituzionale.

Security and Prevention of so-called Islamic Terrorism: Freedom and its discontents

ABSTRACT: Security is becoming the priority of the western politics because of the international terrorism, so called Islamic terrorism. The preventive character that the criminal law takes in order to fight it risks hiting the religious freedom of the citizens, misinterpreted as participation to terroristic groups. The risk is high when the prevention measures consist in the deradicalization, read as religious re-education in unfundamentalist direction. In the constitutional State of law, a fair deradicalization has to aim only to the re-education about the separation between politics and religion so as to not prejudice the right of religious freedom.

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La natura giuridica delle fabbricerie alla luce della riforma del Terzo settore - di Pierluigi Consorti

SOMMARIO: 1. Singolarità della natura giuridica di ciascuna fabbriceria - 2. La controversa natura ecclesiastica delle fabbricerie - 3. Il patrimonio delle fabbricerie come “bene comune” economicamente rilevante - 4. L’interesse pubblico per la gestione comune delle fabbricerie - 5. Le poche fabbricerie attuali: una diversa dall’altra - 6. Le attuali fabbricerie: enti a esaurimento e a numero chiuso - 7. Tre diverse tipologie per le attuali fabbricerie - 8. Il controllo pubblico sulle attuali fabbricerie - 9. La controversa ecclesiasticità delle attuali fabbricerie - 10. La controversia circa la natura pubblica o privata delle attuali fabbricerie (un’eredità delle Onlus) - 11. La diversità di opinioni circa la natura giuridica delle diverse fabbricerie - 12. L’impatto della riforma del Terzo settore sulla natura giuridica delle attuali fabbricerie - 13. Quali conseguenze per le fabbricerie Onlus? - 14. L’irrilevanza giuridica di una previa qualificazione pubblica o privata comune alle attuali fabbricerie - 15. La plausibilità del ricorso da parte di alcune attuali fabbricerie alla qualificazione di “impresa sociale” - 16. Conclusione.

The legal nature of “fabbricerie” in the light of the Third Sector Law reform

ABSTRACT: The “fabbricerie” (fabrique in French: untranslatable into English) are ancient institutions responsible for the administration of the asset of some particularly important churches (for example, cathedrals). For the most part, they administer an invaluable artistic and cultural heritage. However, their legal discipline is controversial, especially after the approval of the recent reform of the Third Sector. This contribution briefly reconstructs the situation and expresses an orientation contrary to their equivalence with the new “Enti del Terzo settore”, but inclined to the possibility to give them (rectius: to some of them) the qualification of “impresa sociale”.

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