SOMMARIO. 1. Introduzione - 2. Sfera privata, narrative politiche e diritto: famiglia e nazione nel Programma di cooperazione nazionale e nella nuova Costituzione ungherese - 3. La discriminazione delle minoranze: il divieto di registrazione del cambiamento di genere adottato durante la pandemia da COVID-19 - 4. Spazio pubblico, tradizione, identità nazionale e radici cristiane - 5. Etnosimbolismo e malessere sociale tra rifiuto del linguaggio politico centrato sui diritti fondamentali e sfruttamento delle aspettative che questi ingenerano - 6. Conclusioni.
Tradition, National Identity, Ethnosymbolism and Discrimination in Hungary: Challenging Fundamental Rights with their Own Weapons
Abstract: The ruling coalition in Hungary values tradition, retrieving it in areas that affect both the private sphere of citizens and the public sphere of institutions through political narratives that are implemented by law. Although the "recovered" and interpreted tradition shapes a collective imagination and a normative framework that, according to current language, could be described as extremely conservative, political narratives and normative interventions contribute to social change in an illiberal sense. They intercept widespread malaise and increase discrimination against minorities already at risk. Moving from a unique model of social regulation based on the family, the ruling coalition establishes a link between the latter and the nation, introduces bans on the registration of gender change and the promotion of LGBT contents. Within migration policy, it also constructs the target of migrants and uses Christianity as an ethno-identity component, meanwhile adopting measures that prevent the implementation of Christian values. Moreover, Hungarian narratives, while rejecting the fundamental rights-centered narrative of the liberal tradition, are able to politically "exploit" the expectations it creates among citizens. Following a populist logic, the ruling coalition openly rejects the liberal fundamental rights narrative, but at the same time fully utilizes it.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La Chiesa Ortodossa del Patriarcato di Mosca come confessione multinazionale - 3. Le disposizioni rituali di contrasto alla pandemia da parte delle Chiese auto amministrate appartenenti al Patriarcato di Mosca - 4. La Chiesa Ortodossa Rumena di fronte alla pandemia - 5. Il Patriarcato Ecumenico e l’orientamento delle Chiese Autocefale.
Orthodoxy, Pandemic, and Legislation of Eastern European Countries for the Safeguard of Health
ABSTRACT: The article examines the attitude and the regulations adopted by the clergy and believers of the major Orthodox Churches in relation to the pandemic. In this perspective, the modifications requested by States in the field of public religious functions and ritual celebrations are the object of the current analysis. Furthermore, the modalities of the administration of the sacraments and the carrying out of religious functions in relation to the protection of religious freedom are critically assessed and commented.
SOMMARIO: 1. Teismo/ateismo: l’eredità storica di una presunta dicotomia - 2. La polifonia “in crescendo” del nuovo panorama religioso - 3. Confessione religiosa, esser(lo) o non esser(lo): questo è il dilemma - 4. Associazioni ateiste: minoranze religiose escluse? Osservazioni conclusive.
Are atheists a religious minority? The legal status of atheism in Italy and in some countries of the European Union.
ABSTRACT: “Religion” and “confession” are terms without an established definition in sociology and the legal sciences. The absence of a definition allows us to consider the religious phenomenon in its complexity, including both belief and unbelief. The analysis tries to understand if a common legal discipline is possible for theistic and non-theistic phenomenon. The analysis focuses on the legal status of non-believers minority in Italy and in some countries of the European Union.
SUMARIO: 1. Enseñanza religiosa, identidad y ciudadanía - 2.- La nueva Ley de Educación - 2.1. Un cambio normativo con escasa participación ciudadana y durante una pandemia - 2.2. Los enfoques adoptados en la nueva Ley de Educación - 2.3.- El nuevo currículo basado en competencias - 3. Algunas cuestiones controvertidas sobre la enseñanza de la religión - 3.1. La ausencia de asignatura alternativa - 3.2. El valor de la asignatura de Religión en el expediente académico - 3.3. Enseñanza no confesional de Cultura de las Religiones - 3.4. Calendario de implantación de la LOMLOE y cuestiones pendientes de desarrollo reglamentario - 4. Consideraciones finales: Una reforma operada de espaldas a la sociedad civil.
Religious Education, Identity and Citizenship. Regarding the Reform of the Spanish Education Law
ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to analyze some issues raised by the teaching of religion in the Spanish legal system in the light of the current legislation in which some aspects of special relevance are modified. Specifically, it analyses the rejection generated by the absence of a mesured debate in which the most controversial aspects could have been discussed and a consensus reached, which would have required giving a more active role to the educational community and citizens. A proper approach requires, on the contrary, bringing together positions that truly balance the differents rights and guarantees at stake.
SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Parental authority and the inherent rights of the minor. The best interests of the minor - 2.1. Conflicting rights. The current understanding of parental authority - 2.2. Limits to parental authority. Personality rights - 2.3. The minor’s consent in surgical procedures - 2.4. Circumcision and the best interests of the minor. An act which falls within parental authority? - 3. Criminal responsibility in acts of circumcision for religious motives - 3.1. The criminal approximation to female genital mutilation - 3.2. Circumcision in criminal jurisprudence - 4. Concluding remarks. De iure condendo contributions.
SOMMARIO: 1. Le ragioni di rinnovata attualità di una ricerca storica, religiosa e normativa sulla spiritualità giapponese - 2. Riflessi di natura costituzionale: la costruzione giuridica di un ordinamento nuovo, tra vestigia imperiali e modernità internazionale - 3. Le religioni tradizionali, tra continuità ed elaborazione progressiva - 4. Uno sguardo alle condizioni materiali dei culti di minoranza: problemi e prospettive per un nuovo sincretismo diffuso - 5. I segni di una precisa spiritualità collettiva nel disposto costituzionale e nella legislazione recente: possibili aperture per nuovi studi - 6. Conclusioni in progress: il paradigma nipponico come modello extra-regionale.
The Kingdom of the Emperor. Typicality and contradictions in the Japanese institutional paradigm of religious regulation
ABSTRACT: The history of Japanese legal institutions has probably known in recent years a lack of attention due to the affirmation of other legal paradigms in the same Asian continent. It could seem a plausible underestimation because Japan has usually reached a leading role in the constant evolution of constitutional rules and concrete everyday praxes. An important aspect of this tradition certainly consists in the peculiar Japanese religious approach: a form of customary culture and not only a specific regulation, crossing many spiritual teachings and belongings (Confucianism, Buddhism and Shintoism, with a more recent but truly significant monotheistic nationwide proselytism). The main purpose of this analysis is to notice how this objectively composite religious framework has surprisingly influenced the shape and the implementation of constitutional principles, still offering an interesting overview able to clear up misunderstandings in the intercultural debate between the Western constitutionalism and the Eastern mentality.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La religious accommodation in Europa - 3. (segue) Gli sviluppi più recenti - 4. Il ruolo della giurisprudenza europea: primi segnali di apertura all’accomodamento religioso - 5. Il know-how statunitense e canadese: modelli giurisprudenziali a confronto e possibili interazioni - 6. La religious accommodation in Europa: una prospettiva de iure condendo.
The European frontiers of religious accommodation. Starting points for comparison
ABSTRACT: In the last years several scholars pointed out the desirability to extend the accommodation beyond disability. Currently, indeed, a duty of reasonable accommodation is exclusively provided in favour of people with disabilities (art. 5 dir. 2000/78/CE). Previous contributions, however, have stressed how the existing lack of a provision on religious accommodation can result not only in a low level of protection of religious freedom, but also in the rise of a hierarchy related to discrimination grounds in which religion and belief seem to be left at the bottom. Recently, also the European Courts (especially the ECtHR) have apparently open to the extension of the concept of reasonable accommodation, in line with the sensitivity of the Supreme Courts of USA and Canada, where the religious accommodation was first stated. Moving from the comparison between the American and Canadian jurisprudences and the European one, this paper argues about the transposability of the religious accommodation in Europe, in order to strengthen, even in the workplace, the protection of the freedom of religion.
SUMMARY: 1. Problem description - 2. Business based on commercial “surrogacy” is immoral and inhuman in nature, can be defined as the organisation and implementation of hidden child trafficking and mediation in such trade - 3. Illegal presumption and positioning of a child (whose birth “surrogacy” is aimed at) as an object of a commercial transaction, which is endowed with the characteristics of a product and consumer commodity properties, in “surrogacy” transactions - 4. Ideologically motivated, manipulative substitution of the concepts of the mother of the child and a woman-donor of an ovum, claiming to have a child born as a result of the “surrogacy” technologies use - 5. The practice of “surrogacy” is a gross violation of the child's rights, first of all, the child's right to his/her natural mother - 6. Legal and actual inconsistency and defectiveness of classifying commercially motivated “surrogacy” as an assisted reproductive technology and a form of high-tech or other medical care - 7. Reduction of the value and role of a woman as the mother to the value and role of a paid, commercially exploited living “human incubator”, a means of production by technology and the industry of “surrogacy” - 8. Risks of using children “obtained” as a result of “surrogacy” for criminal purposes - 9. Conclusions.
ABSTRACT: This article presents a critical legal and bioethical analysis of the legal framework and practice of using the technology of commercial surrogacy («surrogate motherhood») - as a paid service provided in the interests of a third party (customers, third parties) with the subsequent transfer ("alienation") of this child to the customer of such a service. In conclusion a moral assessment of such actions is given.
El pasado 7 de marzo se celebró en Suiza un referéndum, propiciado por un partido de la derecha del país, a fin de prohibir el uso del burqa y el niqab islámico en los espacios públicos; aunque encubierta bajo la propuesta, aparentemente neutral, del veto a toda indumentaria que oculte el rostro de la persona. Los resultados arrojan la victoria de los partidarios del sí por una exigua mayoría (el 52% de los votos); lo cual refleja la división social existente. Ahora deberá ser el Gobierno suizo el que presente una ley en este sentido para su aprobación parlamentaria. Los carteles de propaganda del partido Unión Democrática de Centro, propugnador de la consulta, reflejan bien la motivación del veto. La cara de una mujer con el niqab a la que solo se ven los ojos se acompaña con un pie de cartel con la siguiente leyenda: “Paremos el extremismo. Sí a la prohibición”. Lo más llamativo es la expresión de la escasa zona del rostro de la mujer que se ve: el entrecejo fruncido, las cejas curvadas hacia el centro enmarcan unos ojos coléricos. Se diría que está amenazando al espectador. El cartel de propaganda es revelador del mensaje que se intenta transmitir, el mensaje del miedo; o, más allá, la identificación del musulmán con el violento, el terrorista. (segue)
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Il caso della minoranza uigura come caso studio, tra identità etnico-religiosa, violazioni dei diritti umani e misure di contrasto all’epidemia di Covid-19 - 3. (segue) in particolare, il problema dei campi d’internamento nello Xinjiang e l’epidemia di Covid-19 - 4. Il contrasto tra le norme internazionali sui diritti umani e le misure adottate nei confronti della minoranza uigura: in particolare, il problema dei campi d’internamento - 5. Il contrasto tra le norme internazionali in materia di diritto alla salute e lotta alle pandemie e le misure adottate nello Xinjiang in tempi di Covid-19 - 6. Conclusioni.
Ethnic-religious minorities in times of Covid-19: China and the Uighur minority, between violations of human rights and violations of the right to health
ABSTRACT: The recent outbreak of Covid-19 that originated in China, has brought the matter of state sponsored persecution of the Uighur minority in Xinjiang to the attention of the international community. The problem of discrimination and persecution of such ethno-religious minority is not new. However, the spread of epidemic, has represented an opportunity for the Chinese national authorities to tighten the measures which have long been adopted against the Uighur minority. This paper aims at highlighting the great impact Covid-19 has had on the repression of Uighur minority since it has led to a dramatic escalation of the systematic violation of human rights which includes not only mass detention in internment camps but also the violation of other fundamental human rights such as the right to health and to access healthcare
SOMMARIO: 1. Lo status di charity - 2. L’amministrazione del patrimonio nella Comunione anglicana e nella Chiesa d’Inghilterra - 3. La promozione della religione nelle decisioni della Charity Commission - 4. Un possibile contributo all’attuazione della riforma del terzo settore.
Charity sector and Church of England
ABSTRACT: The undertstanding signed on 30 july 2019 between the Italian Republic and Association “Church of England”, representing in Italy the Anglican Confession Church of England, renewed the doctrinal debate on ecclesiastical entities and their location in the non profit universe, organically revised by legislative Decree n. 117/2017. In particular, art. 8, third paragraph, of the agreement in question allows the recognition in Italy of ecclesiastical entities that carry out overseas a "prevalent religion and cult activity", for the implementation of which the use of trust is widespread. It’s, therefore, essential, in order to understand the systematic consequences of this choice of undertstanding, to define the characteristics of the third sector in the British legal system, showing particolar attention to the heterogeneous modes of attribution of charitable status, to the regulatory and taxes linked to it and, even more, the concept of advancement of religion as elaborated by the decision of the Charity Commission and, in the review, the High Court. For the same purpose it’s indispensabile to begin the study of the administration of ecclesastical goods in the Church of England and in the Anglican Communion, together with the principles on which it is inspired.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La strategia elvetica per fare fronte alla pandemia e le osservazioni da parte della Conferenza Episcopale Svizzera - 3. La situazione italiana di fronte alla pandemia e le scelte in campo medico. I limiti all’autodeterminazione attraverso la proposta di introdurre l’obiezione di coscienza - 4. Conclusioni.
Switzerland and Italy: triage and intensive medicine solutions in comparison
ABSTRACT: Italy and Switzerland are two very different countries. This diversity is particularly evident in the health sector, not only in terms of its organization and management, but above all in the different approach that each country has with regard to the health of its members. The exaltation of therapeutic self-determination by Switzerland clashes with the medical paternalism to which Italy remains nostalgically linked, despite the fact that the needs of Italian society have changed profoundly. However, the dramatic choices to which the spread of Covid-19 has led have created the conditions for an inevitable reversal of the trend on the part of Italy and its approach to Swiss policies in terms of defending the freedom of choice of the individual.
SOMMARIO: 1. L’uso politico dell’etica confuciana nelle transizioni costituzionali. Una premessa sui primi casi di studio - 2. Il valore della tradizione: formazione individuale, conforto spirituale e proiezioni pubblicistiche- 3.Tra diritto e non diritto: una rappresentazione simbolica della pratica di governo - 4. Dal governo degli uomini al governo negli uomini: introiettare il senso della misura - 5. Profili possibili per l’evidenziazione della questione di genere nel pensiero confuciano: le forme e i tipi di un potere ancora maschile - 6. Incognite conclusive: dal merito di un’elaborazione inclusivistica e plurale al rischio di un confucianesimo fungibile per ogni istanza e perciò privo di contenuto.
Risks and dynamics of reintegration of the individual private dimension into the public sphere. Recent researches on normative Confucian ethics
ABSTRACT: If it seems substantially correct to deny a proper religious qualification for Confucianism, it does not mean that this kind of moral and legal teachings is irrelevant to shape a precise conception of human behavior, rites and relationships between citizenship and government. Finally adequately considered by the Western juridical doctrine, Confucianism and the Confucian scholars are now experiencing an uncritical acclaim too much vague to clarify rigorously the core sense of the first Confucian moral positioning. Some of the finest and the most exhaustive contemporary researches about Confucianism are now going back to the roots of the Chinese political thought, reaching new and more refined interpretations of the same ancient sources. This current renewal could be an excellent opportunity even for the European and Western jurists: the possibility to release an enduring phase of confrontation between the Continental and the Asian constitutionalism.
SOMMARIO: 1. Uno sguardo preliminare - 2. La Francia e il progetto di legge “confortant le respect des principes de la République”: realtà sociale e volontà politica - 3. La crisi italiana della laicità e i suoi riflessi sul piano normativo - 4. La vana ricerca dell’attuale indirizzo politico in materia ecclesiastica delle forze di maggioranza nel governo nazionale e la deriva anti-islamista delle forze di opposizione - 5. La pretesa regionale di legiferare in materia di sicurezza e identità non supera il vaglio di legittimità costituzionale - 6. L’impegno della dottrina. la “proposta Astrid”, le critiche e la mancanza di progetti alternativi - 7. Preparare il futuro.
2021: always awaiting a general law on freedom of religion, between inadequacy and fear of the trial
ABSTRACT: While France wonders how the secular character of the Republic sholuld change, and President Macron presents a project to profoundly revise 1905 separation law (Loi concernant la Séparation des Eglises e de l’Etat), Italy is still tryng to update 1929 minority cults law (“sull’esercizio dei culti ammessi nello Stato”). The parties that should implement the sucularity principle and religion's freedom, don't have a clear political direction. However, preparing for the future is strictly necessary in these times of health, economic and social emergency.
1 - Sul giornale “il manifesto” del 4 novembre scorso compariva una vignetta raffigurante un coltello da cucina piantato a 60-70 gradi sull’orizzonte con la scritta “terrorismo - la curva sale”. Come quella dei contagiati dalla pandemia, a salire era anche la curva degli attentati terroristici. L’ultimo, e più devastante con quattro persone uccise e altre ventidue ferite, era avvenuto poco più di ventiquattr’ore prima, il 2 novembre, a Vienna ma neppure una settimana prima, il 29 ottobre, s’era registrato l’assassinio del sacrista e di due donne colpevoli di pregare nella cattedrale di Nizza, che aveva fatto seguito a quello del professore Samuel Paty il 16 ottobre nella regione di Parigi. L’efferata sequenza Parigi - Nizza - Vienna nel giro di due settimane confermava che il terrorismo sedicente di ispirazione religiosa non conosce sospensioni temporali neppure nell’anno del coronavirus ed è capace di operare ovunque in Europa. (segue)
The Resilience of the Secularism in front of the so-called Islamic Terrorism
ABSTRACT – The latest attacks by so called islamic terrorism in Europe highlighted the existence of severe investigative and pre-emptive shortcomings. However the bills France and Austria are debating about plan to counter a misleading “radical Islam” or “politic Islam” with rules that end up compressing the freedom of worship of the Muslims. Against the separatisms, permeable by the terrorist narrative, the public space, that promotes the living together, remains the place of de-radicalization and resilience of the secularism.
SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Régimen jurídico-constitutivo de iglesias, confesiones y comunidades religiosas - 2.1. La legislación específica de iglesias, confesiones y comunidades religiosas - 2.2. ¿Es de aplicación a las entidades religiosas ‘mayores’ la denominada garantía común asociativa? - 3. Régimen jurídico-constitutivo de asociaciones religiosas - 3.1. Antecedentes - 3.2. Problemática jurídica que plantea esta doble regulación normativa - 3.2.1. ¿Qué diferencias existen entre estos dos regímenes jurídicos, aptos en sus respectivos ámbitos de aplicación, en la regulación y constancia registral del fenómeno asociativo-religioso? - 3.2.2. ¿Resulta ajustado a Derecho este régimen diferenciado, o se constituye en inconstitucional por causante de discriminación? - 3.2.3. ¿Es necesario este doble y distinto régimen jurídico-asociativo? - 4. Epílogo.
Associations in the framework of state legal personality of religious organisations in Spain
ABSTRACT: The community dimension of religious freedom entails the existence of Churches, Denominations and Religious communities. This paper addresses the issue of whether these entities are applied the common associative guarantee of Article 22 of the Spanish Constitution and, if applicable, the Organic Law on the right of association. The conclusion reached is that religious denominations are not legally considered associations of constitutional relevance. The paper also tackles the scope of application of this Organic Law on the right of association to religious ‘associations’ per se. The study notes they have a different legal regime, due to them being subject to this Law exclusively or to the Organic Law on religious freedom.
SOMMARIO: 1. Preludio: l’idea francese di una proposta di legge contro i “separatismi” - 2. I termini della questione concernente l’introduzione del divieto di rilascio dei certificat de verginité e del dibattito che ne è scaturito - 3. La presa di posizione dell’Organizzazione mondiale della sanità sui test di verginità - 4. Intermezzo: verginità e ordine pubblico nella vicenda giudiziaria dei coniugi di Lille - 5. Epilogo: la verginità tra libero consenso matrimoniale, potere certificativo del medico e valori irrinunciabili per il vivere insieme.
The hidden virtues of laïcité. About certificates of virginity and some related topics
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine the announced France’s draft bill to prohibit the issue of certificates of virginity. To do so, we first reconstructed the terms of the current debate provoked by the bill. Then, we examined the recent WHO statement which establishes that States should develop plans of action to encourage the elimination of the practice of so-called virginity testing. Finally, we illustrated the advantages and the risks of any solely restrictive approach in this matter.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Il frammentato quadro normativo in materia di LGBT rights - 3. Il caso Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia - 4. L’impatto della pronunzia Bostock sulle istituzioni religiose - 5. La tutela offerta dal Title VII all’esercizio della libertà religiosa - 6. La Section 702(a) del Title VII e le questioni interpretative irrisolte - 7. Nuove letture giurisprudenziali della Section 702(a) - 8. L’interazione fra esenzioni religiose ex Section 702(a) e sex discrimination: possibili futuri scenari alla luce del caso Bostock - 9. La specificità delle istituzioni impegnate nel settore dell’istruzione - 10. La ministerial exception e i limiti della sua applicabilità - 11. Il RFRA - 12. I rischi derivanti da un utilizzo over-expansive del RFRA - 13. La Free Exercise Clause - 14. Le vie percorribili per recepire nuove prospettive valoriali - 15. Il mancato intervento del Congresso - 16. Principio di non discriminazione ed esercizio della libertà religiosa: un binomio incompatibile? - 17. L’esempio della legislazione sui same-sex marriages - 18. La tutela dell’istituzionalismo religioso e i suoi “ragionevoli” limiti - 19. Conclusioni.
The interplay between religious exemptions and LGBT rights in the workplace: new judicial trajectories at the crossroads of plural narratives
ABSTRACT: A recent U.S. Supreme Court judgement found that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act covers discriminations founded on gender identity and sexual orientation. The present paper analyses the effect of this judgement on the exercise of religious freedom of faith-based organizations and investigates the possibility of finding ways to reconcile competing interests.
SOMMARIO: 1. Stati a identità debole e rapporti con le confessioni religiose - 2. Il cratere balcanico - 3. La Bosnia Erzegovina terreno di confronto identitario e di rifiuto dell’autocefalia - 4. Un rapporto sinfonico contestato: il Montenegro - 5. Le denominazioni contese: la Macedonia del Nord - 6. L’Ucraina alla ricerca dell’identità - 7. Autonomia confessionale e autocefalia: per una nuova nozione di territorio canonico.
… Is seeking for autocephaly, which is so precious!/ They go in search of autocephaly- so precious! / Of autocephalous they journey: how dear it is!
ABSTRACT: The "Weak States" of the Balkans born from the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the USSR seek legitimacy and struggle to strengthen their national identity. This is currently happening through the recognition of autocephaly to their Orthodox Churches in order to build on the symphonic and stable relationship between State and Churches. The article analyzes the status of relations between the state entities of Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia and Ukraine. In this perspective, the conflict between different religious designations claiming to be represented as identity representations before the State is highlighted. Additionally, the conflicts within the Orthodox pae granting the tomos to recognize autocephaly are explored.
SOMMARIO: 1. Israele, uno Stato ‘ebraico’ e multiculturale? - 2. Il sistema degli statuti personali e la tutela delle relazioni familiari - 3. Matrimoni, divorzi e Corti religiose - 4. Pluralismo, multiconfessionismo e dinamiche demografiche. Prime conclusioni e prospettive di ricerca.
Forms and practices of the religious pluralism in the State of Israel. The Ottoman inheritance and the protection of family relationships.
ABSTRACT: The essay aims to explore, also in a historical perspective, the general characteristics, peculiarities and limits of the differentiated protection of family relationships in force in the legal system of (State of Israel), still based on the millet system. It allows the application of the personal statutes of the various ethnic-religious communities (Jewish, Muslim, Druze, Christian) present on the territory, not only to regulate the legal institutions typical of family law - especially marriage and divorce -, but also for the resolution of disputes on the matter that are devolved to the jurisdiction of the religious Courts of several religions. In examining the effectiveness and functionality of this model of religious and cultural pluralism, the study highlights the delicate problems of relevance and coexistence of the different religious normative complexes in the Israeli state system.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il caso Casamitjana Costa v. The League Against Cruel Sports - 3. Il veganismo nella giurisprudenza italiana - 4. Pari dignità delle coscienze … - 5. (segue) e specificità del fenomeno confessionale - 6. Definire le convinzioni personali tra libertà del singolo e necessità di accertamento - 7. Spunti conclusivi.
Beyond religious pluralism. Veganism as an expression of freedom of conscience
ABSTRACT: A recent judgement of the Employment Tribunals and a following one of the Tribunal of Bologna recognized veganism as a belief worth of protection. The two judges went beyond the bounds of the religious sphere, exploring the horizon of cultural pluralism, which the Italian Republic, as a secular state, should guarantee. The sentences therefore represent a starting point for addressing the complex issue of the relationship between law and conscience, which recently acquired major importance. As a matter of fact, according to an authoritative doctrine, there is a tendency in all Western legal systems to leave moral or ethical matters to individual self-determination, in accordance with the personalist and pluralist principle. This contribution will then start from the examination of the sentences and then it will deal with some of the main problems concerning freedom of conscience and its protection.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: le tappe di un leading case controverso - 2. La presenza dei musulmani in Tracia: un itinerario storico tra fonti interne e internazionali - 3. Il quadro normativo vigente al momento della causa - 4. La Corte e il suo legal reasoning tra equità e uguaglianza - 5. Conclusione: il soft law come substrato valoriale di una decisione annunciata.
The Muslims of Thrace and the case Molla Sali c. Greece. A historical and legal itinerary between religious pluralism and demands for equality
ABSTRACT – The article is inspired by the Molla Sali v. Greece case, resolved by the ECHR. Starting from this case, the article analyzes the complex historical development of the legislation relating to the Muslim minority in the Greek region of Thrace. In particular, the article deals with the prerogatives of the mufti in the judicial field and the application of Islamic law to relations among private individuals. In addition to the treaties concluded between the decaying Ottoman Empire and the main European powers, the article explores the corresponding implementing rules in the Greek legal system. Finally, the article proposes some critical considerations about balancing the principle of equality and the rights of minorities.
SOMMARIO: 1. Cibo e religione (e mercato) - 2. L’evoluzione storica del rapporto tra cibo e religione - 3. Elementi utili per una definizione giuridica di macellazione rituale - 4. La questione dello stordimento - 5. La sentenza della Grande Chambre della Corte di giustizia del 29 maggio 2018 (causa C-426/16): la posizione dell’Avvocato Generale Nils Wahl - 6. La sentenza della Grande Chambre della Corte di giustizia del 26 febbraio 2019 (causa C-497/17) - 7. Alcune considerazioni (non) conclusive.
Multicultural societies and protection of food identity: some reflections on ritual slaughter.
ABSTRACT: The intensification of migratory flows and the demographic increase of the population of the Islamic religion in Europe now make it unavoidable to consolidate that process of cultural integration between different ethnic, linguistic and religious components, which had already begun a few decades ago in Western countries and aimed at defining of a new model of open and pluralist society. This process calls into question, in various areas - including that of food protection - the values of dignity, freedom and equality on which European democracies are founded, imposing the search for new balances between potentially conflicting interests. This contribution aims to investigate the compatibility profiles between respect for the food identity of religious minorities, the protection of human health and food safety and the prohibition of causing unnecessary suffering to animals, to highlight whether the principle of neutrality accepted by the current EU legislation is indeed the most suitable for promoting the fundamental values of European society.
SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Alevi Population in Turkey and in Europe - 3. What is Alevism? Who are the Alevis? - 4. Discrimination against Alevis and Alevi Massacres from the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic - 5. Alevi Migration in Turkey and to Europe - 6. Alevi Organizations in Europe: Cultural, Social, and Historical Perspectives - 7. Discourses of “Other” vs “Equal” on Alevis - 8. Alevi Associations in Europe: Legal Perspectives - 9. Alevism in the Turkish Legal Setting - 10. Alevism at the European Court of Human Rights - 11. Concluding Remarks on Legal Issues - 12. Concluding Remarks on Social and Cultural Issues.
ABSTRACT: Using interdisciplinary lenses, this article examines the cultural, social, and juridical status of the Alevis in Turkey and Western Europe. The ongoing social exclusion and discrimination against Alevis in Turkey make their everyday lives challenging. In Europe, Alevis organized themselves in associations, forming vibrant transnational communities. They struggled for recognition of their cultural-religious rights, and in some European countries, they are given special status. As we will illustrate, their recognition in Europe significantly effected in their case in Turkey but failed to emancipate them fully and posed further issues to tackle with and for the Alevis in Turkey. Gedik and Birkalan-Gedik present sociological, historical, and political contexts to understand the current realities of Alevis in Turkey and Europe, mostly based on their ethnographic studies. Madera examines five cases between 2007-2016 which were presented by the Alevis to the European Court. We conclude that currently, Turkey does not try to suffice the European requirements, namely, the implementation of policies aimed at guaranteeing adequate protection of the collective dimension of religious freedom in a way consistent with European directives.
SUMMARY: 1. Key terms and definitions - 2. Two ways to look at culturally motivated crimes: the case of the kirpan in the Italian and in the Canadian jurisprudence - 3. Moving forward: the Italian Court of Cassation n. 29613/2018 - 3.1. Cultural tests: a comparative insight - 3.2. The cultural test in the Italian judgment of 2018 - 4. Final remarks.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to analyze culturally motivated crimes with a comparative focus and a case law approach. First of all, a set of definitions is given to have a common and shared understanding of the topic at stake. What is culture and what do we mean by culturally motivated crimes? Secondly, a comparative case-law study helps to focus the possible different solutions given to the cultural factor in criminal law. In fact, some legal systems -such as the Canadian one - appear to be more willing than others to make concrete accommodations of cultural differences. Lastly, the latest Italian Court of Cassation suggests a possible direction to be taken to better treat culturally motivated crimes in today’s multicultural society. What does it mean for criminal law to be culturally sensitive? How can courts take into consideration cultural factors through a proper legal method? These are the main questions on which criminal doctrine has focused its attention trying to reshape a criminal model which can be responsive to those different cultural values, needs and interests.
SOMMARIO: 1. Gli interventi contro i Testimoni di Geova nella Federazione Russa - 2. La presenza storica dei Testimoni di Geova nel Paese - 3. La libertà religiosa nella normativa dell’Unione Sovietica - 4. Le leggi sulla libertà di coscienza degli anni ’90 - 5. La legislazione “anti estremismo” e antiterrorismo - 6. Considerazioni conclusive.
“Anti-extremism” Legislation and Religious Freedom in the Russian Federation. The case of Jehovah's Witnesses
ABSTRACT: The application of "anti-extremism" legislation to minority religious groups in the Russian Federation has led to a progressive institutional tightening of the persecution and heavy discrimination, especially against Jehovah's Witnesses. Although many of these legislative instruments have existed for over a decade, the Russian government has only recently begun to use them in sustained campaigns designed to punish or exclude "non-traditional" religions and movements. In the specific case of Jehovah's Witnesses, these measures have taken on the purpose of delegitimising an entire community, solely because of the religious faith being persecuted, with accusations ranging from missionary activity to offending the religious feelings of believers. Overall, these interventions are part of a wider process of ideological control over society, aimed at curbing, if not stifling, the forces of political and religious dissent. It is well known that secularism is based on two fundamental principles: the inviolability of human rights, which constitute the prodrome of political power and therefore of the State, and, secondly, the importance of a culture and institutions that guarantee the effectiveness of pluralism. The analysis of the Russian history is, in this sense, an important perspective because it calls into question the European model of recognition and guarantee of religious pluralism.
Summary: 1. Introduction - 2. Italian legal responses to COVID-19: the Italian constitutional and legal framework on religious freedom - 3. The suspension of religious assemblies during phase one of the pandemic - 4. A “cautious resumption” of religious gatherings during the phase two in Italy - 5. U.S. legal responses to COVID-19: U.S. constitutional and legal framework about religious freedom - 6. The legal patchwork because of the pandemic - 7. Judicial balance between individual liberties and the preservation of health - 8. Litigation in lower courts about the exercise of religious freedom during Covid-19 - 9 New creative ways of worshipping in Covid-19 times: drive-in religious services - 10. Third-party burdens and the successful nondiscrimination approach - 11. Department of Justice statements - 12 Supreme Court intervention in temporary state restrictions on religious assemblies - 13. “Religious America” and “secular” Italy during Covid-19 phase one - 14. Management of religious freedom during the pandemic and the lack or presence of a statute governing religious freedom - 15. Effect of the pandemic on the question of whose religious freedom should be protected - 16. Guaranteeing a fair level of religious accommodation during a pandemic - 17. Enhanced need to balance the exercise of religious freedom with third-party harm during a pandemic - 18. Impact of the pandemic on the exercise of religious freedom in the long term.
ABSTRACT: The so-called lockdown, imposed to restrain (or at least limit) the spread of COVID-19, has, in the over four seemingly endless months since it started, had an overwhelming impact not only on our personal lives, but also on domestic regulatory frameworks. Legal systems responded individually, and with differences to the pandemic emergency, ranging from a complete interruption of the collective exercise of religious worship (Italy), to a more cautious recognition of forms of religious accommodation (United States). The present paper compares the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on the exercise of religious freedom in the United States and the Italian legal contexts, and investigates how the pandemic crisis emphasized underlying judicial, political, sociocultural, and economic challenges, giving rise to a tension between competing rights and exacerbating concerns about the “special” role of religion. As the COVID situation is changing so rapidly in the United States, in Italy, and around the world, I clarify that the information in the present paper relates at the situation as at the end of June 2020.
SUMMARY: 1. Scholar challenges and epistemological pitfalls - 2. Traditional Muslim hermeneutics and the development of schools of Jurisprudence - 3. Jurist’s authority and ruler’s governance from a comparative perspective - 4. Muslim legal tradition of plural jurisdictions - 5. The open scholar question of reciprocal legal influences with other juridical systems - 6. Conclusive remarks.
ABSTRACT: This article analyzes several open scholar debates regarding the Muslim legal system, from the conventional narrative of its formation and the triumph of the Traditionalist movement to the disputed question of reciprocal legal influences with other religious and secular juridical systems. This research tries to avoid two epistemological risks: first, the dangers of a simplistic binary debate like traditionalists v. revisionists, religious v. secular, or even Sunnis v. Shiite reducing the analysis to an ideologically polarized and ineffective dispute; and second, the improper use of juridical neologisms applied to the Islamic legal system, mainly from codified European continental law and English common law as a result of the Orientalist, colonialist, and secularist mentalities that, instead clarification create confusion. From a hermeneutical point of view, two characteristics to keep in mind: 1) the notion of divine law and its legal implications; and 2) the relationship between law and theology that is not correlative to the connection between secular legislation and ideology. From a comparative point of view, three challenging questions to address: 1) the distinction between Usul al-fiqh and Usul al-qanun often blurred in practice showing the complexities of the relationship among religious, legal, and political structures under Muslim ruling; 2) the intertwined relationship among Sharia, fiqh, and siyasa with pre-Islamic administrative, legal, and judicial traditions; 3) Jurisdictional pluralism in the Islamic legal practice concerning non-Muslim minorities.
Venerdì 24 luglio 2020 la Turchia, o meglio il suo premier Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, ha riaperto al culto islamico il simbolo stesso di Istanbul rappresentato dal complesso monumentale di Santa Sofia. Una vicenda triste per la civiltà, che vede un gioiello artistico di valore universale piegato al nazionalismo religioso. Per la verità l’edificio non è nuovo ai cambi d’uso, come non lo sono altri manufatti di pregio che hanno attraversato i secoli, ma in questo caso non si tratta di un nuovo utilizzo ma di un ritorno al tempo della dominazione ottomana. Tuttavia, questo non è un ritorno alle origini, perché - come sappiamo - Santa Sofia, costruita per l’imperatore Giustiniano in soli cinque anni dal 532 al 537, è considerata il capolavoro della nuova architettura basilicale bizantina quale espressione della “romanità cristiana e universale della cultura giustinianea”.
Cardinal Gasparri, Francesco Saverio Nitti and the basilica of Hagia Sophia
In reference to the current events that see the return to the destination for Islamic worship of the ancient Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, a Vatican document of the years immediately after the First World War is recalled which presents positions opposite to those prevalent today.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La religione e la vita nella società - 3. Quello che il principio di laicità non è - 4. Lo Stato laico brasiliano - 5. Considerazioni finali.
The secular State and its implications on the brazilian model
ABSTRACT: For many years Law and Religion were subjects considered unnecessary by some, and, by others, analyzed with reservations and featured as a not legal topic. However, both of the matters has become important issues in the political, legal and social discussions, especially during political campaign, when moral, ethical and religious issues are brought to debate. Although many countries, as Brasil - for example, have been disussing the subject, the numerous and different interfaces between them, most of the time do not take into consideration the constitutional foundations, axiological and cultural values, and pasrticularly the spiritual aspect of the human being as the structuring of human life. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to clarify the conceptual unfolding of the Principle of Secularity and the characterization of the Secular State in Brazil, with the aim of demonstrating that the Brazilian model of Secularity does not mean the absence of religiosity in the public sphere, but the guarantee and safeguard all your expressions.
SOMMARIO: 1. L’intervento della Suprema Corte federale americana in tema di compatibilità della normativa emergenziale con la Free Exercise Clause - 2. I termini della questione originariamente sollevata e la pronunzia del giudice di primo grado - 3. L’appello dinanzi alla Corte del Nono Circuito e l’opinione dissenziente del giudice Collins - 4. Il problema della costituzionalità delle misure restrittive incidenti sulla libertà di culto nei contrapposti orientamenti seguiti dalle Corti inferiori - 5. Gli argomenti posti a fondamento del ricorso alla Corte Suprema - 6. La contrapposizione tra judicial deference e lettura rigorosamente neutrale dei termini della vicenda portata all’esame dei giudici - 7. Una riproposizione dei canoni di stretta neutralità anche nell’interpretazione dei principi costituzionali in materia religiosa? - 8. Notazioni conclusive.
Anti-Covid Law vs. Free Exercise Clause in US Supreme Court Case Law: is it a Return to the Doctrine of “Neutrality” in the Interpretation of Religious Clauses of the First Amendment?
ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the question of wheter the Stay-at-Home Order and the Reopening Plan that were issued by the State of California to combat the Covid-19 pandemic discriminate against places of worship in violation of the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. In South Bay United Pentecostal Church vs. Newsom, the Supreme Court of the United States upholds California’s guidelines for places of worship that limit religious worship services to 25% of a building’s capacity or a maximum of 100 attendees, because similar restrictions apply to comparable secular gatherings.
SOMMARIO: 1. Intelligenza artificiale, singolarità tecnologica e diritti umani: uno sguardo nel futuro - 2. Quale religione? Alla ricerca di una definizione costituzionalmente orientata - 3. Transumanesimo, tecnoscienza e religione: una relazione pericolosa? - 4. Non avrai altro Dio al di fuori di AI: Way of the Future e il culto del Dio-computer - 5. (segue) Il transumanesimo a scuola - 6. (segue) Religion or not? La libertà religiosa dei fedeli di Way of the Future - 7. Anche gli androidi sognano divinità elettriche? La libertà religiosa dei robots - 8. Conclusioni: giorni di un futuro passato.
Deus ex Machina. Artificial Intelligence and Religious Freedom in the US Constitutional framework
ABSTRACT: The raise of the digital age and the developments of Artificial Intelligence is stressing the historical and complicate relationship between science, religion and law. Concepts like technological singularity or transhumanism are rapidly changing this relationship, and a growing number of scientists are now openly describing technological progress in religious terms or even establishing new religions and churches dedicated to the worship of Artificial Intelligence. This cultural and technological revolution is raising up new legal questions: are the traditional legal definition of “Religion” and “Churches” still addressing the challenge raised by new religions based on the worship of AI? Will the Transhumanism change the legal definition of person and his religious rights? Will robots have religious rights under the law? The aim of the paper is to investigate those questions within the of the US Constitutional framework.
SOMMARIO: 1. Cenni introduttivi - 2. Le limitazioni normative alle libertà personali - 3. Il dialogo e la collaborazione delle autorità statali con le autorità religiose e morali del Paese - 4. La libertà religiosa tra preparazione e prima attuazione della fase del cosiddetto deconfinamento - 5. La decisione del Conseil d’État e il successivo intervento governativo - 6. Il graduale ritorno alla “normalità”. Brevi conclusioni interlocutorie.
The French way to the restriction of freedoms and the dialogue with religions at the time of the coronavirus
ABSTRACT: The essay focuses on the French legal system at the time of the Coronavirus and the analysis of two different profiles, even if they are intimately related to each other. The first involves the analysis of the legal mechanisms through which the State has achieved the restriction of personal freedoms, including religious freedom. The second, instead, essentially concerns the analysis of the relations maintained, in this circumstance, by the State institutions, with the different religious groups and conversely.
SUMMAIRE: 1. Introduction - 2. La démocratisation et l’héritage laïque - 2.1. La constitutionnalisation de la laïcité - 2.2. Une laïcité aux contours flous - 3. Ruptures et résurgence des spécificités africaines - 3.2. Réinvestissement du religieux dans l’espace public - 3.3. Références religieuses dans les nouvelles constitutions - 4. Conclusion - Références bibliographiques.
RÉSUMÉ: Alors que l’importance croissante de la religion en Afrique est un phénomène bien connu, les références religieuses dans les révisions constitutionnelles de ces dernières années est, en revanche, moins soulignée. L’héritage laïque greffé dans toutes les Constitutions d’Afrique francophone est à l’épreuve de pressantes revendications religieuses. Cette légitimation du religieux dans les chartes constitutionnelles donne lieu à son instrumentalisation par le politique et met en péril l’équilibre des forces sociales, juridiques et institutionnelles dans les pays francophones. Cette situation soulève ainsi la récurrente problématique de la réception, en Afrique, de modèles constitutionnels étrangers et plus généralement celle du statut des sources du droit en Afrique. Le rejet des modèles importés qu’on observe, sous le signe de l’authenticité africaine permettra-t-il de fonder l’État de droit sur des valeurs endogènes? Les dynamismes internes des sociétés africaines peuvent constituer des facteurs sur lesquels l’État africain peut s’appuyer pour, espérons-le, produire un modèle constitutionnel favorisant une gestion cultuelle beaucoup plus stable.
SUMMARY: 1. Preliminary remark - 2. The Işık v. Turkey case before the European Court of Human Rights and its background - 3. The previous case-law of the ECtHR in connection with the Işık case - 4. A new protagonist on the Strasbourg stage: The Religious Affairs Directorate - 5. Follow-up cases and subsequent developments – 5.1. ECtHR’s case law – 5.2. Domestic law - 6. Instead of a conclusion: trying to analyse an identity crisis.
SOMMARIO: 1. Costituzione, neutralità e cooperazione - 2. La nomina degli arcivescovi, vescovi e coadiutori - 3. Nomina del vicariato militare - 4. Notifica della denuncia di azioni criminali - 5. Autonomia della Chiesa e diritti fondamentali dei suoi fedeli - 6. Assistenza religiosa - 7. Insegnamento della religione cattolica - 8. Creazione e gestione delle università cattoliche - 9. Finanziamento sulla base dell’IRPEF - 10. Finanziamento indiretto - 11. Alcune conclusioni.
Agreements between Spain and the Holy See. Doubts about their constitutionality and need for change
ABSTRACT: The Agreements between Spain and the Holy See were signed forty years ago, and there are still doubts about their constitutionality. This paper studies the main topics related to the agreements from the constitutional perspective: the participation of the head of the State in the appointment of bishops (particularly the Military Vicar General); the teaching of the Catholic religion in the public school; the Catholic military chaplains in the armed forces; or the public financing of the Catholic Church through the personal income tax. Finally, the paper analyzes the agreements as a technique of cooperation between the State and the Catholic Church.
SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Caracteres generales del proyecto de ley: el reconocimiento del matrimonio de creencia - 3. Algunas claves jurídicas de esta nueva propuesta normativa.
A New Bill to Recognize the Belief Marriage in England: the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill
ABSTRACT: In this paper the author briefly examines the content of the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill, a proposal recently introduced in the House of Lords, which is aimed to amend the wedding law in England and Wales in order to recognise al last the humanist marriages and, more widely, the marriages of the so called belief bodies that have already been introduced in almost every other jurisdiction in the British Islands, so these new belief marriages can be granted an equivalent status to the one currently conferred to religious marriages.
SOMMARIO: 1. Le “nuove” obiezioni di coscienza nelle società multiculturali. Il rifiuto dell’obbligo vaccinale - 2. Religioni e vaccini - 3. La situazione negli altri Paesi, in particolare il caso degli USA - 4. L’obbligo vaccinale in Italia - 5. È configurabile il diritto all’obiezione di coscienza rispetto alle vaccinazioni obbligatorie?
The Refusal of Mandatory Vaccinations for Conscientious Reasons. A Comparative Overlook
ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the possibility to design a new shape of conscientious objection : the refusal of mandatory vaccinations due to religious or ideological reasons. Some religions are against vaccines because of the ingredients they contain. In other cases the refusal to be vaccinated is based on the idea that only God can protect health. The legislatures of some Countries recognize the conscientious objection to mandatory vaccinations. The paper focuses the topic in a comparative perspective, paying attention to the italian and european context.
SOMMARIO: 1. Il diritto di libertà religiosa tra rendicontazione sui diritti umani e Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 2. Libertà religiosa, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights e RSI - 3. Libertà religiosa e standard nazionali: brevi osservazioni sul Piano d’Azione Nazionale (PAN) 2014-2016 sulla Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa e 2016-2021 su Impresa e Diritti Umani - 4. Valori religiosi e valori laici nella Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 5. Dall’RSI all’accountability: la rendicontazione sui diritti umani negli enti religiosi ETS e nell’Impresa sociale.
Religious freedom and Corporate Social Responsibility
ABSTRACT: International standards on Business and Human Rights and on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) define a system of rules currently in use to combat human rights violations in contemporary industrial societies. On the basis of these rules, governments adopt the so-called National Action Plans (NAPs), which also Italy has recently adopted. In this context, the protection of religious freedom plays a fundamental role as part of the range of needs of modern intercultural societies. This paper in this respect is divided into two parts. The first part investigates the role of religious freedom in international standards on Business and human rights and in the NAPs, paid attention to the Italian National Action Plans. The second part on the other hand, deals with the theme of accountability on human rights in the Italian non-profit area. In this context, the processes of accountability also involve entities who operate by expressing a certain tendency or religious aims. These entities can have a specific interest in the accountability on human rights because through the adherence to the so-called systems of Non-Financial Reporting (NFR) clearly reaffirm the values of the religious cultures of which they are the direct expression.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Simboli religiosi e sfera pubblica - 3. Il ruolo della giurisprudenza e il difficile rapporto con l’Islam - 4. Il porto di simboli religiosi nel contesto giudiziario - 5. Le pronunzie Hamidović v. Bosnia and Herzegovina e Lachiri v. Belgium - 6. Presenza o no di una base normativa che valga a giustificare la restrizione della libertà religiosa - 7. La tensione fra il test di proporzionalità e il margine di apprezzamento - 8. La connessione fra posizione individuale e istituzione pubblica …- a) … nel caso Hamidović - b) … nel caso Lachiri - 9. Disamina breve delle pronunzie in materia di porto di simboli e della loro ratio - 10. L’analisi del limite “dei diritti e delle libertà altrui” - 11. Una svolta a favore delle minoranze? - 12. La questione irrisolta di forme religiosamente motivate di face covering in ambito europeo - 13. L’uso di abbigliamento religiosamente caratterizzato nell’ambito delle aule giudiziarie in Canada: l’opinione di maggioranza nella pronunzia R. v. NS. - 14. La concurring opinion del giudice LeBel - 15. La dissenting opinion del giudice Abella - 16. Le potenziali ricadute della pronunzia canadese sulla libertà religiosa individuale e su quella del gruppo di appartenenza - 17. La giurisprudenza canadese successiva - 18. Il porto di simboli religiosi nelle aule giudiziarie negli U.S.A. – 19. Il porto del niqab nelle aule giudiziarie negli U.S.A. - 20. La questione del niqab nelle aule giudiziarie in Australia - 21. Le corti e le minoranze: un tentativo di comparazione fra la giurisprudenza dei giudici extraeuropei di common law … - 22. … e la giurisprudenza della Corte europea - 23. Lo strumento dell’„accomodamento ragionevole” negli ordinamenti extraeuropei di common law - 24. La possibilità del “trapianto” dell’accomodamento ragionevole in ambito comunitario. Il caso Eweida - 25. La conciliabilità del parametro dell’accomodamento ragionevole con gli standard della Corte europea - 26. La garanzia di propozionalità in ambito europeo e i suoi limiti - 27. Il limite del margine di apprezzamento - 28. La necessità di un più rigoroso bilanciamento fra margine di apprezzamento e principio di proporzionalità - 29 Le potenzialità del “ragionevole accomodamento” nell’ambito convenzionale europeo - 30. Una valutazione comparativa del rapporto fra libertà di espressione religiosa “privata” e spazio “pubblico” - 31. La libertà di manifestazione religiosa dei privati nelle aule giudiziarie … - a) … in ambito europeo - b) ... in ambito extraeuropeo - 32) Annotazioni riepilogative.
Religious Garb in the Courtroom
ABSTRACT: The present essay analyses the crucial issue of the freedom to wear religious garments in the courtroom. It provides a comparative survey of European, U.S., Canadian and Australian case law, investigating how they are facing the question concerning the place of religious expression in the public square, and taking into consideration different legal frameworks and their recent developments.
SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. El significado esencial de las cláusulas religiosas de la Primera enmienda de la Constitución federal - 3. El argumento de la tradición histórica en la interpretación judicial de la Establishment Clause - 4. La tradición histórica como excepción a la aplicabilidad de los normales parámetros jurídicos de validez en materia de aconfesionalidad.
The Supreme Court of the United States and the use or historical tradition in Establishment Clause jurisprudence
ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the study of the use of history and tradition that has been made by the Supreme Court of the United States when deciding certain cases concerning the First Amendment’s Establishment Clause. It explores the way in which, when confronted with certain practices that are in appearance clearly inconsistent with the Establishment Clause, sometimes the Supreme Court has simply ignored the different tests commonly settled for constitutional adjudication in this particular field such as the Lemon test, and has relied on historical tradition as the governing principle for that purpose. This circumstance leading to the setting of a controversial carve-out in Establishment Clause adjudication that might be better explained as a result of politics and political and social pressures rather than as a product of principled constitutional interpretation.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. I precedenti giurisprudenziali - 3. Un nuovo ruolo per i giudici tunisini? - 4. La tutela dei diritti e delle libertà: tra comparazione e fiqh - 5. Profili comparatistici. Il processo di rettifica del genere in una pronuncia della Corte d’appello di Beirut - 6. Considerazioni conclusive.
A landmark decision concerning gender rectification in Tunisia: the right to a private life between comparative law, international law and fiqh
ABSTRACT: The decision of the Tribunal of Tunis, concerning gender rectification in public registries of a transgender FtM person who underwent sex reassignment treatment, is an example of innovative case law. The judgment, changing the previous case law, is characterized by the use of the comparative method, so that, in the grounds for ruling, legal principles from different foreign jurisdictions and the fiqh coexist. Specifically, the Tribunal of Tunis, showing an open and dialogical approach to other jurisdictions and legislations of the globe, has consecrated the fundamental human right of gender rectification in public registries, rarely recognized in other Arab countries.
SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Planteamiento del problema y antecedentes en Europa - 3. El velo integral en la legislación italiana - 4. La sentencia del Consiglio di Stato italiano núm. 3076, de 19 de junio de 2008 - 5. La Delibera 4553, de 10 de diciembre de 2015, de la Giunta Regionale de Lombardía - 6. La sentencia del Tribunal de Milán de 20 de abril de 2017 – 7. La valoración de la Corte di Appello di Milano: la sentencia de 28 de octubre de 2019 - 8. El velo integral en el ordenamiento jurídico español – 9. La Ordenanza Municipal de Civismo y Convivencia de Lleida y su interpretación por el Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Cataluña - 10. La anulación de la Ordenanza Municipal de Civismo y Convivencia de Lleida por el Tribunal Supremo: la sentencia núm. 693 de 2013, de 14 de febrero - 11. La Ordenanza de Civismo de la ciudad de Reus y los autos del Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Cataluña - 12. Síntesis conclusiva: estudio comparativo de las realidades lombarda y catalana.
The ban on the integral veil in Italy and Spain: the Lombard and Catalan cases
ABSTRACT: In recent years we have been able to appreciate how phenomena such as immigration and globalization have transformed the religious decoration of European countries. Italy and Spain do not represent any exception, because in the streets of their towns and villages there is a growing religious diversity that every day does not stop increasing. That this means people who have arrived to Italy and Spain searching of better prospects for the future but without forgetting their customs, traditions and religion. The problems arise when in use of religious freedom, this people try that the host society admits or tolerates certain religious practices, foreign to the European Judeo-Christian tradition, which could collide with the European legal order. One of those controversial practices has to do with religious symbology, specifically, with the integral veil that Islamic women carry, mainly because of the security problems. By this reason, this article tries to describe the legal situation of the integral veil, analyzing and comparing the ways in which have been regulated in Italy (Lombardy) and Spain (some Catalonian municipalities like Lleida or Reus). The jurisprudential solutions emanating from the courts of both countries are also studied.
SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Flag Protection. Legislation - 3. Flag Protection. Jurisprudence - 4. Foreign Flags - 5. Desecration of Religious Books - 6. Conclusions.
ABSTRACT: Freedom of expression is axiomatic to liberal democracy. However, extremely divergent paradigms about when it must be curbed are manifest in the legal systems of different countries, especially concerning hate speech and speech offensive to religious or patriotic feelings. The United States is more protective of freedom of expression even at the cost of deliberately ignoring the need - especially in culturally diverse societies common in democratic countries nowadays - for dialogue rather than confrontation and for a pluralistic respect of the dignity and integrity of others and that which they cherish. In contrast, the European paradigm willingly sacrifices freedom of expression for the sake of protecting the sensibilities of the different segments of society. The theoretical question of the proper perimeters of such infringements upon freedom of expression aside, legislation prohibiting the desecration of national symbols on the one hand, and of religiously venerated objects on the other hand, can be seen as a measure of the emphasis ascribed in a jurisdiction to tolerance and pluralism as a justification for limiting democratic rights. This paper is a critical review of the legislation and case-law of flag burning statutes, and statutes outlawing the desecration of religious books, in Israel.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La pregiudiziale belga: causa C-157/15, G4S Secure Solution - 3. La pregiudiziale francese: causa C-188/15, Bougnaoui e ADDH - 4. Le pronunce “gemelle” della Grande Sezione della Corte di giustizia: la sentenza 14 marzo 2017, Achbita, EU:C:2017:203 e la sentenza 14 marzo 2017, Bougnaoui, EU:C:2017:204 - 5. Uno sguardo alla più recente dottrina ecclesiasticistica - 6. La giurisprudenza della Corte Edu: la sentenza Eweida e altri c. Regno Unito del 15 gennaio 2013 (ricorsi nn. 48420/10, 59842/10, 51671/10 e 36516/10) - 7. Osservazioni conclusive.
Freedom to express religious beliefs in the workplace: brief notes on the Achbita and Bougnaoui cases
ABSTRACT: This paper seek to address the delicate issue of religious freedom, from a juridical perspective, analyzing the Achbita and Bougnaoui cases and comparing it with the Eweida one. It intends to elaborate some of the key question of the doctrinal debate on the links between the expression of one's religious beliefs and the workplace. Can neutrality be a valid defense against discriminations? To what extent can the religious freedom of the worker be sacrificed in favor of the business freedom? These are just some of the questions that are posed to the interpreter and to the scholar of ecclesiastical law. They require a careful evaluation of the values involved and the search for solutions of high balance and responsibility.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa in fatto - 2. L’impugnazione al Consiglio di Stato greco - 3. La recente sentenza (7 maggio 2019, C 431-17) della Corte di Giustizia UE e il suo approdo ermeneutico.
From the cassock to the court dress: is Ireneo, the Greek orthodox monk, leader of a change?
ABSTRACT: The European Court of Justice, declares the Greek legislation contrary to the UE law, according to the judgment of 7 May 2019, C-431/17. The Greek legislation prohibits a monk qualified for the legal profession in Cyprus from enrolling in the register and practicing the profession, in the host Member State, using the title of the Member State of origin.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La «Rivista di Diritto Ecclesiastico» / «Il Diritto Ecclesiastico» e la Spagna - 3. Ricerche sulla Spagna - 3.1. Di autore spagnolo - 3.2. Di autore non spagnolo - 3.3. Di autore sconosciuto - 3.4. Citazioni di ricerche sulla Spagna - 3.4.1. Di autore spagnolo - 18.104.22.168. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 22.214.171.124. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico - 126.96.36.199. Intorno a questioni di carattere generale - 188.8.131.52. Intorno a questioni relative ad altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici - 3.4.2. Di autore non spagnolo - 3.4.3. Di autore sconosciuto - 3.4.4. Autore spagnolo citato, senza l’opera - 4. Recensioni - 4.1. Di autore (dell’opera) spagnolo e autore della recensione conosciuto - 4.1.1. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 4.1.2. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico - 4.1.3. Intorno a questioni relative ad altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici - 4.2. Di autore (dell’opera) spagnolo e autore della recensione sconosciuto - 4.2.1. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 4.2.2. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico - 4.2.3. Intorno a questioni di carattere generale - 4.3. Di autore (dell’opera) non spagnolo - 5. Riferimenti bibliografici - 5.1. Libri - 5.1.1. Autore spagnolo - 184.108.40.206. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 220.127.116.11. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico - 18.104.22.168. Intorno a questioni di carattere generale - 22.214.171.124. Intorno a questioni di altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici - 5.1.2. Autore straniero su questioni relative alla Spagna - 5.2. Pubblicazioni periodiche - 5.2.1. Autore spagnolo - 126.96.36.199. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 188.8.131.52. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico - 184.108.40.206. Intorno a questioni di carattere generale - 220.127.116.11. Intorno a questioni di altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici - 5.2.2. Autore straniero - 18.104.22.168. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 22.214.171.124. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico trattate su riviste spagnole - 126.96.36.199. Intorno a questioni relative ad altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici trattate su riviste spagnole - 5.2.3. Autore sconosciuto - 188.8.131.52. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 184.108.40.206. Intorno a questioni di altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici trattate su riviste spagnole - 5.3. Citazioni di riviste spagnole - 6. Notizie giuridiche e di politica ecclesiastica - 7. Considerazioni conclusive.
«Il Diritto Ecclesiastico» and Spain (1890-1948)
ABSTRACT: The contribution refers to the study of the presence of Spanish authors in the oldest Italian magazine referring to ecclesiastical law and canon law, in the period from 1890 to 1948.
SUMARIO: 1. Introducción: las manifestaciones de la confesionalidad inglesa y su creciente cuestionamiento por la doctrina científica - 2. Confesionalidad estatal y sistema educativo en Inglaterra - 3. Los actos de culto colectivo en la escuela pública ante la High Court.
The Place of Religion in State-funded Schools of England: the Act of Collective Worship for the First Time on Trial at the High Court
ABSTRACT: Collective Worship that needs to be wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character is currently a statutory requirement in all State-funded schools under English law. This legal requirement, along with the inevitable presence in this same type of schools of religious education that also has to reflect the fact that the religious traditions in Great Britain are in the main Christian, whilst taking account of the teaching and practices of the other principal religions represented in Great Britain, are both two requirements that have been frequently considered as very controversial and arising from them are serious concerns about their compliance with human rights legal framework. Very recently a High Court action has been launched against this law on collective worship, in a case that will be heard on 29 November 2019 (Lee and Lizanne Harris v. Oxford Diocesan Schools Trust). This paper gives notice of this recent judicial challenge and briefly explores its main legal implications.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Le regole alimentari nel contesto israeliano e l’irrisolto dualismo (anche simbolico) tra identità collettiva nazionale e religiosa - 3. L’approccio europeo al Kashrut e la questione della macellazione rituale - 4. Le relazioni tra precetti religiosi alimentari ebraici e normativa secolare negli ordinamenti della multiculturalità - 5. Le Kasher food laws negli Stati Uniti - 6. Nota conclusiva.
Judaism and Food: an ancient binomial and the new tendencies on the background of multiculturalism
Abstract: In Judaism, religion and food have always been the terms of a strong spiritual and cultural ‘binomial’, variously affecting the community as well as the individual dimension. In Jewish religious tradition, food is at the same time an instrument of religious elevation, and it represents a powerful factor of collective identity. The paper aims at deepening this binomial in a comparative perspective that takes into consideration some specific features that seem particularly relevant. a) The role of the Constitutional Courts in the containment of sacred law, according to the Hirshl’s perspective (I. Hirshl, 2010), and in particular the case of Israel where the scope of religious authorities’ prerogative over the issue of kashrut certificates by the Chief Rabbinate represents an important part of the struggle between secular and religious attitudes. The judicial debate on Kashrut contributes to delineate the role of the Supreme Court of Israel in responding to the increased tension between Israel’s dual commitment to liberal-democratic and Jewish values. b) The new conflictual tendencies, in the relation between food and multiculturalism, concerning kosher slaughter in Europe. c) The relationship between Jewish dietary laws, religious liberties, the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause in the United States constitutional system. Starting from these topics, the paper will try to argue on the manifestation in food law of the intrinsic duality in the state of Israel, together Jewish and democratic, and the reflection of this duality in the other legal systems where constitutional theocracy is prevented by constitutional provisions of secularity and pluralism, but secularism appears in various and different forms.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La blasphemy law - 3. Un campo di falsa, un sorso d’acqua e il “peccato” contro Asia Bibi - 4. La sentenza della Corte Suprema - 5. Leading case o moral suasion?
“More sinned against than sinning”: the Pakistan Supreme Court and Asia Bibi case
ABSTRACT: Asia Bibi case, a Christian woman falsely accused of being a blasphemer, finds her ‘judge in Berlin’ in the Supreme Court of Pakistan. The Court does not address the ratio legis of blasphemy law but points out how contrary to the spirit of Islam is the misuse of law for political purposes. The wide international echo of the case makes this SC verdict a possible leading case in theme of presumption of innocence.
SOMMARIO: 1. La riforma di Pietro il Grande e la paralisi della Chiesa - 2. La diffusa aspirazione a ridefinire i rapporti tra Stato e Chiesa - 3. Verso il superamento dell’intolleranza religiosa - 4. Le prese di posizione di Antonij (Vadkovskij) e di Sergej Witte - 5. La reazione del Pobedonoscev – 6. Il Memorandum dei 32 - 7. Il riconoscimento della tolleranza religiosa - 8. I vescovi e la riforma ecclesiastica - 9. Il Manifesto del 17 ottobre e i ritardi nella convocazione del Concilio.
The Russian Orthodox Church at the Beginning of the 20th Century
ABSTRACT: Peter the Great abolished the Patriarchate and entrusted the direction of the Church to a Holy Synod led by a laymen (Ober-prokuror). This reform had the consequence to paralyze the Church, as pointed out by F.M. Dostoevskij and by several outstanding Russian scholars. At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century the necessity to overcome the relationship of subjection of the Church to the State was clearly perceived both by the intellectuals and inside the Church. The Tsar himself realized that there was a need of a change: the Fundamental laws were consequently modified and religious tolerance was acknowledged on April 17th 1905. Of paramount importance was the role played by the Prime-minister Sergej Witte and by the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg Antonij (Vadkovskij) to overcome the conservative ecclesiastical policy carried out by the Ober-prokuror Konstantin Pobedonoscev. The answers given by the bishops to a questionnaire issued by the Holy Synod on July 27th, 1905, confirmed that the problem was clearly felt also inside the Church. The Council of the Russian Church, which was supposed to be gathered at the beginning of the century, was summoned several years later, at the eve of the bolshevik coup d’état.
SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. El concepto de educación-enseñanza, vinculado a la libertad religiosa y el pluralismo - 3. El proselitismo o incitación articulada para compartir una opción de vida - 4. El concepto de adoctrinamiento, como conducta lícita e ilícita - 5. Consecuencias jurídicas: la educación y sus parámetros - 6. Consecuencias jurídicas: El proselitismo legítimo y el abusivo o ilícito - 7. Los conflictos del proselitismo en el seno de la familia, según el TEDH - 8. Consecuencias jurídicas: el “adoctrinamiento” en la educación familiar y reglada - 9. El adoctrinamiento en los tipos penales - 10. Conclusiones.
Education, proselytism and indoctrination: profile and legal treatment
ABSTRACT: Nowadays the identity is a big question, and his preservation depends by a great deal on the education, the proselytism and the indoctrination. These three concepts, close and complex, demand a juridical explanation. This study looks for to light up them, in the European and Spanish context, through the legislation and the case-law.
SOMMAIRE: 1. Introduction - 2. Méthodes appliquées dans la recherche et le domaine de la réalité objective et analytique; objet de la recherche - 3. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 1 - 4. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 2 - 4.1. Recherche et l’appréciation de l’image formée et retransmise par le film “Matilda“ de l’Empereur de Russie Nicolas II (Romanov) canonisé par l’Eglise Orthodoxe Russe - 4.2. Recherche et l’appréciation de l’image formée et retransmise par le film “Matilda“ de l’épouse de l’Empereur Nicolas II, Alexandre Féodorovna, canonisée par l’Eglise Orthodoxe Russe - 5. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 3 - 6. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la Question № 4.
About the film “Matilda” in the context of protecting the dignity of believers
ABSTRACT: In 2017, the film «Matilda» caused a strong controversy in Russia. This article is devoted to the study of this film. The authors explore the film in the context of protecting the human dignity and the rights of believers, protecting their religious feelings. Critics of the film "Matilda" indicated that this film represents mockingly offensive images of those persons who are religiously revered by Orthodox Christian believers. The authors of the article check the validity of such critical assessments.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il quadro costituzionale in Pakistan - 3. La tutela del sentimento religioso nel codice penale pakistano - 4. Il quadro costituzionale tedesco - 5. La tutela del sentimento religioso nel codice penale tedesco - 6. Conclusioni.
The delicate constitutional Balance between Freedom of Speech and the Protection of religious Sentiment: comparative Profiles
ABSTRACT: The article focuses on the issue of freedom of speech and freedom of religion from the point of view of two countries with specific legislation in place (Pakistan and Germany). In particular, we will examine the two Constitutions and the two Criminal Law, which proved to have very different ways of expressing their sensitivity and a great attention to the religious sentiment of the population.
SOMMARIO: 1. Linee di lettura - 2. La guarigione forzata: i fatti di Vilnius - 3. Il percorso giudiziario che conduce alla decisione di Strasburgo - 4. La dissenting opinion: brevi appunti sul metodo -5. Il sofferto cammino della libertà religiosa tra fede, stregoneria e follia - 6. La forza terapeutica della libertà religiosa: “capacità-libertà” di credere e diritto di guarire - 7. La funzione politica della religione in terra lituana: semi di neo-confessionismo - 8. La sfida dell’inclusione dell’altro da sé: scelte etero-spirituali e prudentia iuris.
Religion and healing: religious freedom and the principle of self-determination in matters of mental health (Salus aegroti suprema lex o voluntas aegroti suprema
ABSTRACT: The case before the Court of Strasbourg, projects us into the most sacred and private dimension of the life of the human being: that of religious options. In the present case, a young woman with behavioral disorders, manifested even before joining the group close to the Movement founded by the Indian Master Osho, following undergoes a series of medical treatments obligatory that force her to the suspension of the religious practices to which she usually devotes for her own psychophysical well-being. But according to the opinion of the doctors these practices compromised the applicant's mental health status, representing a serious and ascertained danger. The doctor becoming the promoter of his patient's health, ends up interfering in the personal sphere of the girl's religious sentiment, trying to modify the choices deemed to be non-conforming to tradition and prejudicial to health, without scientific evidence and, exclusively, on basis of presumptions and religious prejudices. The facts give rise to some considerations on the methods and criteria for balancing the protection of the right to health, and self-determination in therapeutic choices, and the exercise of religious freedom in conditions of compromised mental health, and the risk of a reviving confessional in Lithuania.
SOMMAIRE: 1. Une prémisse historique sur la Chine en tant que société multi-religieuse - 2. Les dispositions constitutionnelles relatives à la liberté de croyance avant 1982 - 3. La liberté religieuse dans l'actuelle Constitution de 1982 et la législation suivant en la matière - 4. Liberté religieuse et protection des droits de l'homme dans la Chine actuelle.
The free exercise of Religion in People’s Republic of China
ABSTRACT: After some historical reflections on the spread of multiple religious doctrines on the Chinese territory between the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, the Author considers the attitude of the central government with respect to the right of religious freedom from the time of the Cultural Revolution to today, paying particular attention to the constitutional and criminal law provisions attached to this issue. It seems clear how the Chinese legal tradition is not based on a balance of interest theory as known in the Western legal systems, given the prevalence of the higher communist principles rooted in time. Last pages are reserved for the systematic violations of human rights reported by numerous international observatories, as well as the ancient grudge between China and the Holy See caused by the question of the appointment and formal recognition of new bishops. The provisional agreement signed on 22 September 2018, while marking a step towards finding a solution to this tensions, doesn’t offer a definitive solution to the problem.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La tutela del sentimento religioso in Canada: un inquadramento costituzionale - 3. Il reato di Hate Speech - 4. Il reato di blasfemia - 5. Considerazioni conclusive.
Legal features of the sacred in pluralist systems. Recent developments in the Canadian constitutional legal order
ABSTRACT: Nowadays the concept of "sacred" is characterised by a pluralization of the religious phenomena, which are barely defined from a legal point of view by the State. One of the criticalities of this scenario lies in the fact that there is no uniqueness on the limits that the State determines in outlining the boundaries of a religion. The risk of this lack of precise limits could be, inter alia, the offense to religious sentiment. The Author investigates the legal provisions that limit offences to religious sentiment such as the crime of hate speech and blasphemy in Canada. The latter is in fact a pluralist system considered as a good example for other States.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La Direttiva 2000/78 CE e i casi Egenberger e IR arrivati a Lussemburgo - 3. Autonomia delle chiese e tutela giurisdizionale dei diritti all’interno delle organizzazioni religiosamente orientate. I contenuti criptici delle pronunce di Lussemburgo - 4. Il requisito ideologico nelle organizzazioni di tendenza. Le integrazioni della Corte UE e le riletture in corso da parte confessionale - 5. L’art. 17 TFUE e l’attesa di chiarimenti.
Religious-Ethos Employers between European Directive, national laws and Court of Justice EU
ABSTRACT: This article examines two recent rulings of the Court of Justice of the European Union (cases Egenberger and IR). These are the first rulings on art. 4, par. 2, Directive 2000/78/EC on “occupational activities within churches and other public or private organisations the ethos of which is based on religion or belief“. On the one hand the author focuses on the passages concerning religious autonomy and jurisdictional protection of rights; on the other hand she highlights the links between the jurisprudence of the two European courts (CJEU and ECHR) and tries to reconcile the statements of the Court of Justice and those of the German constitutional Court on the limits to the autonomy of churches. However, the article highlights how the Court of Justice has not adequately addressed neither the art. 10 of the European Charter of Fundamental Rights EU, nor the art. 17 of the TFEU. As regards the ideological requirement set by art. 4, par. 2 of the European Directive, the study focuses on the additions made by the Court of Justice and recalls the reinterpretations of the ideological requirement recently adopted by the Catholic and Evangelical Churches in Germany.
SOMMARIO: 1. Le pratiche di manipolazioni degli organi genitali femminili - 2. Procedura esercutiva e conseguenze degli atti di alterazione dei caratteri sessuali delle donne - 3. Radici socio-culturali delle pratiche di MGF - 4. Fattore religioso e atti modificativi dei genitali femminili - 5. Le strategie di prevenzione e di contrasto delle MGF nell’Unione europea - 6. Politiche legislative nella lotta contro le MGF - 7. Conclusioni.
Denied identities. Female genital mutilation: the fight of Europe against a silent violence
ABSTRACT: FGM refers to rituals of manipulation female genitalia and other procedures against female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Usually the practice is carried out on young girls, from childhood to teenagers. These rituals are carried out for cultural, religious and social reasons in the mistaken belief that they will produce a benefit to the girl (to safeguard her virginity, to prepare for marriage, etc.). No religious text prescribes the practice, but is rooted in the culture and beliefs of the communities that practice it. However some religious communities practice the FGM. Rituals do not help the health of the girl subjected, but they can lead to serious health complications or even to death of victim. So FGM is recognised a form of child abuse and a violation of women’s human rights. The EU is committed to eliminating FGM through strategic actions and legislative measures, but mainly changes in attitudes and beliefs among relevant communities are important to ensure FGM is abandoned. It is also important to fight FGM with direct involvement of the religious and political leaders of the communities where the rituals are diffuse. European States are called to cooperate with each other with strategic internal and external actions.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La giurisprudenza della Suprema Corte - 3. L’introduzione del § 1631, lett. d, nel BGB tedesco e la giurisprudenza di Colonia - 4. Risoluzioni e raccomandazioni del Consiglio d’Europa - 5. Il recente dibattito islandese - 6. Prospettive per l’Italia: necessità o ultroneità di una legge ad hoc? - 7. Osservazioni conclusive.
Notes on ritual circumcision in Ecclesiastical and Religious Law.
ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the delicate issue of ritual circumcision in Ecclesiastical and Religious Law. After having investigated the etymological origin of the word and reconstructed the history of the practice in question – distinguishing between circumcisions: a) therapeutic or prophylactic, b) ritual, c) cultural or ethnic – the focus is on the jurisprudential orientations of the Italian Court of Cassation. The solution proposed by the judgment of 24 November 2011, n. 43646, is carefully read and compared with the EU's law, the German legislation and the results of the recent Icelandic debate. Nevertheless, the absence of an ad hoc law on circumcision does not represent a vulnus in the Italian legal system, since the discipline can be found in the positive law in force, and even before in constitutional principles, as interpreted by the jurisprudence of merit and legitimacy. On the contrary, the essay raises the question that the introduction of a law on circumcision would not only be superfluous (for ethical and cultural reasons, even before legal ones), but also late".
SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa: le origini del dibattito sul genocidio e la difficile genesi della sua giuridificazione - 2. Processi ermeneutici e tentativi espansivi in merito alla nozione di genocidio: rischi e problematiche. Il ruolo dei profili religiosi - 3. Qualificazioni tipologico-effettuali del genocidio. Percorsi e prospettive - 4. Appunti per una casistica giurisdizionale internazionale del genocidio: riscontri formali e casi controversi - 5. Disagevoli profili conclusivi: l’attualità del genocidio e delle sue conseguenze istituzionali nel cuore dell’Europa.
Observations about the genocide: hypotheses of comparison and consequences on the legal protection of religious freedom
ABSTRACT: Talking about the genocide implies to recall a wide doctrinal processing, including refined strategies to put into effects the legal definition of genocide itself. This conceptual effort should combine the historical reconstruction with a dramatic but intransigent analysis of the most recent massacres. The constant presence of religious conflicts in concrete representations of genocide undoubtedly shows how the stance for religious freedom shall be definitely urgent and participated, because genocides are a maybe surprising but anyway unquestionable part of our most recent legal history and systems, including the institutional development of the European Union.
SUMMARY: 1. Introduction. Object of the evaluation: description of the exhibit – 2. Main part. An evaluation - 2.1. Communicative technique of combining the sacred with the low and vulgar associated with homosexual acts and the corresponding semantics condemned in the traditional Catholic religion - 2.2. Communicative technique of metonymic replacement (substitution) of one sign with another - 3. Conclusions.
SOMMARIO: Sistemi di classificazione dei rapporti e individuazione degli interlocutori istituzionali delle confessioni religiose - 2. Il “laboratorio” dell’Europa dell’Est come luogo di sperimentazione del pluralismo intra confessionale - 3. La gestione delle relazioni tra Stato e confessioni religiose attraverso gli uffici - 4. I problemi nuovi posti dal moltiplicarsi delle confessioni nei diversi paesi europei - 4.1. L’area baltica - 4.2. (segue) Le Repubbliche russofone - 4.3. (segue) Le Repubbliche dell’Europa Centrale - 4.4. (segue) I Balcani Orientali - 4.5. (segue) I territori della ex Repubblica Jugoslava - 4.6. (segue) Le scelte differenziate delle Repubbliche ex jugoslave in materia di Rapporti tra Stato e confessioni religiose - 5. La felice anomalia albanese - 6. Un contributo all’elaborazione di linee guida ai rapporti tra Stato e confessioni religiose in Europa.
Confessions and religious communities in Eastern Europe, religious pluralism and legislative policies of the States
ABSTRACT: The intervention reconstructs the supporting lines of the activity of the national office of each legal system in charge with the maintenance of the relations between the State and the confessions and religious communities in the Eastern European countries. Through this perspective, the ecclesiastical politics of 19 countries is reconstructed, highlighting the genesis and the peculiar characteristics of their legislations and highlighting the underlying lines that are at the root of the choices of their systems. Particular attention is dedicated to the definition of the different models to which the States refer in relation to their effectiveness in maintaining religious peace while respecting the principle of equality and freedom among the various religious confessions. The article aims to be a contribution to the development of guidelines for relations between the state and religious confessions in Europe.
SOMMARIO 1. Introduction - 2. Premise - 3. Ancient history - 4. Roman law - 5. Aquinas and Canon law - 6. 16th Century: Protestantism and the mercantile era - 7. 17th century: Jusnaturalism - 8. 18th century and 19th centuries: industrialization and capitalism - 9. The prohibition of riba - 10. Similarities between the sharia prescriptions and the ancient Jewish ones - 11. Riba and its recent openings - 12. Riba prohibition in the twentieth century and the sharia-compliant financial instruments - 13. Solutions - 14. Islamic Finance - 15. Conclusions.
ABSTRACT: The article addresses the theme of usury taking into account various viewpoints and traditions, pausing in particular on the Western and Islamic notions of lending at interest, in order to outline its distinctive features in the present days as well as throughout its historical evolution. The author applies a comparative research method, examining both the differences and similarities between the Western and Muslim concept of usury so to present an accurate picture of the phenomenon. In fact, the article aims at answering the latest questions concerning the possibility for the Muslim model to be a valuable resource in overcoming the keep going financial crisis.
SOMMARIO: 1. Autonomia delle organizzazioni religiose e diritti dei singoli: il problema ‘classico’ del contemperamento - 2. Il problema del contemperamento dinanzi alla Corte di giustizia. I casi Vera Egenberger e JQ: stessa narrativa per due gemelli (in parte) diversi? - 3. Il profilo sostanziale delle decisioni: le dimensioni della libertà religiosa e il principio di non discriminazione - 4. Il profilo ordinamentale: Carta dei diritti e principi generali del diritto dell’Unione europea nel rapporto fra sistemi.
Collective religious freedom and principle of non-discrimination in the ‘constitutional’ system of the European Union
ABSTRACT: In the two recently handed down Judgments in the cases Vera Egenberger and JQ, the Court of Justice of the European Union for the first time interpreted Article 4, par. 2 of the Anti-discrimination Framework Directive (Directive 2000/78/EC) admitting a ‘religious exemption’ in favour of Churches and other religious organisation, and ruled on the horizontal application of the right not to be discriminated against in situations coming within the scope of EU law. The paper explores the substantive implications of those Judgments for the collective religious freedom and their contribution in clarifying the horizontal direct effect of the fundamental rights and principles enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Main Part. An Examination - 3. Complete exhaustion of the subject of the executive act adopted by the Patriarchate of Constantinople in 1686 - 4. Assessment of the actions from the perspective of the legislation of the Republic of Turkey - 5. Conclusions.
Il 28 settembre 2018, presso l’Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, si è tenuto un convegno internazionale co-finanziato dall’Unione Europea, che ha visto la partecipazione di giovani studiosi delle più diverse discipline giuridiche, italiani e stranieri. I relatori, selezionati in seguito ad una “call for papers”, cui è stata data ampia pubblicità in Italia e all’estero, si sono confrontati sul tema del pluralismo religioso nel sistema europeo e, soprattutto, nella recente giurisprudenza delle Corti sovranazionali. (continua)
SOMMARIO: 1. La vicenda - 2. Gli argomenti pro e contro l’elezione di un sacerdote a Rettore di una università pubblica - 3. Le incompatibilità dei ministri di culto - 4. La possibile incidenza dei principi riguardanti la c.d. “laïcité d’apparence” - 5. L’intervento dei giudici amministrativi - 6. Conclusioni: l’irrilevanza dell’ordinazione non accompagnata dall’esercizio di funzioni ministeriali.
The election of a Catholic priest as Rector of the University of Strasbourg: “Much ado about nothing”?
ABSTRACT: This study examines the question of compatibility between the principle of neutrality of public services in force in French law and the election of a minister of the Catholic religion as Rector of a public university. The Author rules out the existence of any form of incapacity. However, since the duty of discretion of the public official (“devoir de réserve”) operates even outside the exercise of his functions, it may limit the freedom to exercise pastoral ministry in specific cases, as well as the performance of the most typical tasks that are inherent in the status of minister of worship, due to the inevitable repercussions on the image of the university.
SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Libertad religiosa y celebración de las festividades religiosas - 3. La neutralidad ideológico-religiosa de los centros educativos públicos - 4. Celebración de festividades religiosas en la escuela de titularidad pública - 4.1. Celebración de festividades que presentan un significado religioso y una tradición cultural - 4.2. La respuesta de los Tribunales de Justicia en materia de celebraciones religiosas - 4.3. Algunas claves para la solución de estos conflictos - 5. Celebración de las festividades religiosas en el horario escolar - 5.1. Marco jurídico de las festividades en el ámbito escolar - 5.2. Discriminación de los grupos religiosos minoritarios - 6. Consideraciones finales: la acomodación razonable de las creencias religiosas.
Neutrality, diversity and celebration of religious festivities in public schools
Abstract: This paper analyzes some legal conflicts derived from the celebration of religious festivities in the public school. On the one hand, the celebration of certain festivals that, while showing a cultural tradition, at the same time, present a religious meaning, mainly of Christian inspiration. On the other, when permission is requested to celebrate and commemorate such festivities during school hours. Beyond the concrete problem, it is important to start from the position of inclusive neutrality that public authorities must adopt to manage the religious diversity that manifests itself in this specific area and which, in turn, is the best way to guarantee the right of parents to choose the education they wish for their children.
SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive sul fondamentalismo odierno: alcune differenze rispetto ai movimenti omologhi dei decenni precedenti - 2. L’influenza del fondamentalismo sulla demografia religiosa e sul contenzioso giurisdizionale negli Stati Uniti d’America - 3. Il fondamentalismo americano protestante e le omologhe istanze etiche e giuridiche di gruppi religiosi contemporanei - 4. La Chiesa di Gesù Cristo dei Santi degli Ultimi Giorni: le origini di una protesta contro la teologia ottocentesca - 5. L’escatologia teocratica dei Testimoni di Geova e le conseguenze ordinamentali - 6. Possibili conclusioni: il ruolo del fondamentalismo cristiano nella conformazione attuale delle istituzioni statunitensi.
The origins of the Christian fundamentalism: comparative approaches and research perspectives
ABSTRACT: The aim of this essay is to demonstrate the Christian roots of the public discourse concerning fundamentalism, its disciplines, groups and legal consequences. This issue implies to go back to the first Christian fundamentalist experiences born and raised during last two centuries in America (with a peculiar focus on the United States). By reconsidering a wide historical period and a not simple variety of local religious communities, it will be possible to underline a substantial and concurrent beginning for similar movements in the progressive development of Jehovah’s Witnesses, new wave Lutheran and Baptist Churches, Church of Latter Day Saints: some of the same faiths and cults still effecting the American recent ecclesiastical controversies.
SOMMARIO: 1. L’infanzia di Pietro - 2. Il rione degli stranieri - 3. La Grande Ambasciata - 4. L’inizio delle riforme - 5. Pietro e il monachesimo - 6. Il manifesto sulla tolleranza religiosa - 7. Pietro e la religione - 8. La subordinazione della Chiesa - 9. Feofan Prokopovyč e il suo ruolo determinante - 10. L’abolizione del Patriarcato - 11. Il Santo Sinodo governante e la paralisi della Chiesa.
The Protestant Influence on the Church Reform of Peter the Great
ABSTRACT: Peter the Great first comes into contact with the outside world through long familiarity with the German Quarter, a fluctuating Muscovite community of foreigners with its Lutheran and Calvinist churches, and with subsequent and extensive travel in the Protestant Lands (1697-1698), where he has ample time to appraise the role of sovereign as head of the church. The relationship of the tsar to his church is paradoxical; on the one hand, it emanates laws contrary to the principles sanctioned by the Church's Councils and organizes blasphemous parodies with The All-Joking, All-Drunken Synod of Fools and Jesters; conversely, he imposes rigidly traditional religious behaviors on the military. Rejecting his role and duty as Servant of the Salvation of Souls, he assumes a secular stance: Protector of the wellbeing of the community, (Vsenarodnaja pol’za). This swerve subordinating Church to sovereign undergoes elaborate scrutiny by Feofan Prokopovyč, apologist and theologian with Protestant leanings, who, in light of the abolition of the Patriarchate and the institution of the Holy Synod, affirms the principle of cuius regio eius et religio, openly challenging the position of the locum tenens Stefan Javors’kyj.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa metodologica - 2. Cenni storici sulle comunità musulmane francesi - 3. La re-invenzione di una tradizione? - 4. Mangiare halal a scuola: l’affaire di Chalon-sur-Saône - 5. Conclusioni.
Halal alimentation and the challenges against french laïcité: the request of alternative menu in the school canteens
ABSTRACT: The article will concern the debate about the balance between secularism and religious-driven prerogatives through a narrow focus on the diffusion of halal food in France. In particular, I will shed light on the increasing request of shari'a-compliant food by Muslims in some social spaces, for instance in the school canteens. My research will unfold its arguments in two sections. In the first one, I will address the recent development of halal market in France and try to frame the reasons of such burgeoning activities - revival of Islam or neoliberal marketing strategy? In the second part, I will consider the sentence of Dijon Administrative Tribunal, which in 2017 abolished the decision of the mayor of Chalon-sur-Saône of suppressing halal menu in the school canteens. The verdict might be read as an opinion favourable to Muslim’s prerogatives. Nonetheless, the rationale of the judgement does lie indeed in the defence of the “best interest of the child”, whereas the basic principles of French laicité were not put into discussion.
SOMMARIO: 1. Dal socialismo di Stato allo Stato confessionale - 2. L’Accordo di collaborazione con l’Esarcato della Chiesa ortodossa Russa in Bielorussia - 3. Le materie oggetto di accordo e la confessionalizzazione delle istituzioni e dello Stato - 4. Gli accordi con gli altri culti tradizionali - 5. Il prezzo dell’alleanza: la lotta alle nuove confessioni religiose attraverso la legge sulla libertà religiosa - 6. Alcune considerazioni finali.
Belarus in search of its identity and the process of confessionalisation of the State
ABSTRACT: The current piece analyzes the stages characterizing the transition from State socialism to State Confessionalism through the Collaboration Agreement between the Belorussian Government and the Exarcate of the Russian Orthodox Church in Belarus. The main subjects of the agreement and the confessionalisation process of the institutions are taken into account. The essay deals with the alteration of the basic functions of the Belorussian State, namely education, health services and assistancy to the segregating foundations, etc. Furthermore, the agreements with other traditional religious groups are relevant. In this regard, the law on religious freedom is mainly used to resist the spread of such new cults. The study is then finalized to highlight the existing link between the Russian Orthodox Church traditions and cultural heritage with the estabilishment of a national identity. This symbolic bond is then used to build the basis of a new State with strong religious features in sensitive matters such as the control over births, bridal affairs, cultural and social valuesin a nationalist and sovereignist key.
SUMMARY: 1. Together in diversity: law and religion in modern civil law systems - 2. The religious traditions in law and religion - 3. The religion and law osmosis in law-making processes - 4. The religion and law osmosis in jurisdiction - 5. As a strategy: the nomopoietic function of religions in the legal koinè.
SUMARIO: 1. Planteamiento de la cuestión - 2. El catolicismo-nacionalista de ciertos símbolos evocadores de lo religioso - 3. ¿Los símbolos religioso-franquistas pueden permanecer en ámbitos públicos? - 3.1. Supuesto en que el símbolo religioso no ha de tenerse por vestigio franquista - 3.2. Supuesto en que el símbolo ha de tenerse por vestigio franquista - 4. Consideraciones conclusivas.
ABSTRACT: The present article argues if, under the interpretation and application of the so-called Historical Memory Law, Franco’s regimen would have set the basis to divest itself as part of the Catholicism that characterized it, in terms of having some symbols that originally would have been considered religious and now they cease to be so, historically and inevitably, at least in a retrospective point of view. In other terms, for the current time to impose a type of victim, although final of Franco’s regimen in the manner of, as a paradox, for some religious symbols to cease to be, without any other possibility for its political use as far as ‘semel francoist semper francoist’ can no longer recover that religious value. This matter, whether it refers, principally to the “Cruces de los Caídos” it can also be argued for it to attain the crucifix and the Virgin Mary located in public places by order of the dictatorial regimen.
SOMMARIO: 1. Le possibili implicazioni religiose di una “stretta di mano” - 2. Il caso sottoposto all’esame dei giudici svedesi - 3. La pronunzia del 15 agosto 2018, n. 51, del Tribunale del lavoro svedese e la questione della ricorrenza di una “pratica religiosa” meritevole di tutela - 4. (segue) La verifica dei presupposti di una “discriminazione indiretta” - 5. L’esperienza d’Oltreoceano - 6. Identità religiosa e (dis)uguaglianza di genere - 7. La diversa incidenza, nella fattispecie esaminata, del divieto di discriminazione per motivi religiosi e del principio della parità di genere - 8. Conclusioni: la libertà religiosa della lavoratrice e i margini lasciati alle scelte di politica aziendale della società.
Dealing with the contentious points of the integration (about “forbidden” greetings and principle of non-discrimination)
ABSTRACT: Some Islamic believers adhere to a rule of behavior coming from a particular reading of the traditions concerning the life of Muhammad, so they do not shake hands with people of the other sex outside their own restricted family circle. The present paper analyzes the potential impact of such a choice, if it is carried out in the work context and it infringes specific internal company rules, which require employees to not discriminate against customers on the basis of sex. The Author, in accordance with a recent decision of the Swedish Labor Court, affirms that the limitation of the freedom of the worker can be considered a case of indirect discrimination for religious reasons. However, demanding that the woman abstains from shaking hands with persons of her own sex, as suggested by the Court, is not required by the principle of gender equality, and is not coherent with the very personal nature of the act, according to the Author.
SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. The Vertical and Horizontal Influences - 3. Atheism, laïcité and Church - 4. Atheism, laïcité and Islam - 5. Today’s Popular Sources of Atheism - 6. Conclusion.
ABSTRACT: With this article, the Author outlines the legal issues involving the atheism in France, analysing them in the light of the principle of laïcité. France has a long history of criticism of religion. Many philosophes of the Enlightenment, for example, have provided the classical writings in this field. In this sense, they were able to aliment two major streams of thought of the magmatic French atheism: one is based on the horizontal influences arising from the effect of increasing worldwide travel with the discovery that people do not necessary share the same views and beliefs about the nature of human being; the other is centred on vertical arguments bubbling up from the past in a very form of scepticism and realism. With its multi-faceted and articulated view, the French atheism has also been promoted by a number of movements devoted to arguing the case for non-belief and for its political expression in laïcité. In this manner, the Author tries to demonstrate that, since the Great Revolution and during the long history of the French constitutional system, laïcité de combat and atheism has been influencing each other in a constantly shifting process of mutual adaptation.
SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. La prohibición de la blasfemia en el marco de una Constitución de clara inspiración católica - 3. El cuestionamiento de una norma de tan dudoso encaje en el sistema constitucional de derechos y libertades - 3.1. Las críticas en general al régimen constitucional de las confesiones religiosas - 3.2. La controversia específica en torno a la prohibición de la blasfemia en la Constitución irlandesa - 4. Algunas conclusiones y una razonable expectativa.
The controversial offence of blasphemy in the Irish Constitution
ABSTRACT: As recently as June 2018 the Irish Government has approved a referendum to remove the offence of blasphemy from the Constitution; the referendum will be held in October this year. This paper briefly examines the historical and legal backgrounds of this controversial prohibition that survived the 1972 reform of the constitutional provisions in the field of Church and State that, among other aspects, conferred a special position to the Catholic Church, and it does so in order to underline the importance and the potential consequences of the proposed reform in case of an affirmative vote in the upcoming referendum. For this analysis the author gives prior consideration to the fundamental meaning and scope of the constitutional provisions currently in force in the area of Law and Religion and, once this framework is summarized, the paper turns to reflect primarily on the legal and judicial developments that have taken place in the last decades relating the offence of blasphemy in Irish Law.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Tra free speech e free exercise clauses: la libertà di coscienza nella giurisprudenza della Corte suprema (cenni) - 3. Una discriminazione nella discriminazione? Una decisione che non risolve il dilemma - 4. Kicking the can down the road: l’arte di non decidere e le dissenting/concurring opinions del caso Masterpiece Cakeshop - 5. (segue) a) l’opinion del giudice Thomas - 6. (segue) b) uno sguardo sul futuro: due (ipotetici) orientamenti prevalenti - 7. Dal saluto alla bandiera alle torte nuziali: libertà e tolleranza nella società plurale contemporanea.
ABSTRACT: The paper examines the clash between public accommodations laws and freedoms of speech and religion in America at the light of the recent decision of the U.S. Supreme Court Masterpiece Cakeshop Ltd., v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission. The case deals with the refusal of a Colorado’s bakery to provide a wedding cake to a gay couple based on the owner's religious beliefs. After explaining the decision of the Court and the position of the U.S. Supreme Court Justices in their dissenting and concurring opinions, the paper addresses the claim of freedom of speech and of the tolerance principle in the pluralistic age.
Abstract: Jerusalem is the most important city in the world, the Centre of the three greatest religions. It is the Capital of the State of Israel for some, the capital of the State of Palestine for others and for others still a corpus separatum under international control. Everyone wants Jerusalem, and so they contest it, creating political and legislative unrest. These disturbances give rise to violence from both groups of people that live there. In this brief dissertation, we retrace the key historical points and problems associated with the legal status of this city, from the first decades of the twentieth century, to understand that the problem lies in the claim of ownership of this City.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione – 2. Le mutilazioni genitali femminili come atto di violenza nelle norme e nei documenti europei degli anni 2000 – 3. Escissione e abuso/brutalità/violenza: binomi appropriati e inevitabili? – 4. L’escissione, il dolore e la sua reinterpretazione – 5. Il rapporto dell’escissione con la comunità, la famiglia e il matrimonio – 6. La Convenzione di Istanbul, le norme francesi e i rischi per la libertà religiosa – 7. Considerazioni conclusive.
Female Genital Mutilation as a Gender-Based Crime? (An Analysis of the European Norms in Light of the Concepts of Violence and Religious Freedom)
ABSTRACT: Female genital mutilations (FGM) are ancient practices, which are widespread in several geographical areas, and particularly in Africa. The conflict between customary norms and state legal systems, which arises because FGM violate fundamental rights like the right to physical integrity, health, and non-discrimination based on gender/ethnicity/culture, discloses the dialectic between two normative universes; these universes are conceptually distant with regard to the priority given to the individual and the group. Focusing on the reasons related to female genital cutting (FGC), which consists of the ablation, to differing degrees, of female genital organs, this article, argues that the link that European norms establish between FGM and violence, abuse or brutality comes into conflict with the reasons why migrants perpetuate FGC. Therefore, the way gender is mainstreamed into European norms on FGM can have negative effects, which concern courts’ implementation of these norms and migrants’ social inclusion. Furthermore, this article claims that focusing on health instead of gender equality may prove more effective for the eradication of FGM. Through an analysis of French law, it also suggests that the way the national law is adapted to conform to the Istanbul Convention, may represent a danger to religious freedom.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La disciplina dell’esercizio della fede nei penitenziari inglesi - 3. La diversità delle fedi in carcere e il ruolo delle community chaplaincies - 4. Il carcere come spazio multi-religioso e i nodi irrisolti dall’Equality Act del 2010 - 5. La discriminazione per motivi religiosi nella giurisprudenza inglese e gli obblighi di prestazione a carico della pubblica amministrazione.
Freedom of worship and Religious Diversity in English Prisons
ABSTRACT: This article aims to highlight different aspects of the practice of faith in the British prison system. While the 1952 Prison Act gave a preeminent position to the chaplains of the Church of England, in the last decades multi-faith spaces of worship and spiritual-care groups have multiplied. Furthermore, ‘community chaplaincies’ and volunteers are active players in rehabilitation programs, especially in preventing recidivism, which is higher among ethnic and religious minorities. Both the Human Rights Act of 1998 and the Equality Act of 2010 have contributed to promote an ‘inclusive’ approach to religion pluralism, granting access to spiritual assistance and equal treatment among prison inmates. However, it is worth to consider if a State-centred management of religious diversity is a sustainable choice before the growing judicial litigation related to prisoners’ freedom of worship.
SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. Premesse a una ricostruzione dello statuto dei beni culturali - 3. Il passaggio da una tutela “statica” a una valorizzazione “in chiave dinamica” - 4. Inquadramento dell’attività di valorizzazione nell’ambito dei “servizi pubblici” - 5. La possibile estensione dei processi di gestione (e di valorizzazione) ideati per i beni culturali “laici” - e ispirati a criteri economici - anche ai beni culturali di interesse religioso: la necessità dell’accordo - 6. L’organizzazione di un “servizio alla cultura” ispirato a criteri di natura economica - 7. Tentativo di individuazione dei beni culturali di interesse religioso e possibile compatibilità della gestione secondo criteri economici con la natura di questi ultimi - 8. Beni culturali religiosi e “mistero” di salvezza - 9. La programmazione e la pianificazione delle attività relative ai beni culturali (di appartenenza pubblica e non) ed esempi di modelli “condivisi”.
An "UNESCO model" for the economic management of cultural heritage of religious interest?
ABSTRACT: The article is intended to verify if the "UNESCO" management model is applicable to the management of cultural heritage of religious interest, tout court, or if, otherwise, special arrangement are required. Indeed, the UNESCO one is a model not only of dualistic management, (which implies a bilateral agreement), but moreover is inspired by purely economic management criteria. The question is whether a model created for secular cultural heritage can be assumed as a management model also for cultural heritage of religious interest, whose purpose would seem to be incompatible with the characteristics of purely economic management. The author tries to give an answer identifying the common features between the two categories of heritage.
SOMMARIO: 1. La direttiva europea 2000/78/CE e le organizzazioni di tendenza - 2. Il caso Egenberger c. Evangelisches Werk dinanzi alla Corte di giustizia - 3. La sindacabilità dei provvedimenti confessionali in materia di lavoro - 4. I controlimiti alla disapplicazione della direttiva - 5. L’obbligo giudiziario di conformazione del diritto nazionale a quello europeo - 6. Il divieto di discriminazione sul lavoro alla stregua della Carta dei diritti del cittadino europeo.
No difference of treatment on grounds of religion or belief and religious organizations
ABSTRACT: It’s the first time that the Court of Justice E.U. deals with the limits of the exemption from ban on discrimination on grounds of religion or belief in favour of organisations the ethos of which is based on religion or belief. The German law implemented softly the directive 2000/78/CE favouring that ethos, as interpreted by those organizations, and consequently limiting the judicial review merely to its plausibility. Viceversa according to the European Court the religion or belief must constitute a genuine, legitimate and justified occupational requirement, having regard to the organisation’s ethos and the proportionality principle (even though not explicitly recalled by the directive). So an exhaustive judgement allows an objective, not spiritualistic, evaluation of the occupational activities and therefore a stronger legal protection of workers under articles 10, 21 and 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
SOMMARIO: 1. “A tradition under threat”. Antropologia della paura e tendenze esclusiviste delle comunità dominanti - 2. La tradizione filosofica del pensiero costituzionale: Williams, Madison e i princìpi cardine della tradizione di “religious fairnes” - 3. Forme di Benign Establishment: critica alla tesi della “presunta innocuità” e interpretazione autentica del principio di separazione - 4. Neutralità statale e speciale considerazione del fenomeno religioso: un rapporto problematico.
Liberty of conscience and liberty of religion on the challenge of the post-modernity: the Martha C. Nussbaum's philosophical jurisprudence
ABSTRACT: Nussbaum is one of the prominent defenders of the North American liberal tradition, threatened by the post-modern tendency to the exaltation of elements from the mainstream religion and the creation of in-groups between citizens. In his writings, the philosopher reproposes the value of liberal tradition by trying to show the impossibility to justify even the most venial forms of the benign establishment, as in the case of state-sponsored-religious-displays. The article focuses on Nussbaum'arguments, in a critical perspective.
SOMMARIO: 1. Notazioni introduttive - 2. I termini della vicenda da cui origina il rinvio pregiudiziale e la competenza della Corte di giustizia a pronunziarsi sulla questione controversa - 3. La portata applicativa del regolamento n. 1259 del 2010 e le sentenze dei tribunali religiosi - 4. Le implicazioni di carattere sistematico della pronunzia in rapporto al principio di incompetenza dell’Unione nella materia ecclesiastica o religiosa - 5. I dubbi sostanziali circa la riconoscibilità in Europa del ripudio islamico - 6. Conclusioni.
The issue of the civil recognizability of the Islamic divorce by the EU Court of Justice (considerations on the ruling of December 20th 2017, C-372/16)
ABSTRACT: The present paper takes as a starting point a recent ruling by the EU Court of Justice concerning the issue of recognizability of Islamic repudiation under the EU Regulation No. 1259/2010. After assessing the conditions underlying the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice to rule on such a controversial matter, the Author excludes that the religious judgments fall within the scope of the aforementioned regulation (and within the purpose of Regulation No. 2201/2013), also in light of the so-called principle of the Union’s incompetence in ecclesiastical or religious matters. Moreover, although the unilateral repudiation is to be considered contrary to the principle of public order of the moral and legal equality of the spouses, the Author concludes that, consistently with the current trend of many legal systems to give increasing broader space to the “negotiating” management of the marriage bond, effective protection of the principle of equality should involve letting women, in some particular situations, have the choice of concretely enforcing that principle.
SOMMARIO: 1. Il divieto di maternità surrogata nell’ordinamento italiano - 2. Diritto ebraico e bioetica - 3. “Crescete e moltiplicatevi”. Il precetto divino di procreare e la maternità surrogata nel diritto ebraico - 4. Conclusioni.
Some starting points for comparison between Italian law and Jewish law on surrogate motherhood
ABSTRACT: Recent scientific progress in reproductive biotechnologies implies significant transformations in terms of the value and culture of the concept of maternity, which is no longer attributable to the legal definition of “mother” offered by Italian civil legislation. Assisted reproductive technologies separate the reproductive aspect and sexual union of the couple, finally leading to the metamorphosis of the relational dynamics underlying the “family identity” and the birth of new types of biolegal contracts. The study sets out to compare the approach that the Italian legal system reserves for the phenomenon of surrogacy with that which has developed at the heart of Jewish law. The interesting variety of opinions of the rabbinical authorities, which express both the Orthodox positions and the more progressive ones, show how Jewish speculation around bioethical reproductive issues has led to a respectful comparison of knowledge and judgements of the minority opinions that enter, with equal dignity, into the legal debate and are enhanced by the absence of a superior interpretation.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa introduttiva - 2. La Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tra eredità islamica e legittimazione internazionale - 3. La laicità dello Stato: il fondamento della nuova identità nazionale - 4. Le forze armate e la Corte costituzionale: i ‘custodi’ della laiklik - 5. La parabola dell’AKP: dall’impulso riformista alla recente involuzione autoritaria - 6. Le implicazioni giuridiche del fallito golpe del 2016.
Secularism in the shadow of the minarets: the constitutional principle of secularism in modern and contemporary Turkey
ABSTRACT: The present essay deals with the so-called ‘laiklik’, namely the Kemalist understanding of the constitutional principle of secularism implemented in the Turkish legal framework over the last century. The analysis takes as a starting point the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey and focuses firstly on the staunch protection of secularism by its traditional ‘guardians’ (i.e. the army and the Constitutional Court). In particular, it is argued that the rhetoric of secularism has been exploited by the ruling élites with the aim to curb religious, cultural and political pluralism. Subsequently, the paper investigates the controversial policies adopted by the AKP - the moderate pro-Islamic party in power uninterruptedly since 2002 - and the rule of law crisis recently occurred in the country. In this regard, the author eventually seeks to assess the aftermath of the coup attempt failed in July 2016, by giving special attention to its short and long-term implications in the light of Turkish secularism.
SOMMARIO: 1. Le Sharia court: origini, attività e scopi - 2. Alcuni dati statistici - 3. Un’ulteriore evoluzione: l’Arbitration Act e il Muslim Arbitration Tribunal - 4. Il discorso dell’arcivescovo di Canterbury e reazioni - 5. Il Private Members’ Bill della baronessa Cox - 6. La risposta dell’Islamic Sharia Council - 7. Un dibattito ancora in corso: Friend or Foe?
Sharia Courts. History and evolution of Muslim courts in the United Kingdom
ABSTRACT: In the last thirty years the United Kingdom has experienced the formation and surge of so-called Sharia courts or councils, unrecognised Muslim tribunals with purpose of settling disputes using Islamic religious law. Their stated objectives include providing advice and assistance in the operation of Muslim family life, establishing a bench of scholars to operate as a council, making decisions on matters of Muslim family law, and promoting an enlightened practice of the Muslim faith by Muslims living in the UK.
This paper analyses the origins, evolution and functioning of these councils, with emphasis on the lively public debate initiated in 2008 following the Archbishop of Canterbury’s remarks and followed with the bill proposed by Baroness Cox. An overview of the relations between Sharia councils and the State is presented, while providing insight on future scenarios.
SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. Il quadro normativo - 3. Le soluzioni giurisprudenziali - 4. Riflessioni conclusive.
The ‘debaptism’, between religious freedom and implicit rules. Hints of comparative law
ABSTRACT: The problem of cancellation from baptismal registers seems to have come to a final solution, thus being no more interesting. Nonetheless, it can still be useful to analyse it from a comparative point of view. The study of the various solutions proposed by the different legal systems allows finding out ‘implicit’ juridical principles, which condition the interpretation and the implementation of positive rules. It can be especially remarked a convergence of arguments and results between legal systems formally inspired to distinct models of State-religions’ relationship - such as the French and the Italian legal systems. This convergence highlights the existence, at a latent level, of common cultural conceptions of the religious experience, fashioned by the Christian religious paradigm; these conceptions tend to shape the concrete contents of both the right to religious freedom, and the right to personal identity, protected by personal data laws.
SOMMAIRE: 1 - Introduction - 2. L’État et l’Église en Grèce. Le cadre constitutionnel - 3 - L’Église de Grèce comme institution de l’État grec - 4. Le discours constitutionnel de l’Église. Des éléments de constitutionnalisme populiste - Pluralisme constitutionnel et droits de la majorité - 6. Les droits en tant qu’identité - 7. Conclusion - Bibliographie.
ABSTRACT: The invocation of the people, the constitution and the rights occupies an important place in the public discourse of the Church of Greece. Its constitutional discourse exhibits two main characteristics. Firstly, it is a populist discourse. The church talks in the name of “its” people, which it identifies with the Greek nation, and as the voice of the people’s will against its rulers. Moreover, it is a rights-laden discourse. The church talks as the protector of the rights of the majority, which it identifies with the rights of its believers. Its constitutional discourse and practice shows that the church manages to exploit the institutions, achievements and discourses of modernity, if only for the promotion of apparently pre-modern ends: the preservation of its privileges against the other religions; the prolongation of its role in the public sphere; its reproduction as an ideological mechanism of the nation-state.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Considerazioni preliminari - 3. La fine del ‘vecchio mondo’ - 4. Universalità e identità - 5. Un nuovo protagonismo per i diritti religiosi? - 6. Per concludere.
Secularism and post-modernity: some American echos
ABSTRACT: The paper focuses on the works of six North American authors stemming from the conviction that the end of the ‘modern world’ is nigh and we are locked into the irreversible entropy of a secularism understood as a wall of separation between politics and religion. These convictions, together with a strong criticism towards legal positivism, imply the idea of the porousness of the borders between the sacred and profane, and a resulting reciprocal adjustment, an osmosis between the political and the religious spheres. In this paper, I would like to concentrate on the new approaches proposed by these authors and on the historical end epistemological connotations of the posited osmosis between the political and religious spheres.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Europa dei cittadini e identità politica del processo di integrazione continentale - 3. Spazio politico europeo, libertà religiosa e laicità - 4. Conclusioni.
ABSTRACT: The evolution of the European Union law and of the right to religious freedom lies in the global process of internationalization of fundamental rights, the transformation of relations between States, the modification of the idea of sovereignty, the emergence of new conventional instruments. With reference to the European social and legal space, the transformation of the European Economic Community into a real political union has allowed the inalienable human rights of the people to become central in the process of integration. Because of that, the political and legal system of the European Union, characterized by the transition of the State monopoly of sovereignty to its sharing among different subjects, has affected the reality of relations between public powers and religious phenomenon. A particular configuration of the concept of secularism in the European continent has been established, by virtue, which the values of democracy, pluralism, human dignity and non-identification between public functions and religious experience would allow for peaceful coexistence between religion, institutional activity of the European Union and fundamental freedoms.
SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. General measures of the anti-terrorist laws; social surveillance and immigration control - 3. Antiterrorist laws and Islam: the securitization of Muslims in western countries - 4. The enforcement of measures affecting Muslim population not directly related to security: the vague criminalization of Islam - 5. Effects of the measures direct or indirectly justified on security reasons in religious freedom; specially related to Muslim population - 6. Closing remarks; positive statements in the construction of the European Union framework.
SOMMARIO: 1. Delimitazione del tema d’indagine - 2. Gli epigoni giurisprudenziali del caso Lautsi in una recente sentenza del Tribunale Amministrativo Regionale per la Sardegna - 3. L’art. 28 della legge francese di separazione del 9 dicembre 1905 - 4. Il banco di prova dei monumenti ai caduti edificati dopo la legge del 1905 - 5. Le oscillazioni interpretative della giurisprudenza amministrativa in materia di esposizione dei presepi - 6. I dubbi sulla “riscrittura” dell’art. 28 operata dal Conseil d’État - 7. Le sorti della statua “fuorilegge” di papa Giovanni Paolo II - 8. La “prova di forza” della Slovacchia nella vicenda della moneta commemorativa dei Santi Cirillo e Metodio - 9. Conclusioni: trasfigurazione dei simboli o della laicità?
“To each his own cross”. Disparate remarks concerning the public display of Christian symbols in the European public sphere (with specific regard to Article 28 of the French Separation Law)
ABSTRACT: The present essay takes as a starting point some recent case law on the so-called “institutional” display of religious symbols (and in particular Christian symbols), in Italy and other European countries. The analysis focuses on both the French legal system and some recent rulings of the administrative jurisprudence, which seems to mark a shift from the more consolidated and traditional reading keys of the “secularism”.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Misure di trasparenza adottate nell’ambito della Santa Sede- 3. Legislazione spagnola in materia di trasparenza- 4. Il nuovo Portale di Trasparenza della CEE- 5. L’Accordo tra la CEE e TIE: profilo soggettivo- 6. L’Accordo tra la CEE e TIE: profilo sostanziale - 7. Riflessioni conclusive - 8. Appendice: Testo integro dell’Accordo tra la CEE e TIE.
The commitment of the Spanish Bishops' Conference in favor of Transparency: the Transparency Portal and the Agreement with Transparency International España
ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes two recent measures adopted by the Spanish Bishops' Conference to increase its level of transparency. The first of these measures is the creation of a new Transparency Portal in which a great deal of information is collected on institutional, legal and economic aspects related both to the Spanish Bishops' Conference itself and to other entities of the Catholic Church in Spain. As the present article shows, it is possible to establish a parallelism between the information provided on that website and some of the active publicity obligations established by Spanish Transparency Act. The second of the measures analyzed is the Agreement signed by the Spanish Bishops' Conference and Transparency International España. Through this Agreement, the Spanish Episcopal Conference is committed to adopt measures to increase its levels of Transparency.
SOMMARIO: 1. Libertà religiosa e protezione internazionale: note introduttive e di metodo - 2. La nozione di religione perseguitata - 3. I contenuti di tutela della libertà religiosa dei perseguitati - 4. Le condizioni di riconoscimento dello status di rifugiato religioso - 5. La procedura di valutazione delle domande - 6. Conclusioni.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Diritto e religione in Marocco: la libertà religiosa nella Costituzione del 2011 - 3. L’apostasia nel diritto islamico: cenni - 4. Il codice penale marocchino e la fatwā del 2013 - 5. Il Consiglio Superiore degli Ulema: prerogative e valenza dei suoi interventi - 6. “La via degli Ulema” (Sabīl al-‘ulamā’) e la rinnovata interpretazione sull’apostasia - 7. Il Marocco e la “via di Marrakech”: un segnale per il futuro?
Freedom of Religion and Freedom from Religion in Morocco: The Interpretative Revision on Apostasy
ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes a recent step taken by the Kingdom’s Ulama that distances from the traditional meaning of apostasy and of the penalty given for this offense. According to this document, Murtadd would not be the one who leaves Islam for another religion, but the one who betrays the group he belongs to. Apostasy was therefore political, not doctrinal. In this sense, the document represents an essential progress for the qualification of religious freedom in Morocco (on the same way already indicated by the Marrakesh Declaration).
SOMMARIO: 1. Discorsi odiosi - 2. La repressione giuridica delle idee odiose: vecchie difese, nuovi difesi - 3. Le ragioni del contrasto giuridico ai discorsi d’odio - 4. Due direttrici nella giustificazione della repressione giuridica del discorso d’odio.
Forbidden hate: the legal repression of hate speech
ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is two-folded. First, it offers a general overview of the legal repression of various categories of expressive behaviours ascribed to the notion of hate speech. Especially in Europe, such repression often passes through criminalization, long since used by law to suppress thoughts or points of view for some reason considered harmful. The social groups nowadays protected by such repressive measures, however, are different from the past: weak and/or minoritarian groups rather than strong and/or majoritarian ones. The second aim of this work is to identify the reasons for the legal repression of expressions, beliefs or doctrines certainly in many cases morally deplorable, yet protected by other high-ranking legal reasons: the principles of freedom of thought and speech. It will be noted that especially for untargeted hate speech not connected to a clear and present danger of unlawful actions, there is no general agreement about those reasons. Furthermore, they tend to be structured in justifications showing some typical flaws of, respectively, deontological and teleological reasoning: the former tend to be superficial as apodictic, generic and vacuous; the latter tend to evade the argumentative burdens of factual order from which their validity depends.
SOMMARIO: 1. Le sfide del nuovo multiculturalismo in materia matrimoniale - 2. La riforma del processo matrimoniale canonico e le sue potenziali ricadute sul giudizio di delibazione - 3. Il processus brevior - 4. La crisi della bilateralità - 5. Il “mite” pluralismo statunitense e le nuove “anti-sharia laws” - 6. L’esperienza del pluralismo “forte” israeliano e i suoi effetti sulle minoranze - 7. Modelli di pluralismo a confronto.
Pluralism in Marriage: the New Challenges of the “Overlapping Jurisdictions”
ABSTRACT: The challenges of the “new multiculturalism” in the field of marriage law regard not only which forms of marriage should be recognized by the State but also the forums in which marriage cases can be adjudicated and the role of faith-based laws and religious courts in democratic and secular legal systems. Religious groups increasingly ask for accommodation of their cultural identities; however, a growing skepticism concerning forms of religious jurisdiction is developing in regimes devoted to individual liberties, which employ public policy as grounds to vacate religious rulings. The present paper highlights the need for Western States to update and exploit the full potential of their legal instruments in order to prevent restrictions on collective and individual religious freedom in matters of marriage.