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Trifles for a pandemic

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La democrazia in pericolo? - 3. La libertà religiosa tra Costituzione e Concordato - 4. Sulla libertas Ecclesiae e sulle regole del diritto internazionale - 5. Le trattative diplomatiche de facto tra la CEI e il Governo e il dibattito pubblico - 6. Il FEC e il (mancato) trasferimento della proprietà delle chiese con personalità giuridica in favore dell’autorità ecclesiastica: un case study.

Trifles for a pandemic

ABSTRACT: The emergency regulations for the containment of Covid-19 as well as affecting religious freedom (art. 19 of the Italian Constitution) can also be relevant from the point of view of the bilaterality of the pact between the Italian State and the Holy See by opening up to the principles of international law and the Vienna Convention the entrance to the list of instruments that can be applied for the solution of the problem, alongside the usual pragmatic instruments of realpolitik.

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The development of the concept of public order in the judicial proceeding of exequatur for ecclesiastical judgements of marriage nullity in Italy

SOMMARIO: 1. Alle origini del concetto di ordine pubblico nel giudizio di delibazione (Corte cost., sent. n. 18 del 1982) - 2. L’interpretazione giurisprudenziale: il criterio della “maggiore disponibilità” verso l’ordinamento canonico e il principio di tutela dell’affidamento incolpevole (Cass. civ., S.U., sent. 1° ottobre 1982, n. 5026) - 3. La delibazione nella nuova disciplina concordataria del 1984 e l’autonomia delle parti - 4. Il decorso del tempo, la convivenza dei coniugi e le esigenze di riforma del regime degli effetti patrimoniali della delibazione (Cass. civ., S.U., sent. 20 luglio 1988, n. 4700) - 5. L’evoluzione dell’ordinamento italiano e la sua incidenza sul concetto di ordine pubblico - 6. La tipicità dei vizi di nullità come espressione dell’accresciuta rilevanza del rapporto coniugale nella disciplina civilistica del matrimonio. La convivenza dei coniugi come elemento ostativo alla delibazione (Cass. civ., S.U., sent. 18 luglio 2008, n. 19809) - 7. Le successive oscillazioni della giurisprudenza: verso la pronuncia delle Sezioni Unite del 2014 - 8. Ragioni del progressivo allontanamento dell’ordine pubblico italiano dal sistema matrimoniale canonico - 9. Le esigenze di protezione della persona e il principio della parità dei coniugi alla base della rilevanza assunta dal rapporto coniugale nell’evoluzione dell’ordine pubblico in materia matrimoniale - 10. Criticità delle pronunce delle Sezioni Unite del 2014 - 11. Il superamento della pregiudiziale economica e i suoi effetti sul processo canonico - 12. Osservazioni conclusive.

The development of the concept of public order in the judicial proceeding of exequatur for ecclesiastical judgements of marriage nullity in Italy

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the controversial development of the concept of public order in the judicial proceeding of exequatur in the decisions of the Italian Supreme Court. Under the current Concordat between Italy and the Holy See (1984) the concept of public order represents a limit for the civil recognition (“delibazione”) of a declaration of marriage nullity. The paper then focuses on the effects of the latest judgements issued by the United Sections of the Supreme Court (2014), banning the exequatur of ecclesiastical nullity sentences for marriages lasting over three years. It provides a critical view of this restrictive move in the light of the deep transformations undergone by Italian family law in the last decades.

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For a religious republicanism. Freedom and faith in Maurizio Viroli’s historiography

SOMMARIO: 1. Un’idea della politica - 2. Del rapporto costitutivo tra libertà e religione - 3. Repubblicanesimo e religione - 4. Lo spazio (pubblico) della religione.

For a religious republicanism. Freedom and faith in Maurizio Viroli's historiography

ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the Maurizio Viroli's historiographic thought, highlighting the central relationship between the spirit of freedom and the religious sentiment, from which a full knowledge of the public significance of religion descends.

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Between the Economics of Religion and Religious Economics. Tangent Questions Regarding Italian History and Economic Theory.

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Una rivoluzione contraddittoria - 3. Chiesa e denaro: la questione del prestito a interesse - 4. La svolta della Rerum Novarum: associazionismo e cooperazione - 5. Cattolicesimo e corporativismo - 6. Gli anni ’30 e l’eclissi dell’economia liberale - 7. Il dopoguerra italiano: un miracolo a metà - 8. Gli effetti negativi dei cattolici in politica, Giovanni Paolo II e il dialogo con il mercato.

Between the Economics of Religion and Religious Economics. Tangent Questions Regarding Italian History and Economic Theory.

ABSTRACT: The paper discusses the most important points of the relationship between social Christian thought and economic facts and how they developed in Italy, with particular reference to the application of competitive market principles. Starting with the second half of the 1800s, it is possible to argue that both the social doctrine and market theories had scarse impact on each other and more importantly, that they did not interact in a way which would have been useful. The author covers the main and most significant contributions that economists, sociologists, philosophers and politicians tried to bring to this missing debate between economic science and religious principles. In view of the creation of a society which responds to mankind’s real needs, we feel the lack of such a debate even though today we are witnessing a certain awakening.

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A New Bill to Recognize the Belief Marriage in England: the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Caracteres generales del proyecto de ley: el reconocimiento del matrimonio de creencia - 3. Algunas claves jurídicas de esta nueva propuesta normativa.

A New Bill to Recognize the Belief Marriage in England: the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill

ABSTRACT: In this paper the author briefly examines the content of the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill, a proposal recently introduced in the House of Lords, which is aimed to amend the wedding law in England and Wales in order to recognise al last the humanist marriages and, more widely, the marriages of the so called belief bodies that have already been introduced in almost every other jurisdiction in the British Islands, so these new belief marriages can be granted an equivalent status to the one currently conferred to religious marriages.

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The Union of Italian Jewish Communities between adherence to Orthodox Judaism and representation of all Jew in Italy: Is the constitutional Agreement of 1987 with the Italian State still adequate?

SOMMARIO: 1 - Introduzione - 2. Il quadro pluralistico dell’ebraismo diasporico e delle sue organizzazioni - 3. Peculiarità dell’organizzazione dell’ebraismo italiano - 4. Pluralismo interno e tensioni nel contesto unitario delle Comunità - 5. Le origini storiche del peculiare assetto organizzativo dell’ebraismo italiano: l’assenza del movimento riformato in Italia e la normativa statualistica del 1930-31 - 6. La struttura unitaria e l’adesione delle Comunità all’ortodossia nello Statuto e nell’Intesa - 7. Conclusioni: la necessaria conciliazione tra pluralismo e unitarietà tra le varie anime dell’ebraismo italiano.

The Union of Italian Jewish Communities between adherence to Orthodox Judaism and representation of all Jew in Italy: Is the constitutional Agreement of 1987 with the Italian State still adequate?

ABSTRACT: Relations between Italian Judaism and the Italian State are governed legally by the Agreement (“Intesa”) concluded in 1987 pursuant to Article 8 of the Italian Constitution, enforced by Law No. 101 of 1989.The organization of the Italian Jewish communities and their central “Union” is governed by the By-Laws (“Statuto”) adopted by them at that time, which reflect the Intesa. In conformity also with the tradition of Italian Judaism local communities take care of all Jewish activities, religious, social or educational, and the Unione officially represents all Jews and Jewish groups. Since 1987 however, there has been an explosion of various Jewish groups and denominations in Italy, from the Lubavitch to Reformed groups, which organize themselves autonomously. These groups considers themselves part of Italian Judaism and recognize more or less the central role of the local communities and Unione. However they increasingly ask a say in the latter management.. The issue discussed in the paper is whether the unitary structure of Italian Judaism, as enshrined in Intesa and recognized by Italian public authorities, is still adequate to cope with this evolution, and whether a plurality of independent Jewish organizations, separately recognized by Italian authorities would be compatible with Article 8 of the Constitution and preferable in practice.

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Islamic finance compatibility with the Italian legislation

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Sharia compliant - 3. Murabah - 4. Ijaraha - 5. Istisna’a - 6. Sukuk - 7. Conclusioni.

Islamic finance compatibility with the Italian legislation

ABSTRACT: Some verses of Allah that were revealed to the Prophet Mohammad in Quran were regarding economic issues. Further they were enriched in the legal framework of reference by other sources of Islamic law “Sharia” like; the Hadith (the sayings of the Prophet transmitted first orally and then transcribed), the Sunna (the tradition dictated by the words and actions of the prophet and the remembrance of the prophet statements by his first followers), and finally of Fiqh that is the Islamic jurisprudence dictated by the doctrinal interpretation of the various juridical schools. Islamic finance products which are derived from Sharia based on religious principles are very compatible with the system of traditional financial products, except for some ethical (excluded by the Sharia supervisory board) and fiscal (to avoid double taxation measures of some Islamic finance transactions), which could enhance the market attaractiveness prespective. The present study aims to investigate and identify the regulatory changes that can be implemented in the Italian legislations to make them compatible with the applicability of the typical Islamic financial contracts.

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“A CHIARE LETTERE” - CONFRONTI” • The Pope and the challenge of the pandemic

SOMMARIO: 1. Unilateralità e/o bilateralità dei provvedimenti Covid-19 e libertà della Chiesa - 2. L’esercizio della libertà religiosa di fronte alla pandemia - 3. Gli atti rituali nell’era del Covid-19 - 4. La dimensione territoriale della religione.

The Pope and the challenge of the pandemic

ABSTRACT: The measures taken to tackle the pandemic, although taken unilaterally by the State, were shared by the ecclesiastical authority without giving rise to disputes. Pope Francis unilaterally adopted ways of celebrating the rites and administering the sacraments in order to protect life. His innovative use of the media has updated the language, the forms of celebration of the rites and collective participation of the Catholic faithful, arousing perplexity in some faithful who complain about violations of religious freedom and the principle of bilaterality in Church-State relations.

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“A chiare lettere - Confronti” • Quando l’etica è intolleranza

L’ultimo numero della Rivista ha ospitato un singolare intervento ad personam: la mia. Non intendo discutere nel merito le critiche mossemi, la cui consistenza, come lo stesso prof. Pacillo ammette, è affidata al dibattito, che, del resto, su questo tema si sta sviluppando in maniera virale. Sì, invece, la premessa - un intero paragrafo - sulla “necessità etica”, dalla quale egli si dice essere stato mosso in conseguenza del mio approccio, asseritamente privo di “forme rispettose e sempre dubitative” laddove Nanni Moretti ci ha parlato dell’importanza delle parole e Pacillo stesso di quella dei toni. (segue)

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Religious freedom and the challenge of Covid-19. Legal asymmetries in the “state of emergency” and new opportunities for social actors

SOMMARIO: 1. Breve premessa orientativa - 2. Verso dove convergere - 3. Il nuovo statuto della solidarietà - 4. Rinnovate pratiche di relazioni sociali: il laboratorio della libertà religiosa - 5. Socializzare i diritti/espandere le libertà - 6. Il test della libertà religiosa in tempi di Coronavirus - 7. Fare tesoro dell’esperienza, modulare le risposte, organizzare il futuro.

Religious freedom and the challenge of Covid-19. Legal asymmetries in the “state of emergency” and new opportunities for social actors

ABSTRACT: The essay develops some concrete, both legal and political, analyses concerning the relationship between the Covid-19 pandemic and the fundamental right of religious freedom. The "state of emergency" that came about and the consequent decisions taken by the government to contain the spread of the coronavirus, have put pressure on certain fundamental freedoms and rights of both individuals and social formations, including religious freedom - according to some, more compressed from the point of view of its practical expressions. The question arises of how much, in the mid-long term, such measures will affect the structure of relations between the State and religious confessions and, more generally, religiosity as a sentiment widespread at societal level.

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“A chiare lettere - Transizioni” • “Senza D”. La campagna Uaar tra libertà di propaganda e divieto di discriminazioni

1 - Nel tempo della pandemia l'attenzione di commentatori e studiosi si è concentrata sulle limitazioni al (diritto di riunirsi per finalità di) culto. Non sembra avere ricevuto lo stesso interesse un altro contagiato dal virus, ancor più a rischio perché malato cronico: l'esercizio della propaganda in contesto di effettivo pluralismo, sul quale grava il consueto silenzio. Il dramma che oggi tutti viviamo è favorevole a un racconto incline ad accentuare le componenti emotive dei messaggi veicolati, al fine di coinvolgere la platea più ampia di "spettatori". Trionfa così la rappresentazione, fortemente mediatizzata, delle immagini di maggior efficacia, da rendere iconiche per il loro impatto sinestetico: potenti strumenti di persuasione a svantaggio, in un circolo vizioso, delle fedi di minore "ascolto", più che mai senza voce. (segue)

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Finanza cattolica: il potere del denaro per il bene comune

Prendo spunto per iniziare il mio intervento citando il punto n. 19 del documento Oeconomicae et Pecuniariae Quaestiones (d’ora in poi, “OPQ”): “La sanità del sistema, del mercato finanziario dipende dalla sanità delle singole persone e dalle singole azioni che vi vengono attuate”. Le mie riflessioni partono dall’essere in primis cristiano e cattolico, e poi dall’essere un professionista che lavora in una determinata realtà bancaria, e che partecipa al Comitato di Presidenza dell’Associazione Bancaria Italiana, l’ABI, con deleghe sulla Corporate Social Responsibility e sull’Innovazione tecnologica. (segue)

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Le conferenze episcopali dalle origini al Concilio Vaticano II

SOMMARIO: Parte prima. Le origini - 1. Le prime esperienze - 2. Il fondamento teologico - 3. Le materie prese in esame - 4. Conferenze episcopali e concili particolari - 4. Conferenze episcopali e concili particolari - 5. I fattori di sviluppo - Parte seconda. Verso una regolamentazione di diritto universale - 6. Prime disposizioni durante il pontificato di Pio X - 7. Il Codice piano-benedettino - 8. Gli interventi di Pio XI - 9. Una singolare contraddizione - 10. Il decisivo impulso di Pio XII.

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The hard relationship between confessional autonomy and trade union freedom

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La libertà religiosa, l’autonomia confessionale e i ministri di culto: 2.1. La dimensione collettiva della libertà religiosa ed i diritti dei gruppi religiosi riguardanti il proprio personale; 2.2. La dottrina della Corte EDU sull’autonomia confessionale: i suoi limiti (brevi spunti): 2.2.1 La protezione dell’autonomia dei gruppi religiosi di fronte allo Stato; 2.2.2. Le crescenti limitazioni all’autonomia religiosa nelle controversie di lavoro; 2.3. Riflessioni conclusive - 3. Brevi spunti sulla libertà sindacale e l’effettiva difesa dei diritti dei lavoratori: 3.1. Riconoscimento e dimensione collettiva della libertà sindacale; 3.2. Libertà sindacale ed azione sindacale nella dottrina della Corte EDU; 3.3. Conclusioni - 4. Eventuali problemi legati alla costituzione di sindacati nelle chiese: 4.1. Unità versus dialettica di conflitto all’interno di una chiesa; 4.2. Identità propria delle chiese e dovere di neutralità dello Stato - 5. Insegnamenti del caso Sindicatul “Păstorul cel Bun” c. Romania; 5.1. Breve presentazione degli aspetti centrali del caso; 5.2. La decisione della Grande Camera della Corte EDU: il bilanciamento tra libertà sindacale e autonomia religiosa; 5.3. Il paradossale risultato del bilanciamento tra libertà sindacale e autonomia religiosa nel caso Sindicatul - 6. Bibliografia - 7. Appendice I: Estratto dallo statuto del sindacato "Pâstorul cel Bun" - 8 Appendice II: Dichiarazione dell’Ufficio Stampa del Patriarcato della Romania del 3 febbraio 2012, in occasione della prima sentenza della Corte EDU sul caso Sindicatul “Păstorul cel Bun” c. Romania.

The hard relationship between confessional autonomy and trade union freedom

ABSTRACT: This essay focuses on the hard relationship between religious autonomy and trade union freedom. Its purpose is to reflect on some problems, which could arise due to the establishment of trade unions within religious communities, particularly where created by the ministers of these same communities. It first describes some key points of religious groups’ autonomy and of the right to unionize as well. Secondly, it examines some potential problems related with the creation of unions within the churches. Finally, a reference is made to the Sindicatul “Păstorul cel Bun” v. Romania case, in which the European Court of Human Rights had the opportunity to rule on a controversy resulting from an attempt to create a union within the Romanian Orthodox Church. A truly useful case for understanding the difficulties of the exercise of the right of unionize by the members of the clergy

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The experience of pain and the reasons for hope. Reflections on the end of life of postmodern man

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa di metodo - 2. Giustizia limiti e sacralità del “fine vita” - 3. Tra indisponibilità della vita e diritto di autodeterminazione individuale. La prospettiva della Corte EDU … - 4. … e le prudenti soluzioni del diritto italiano tra leggi e prassi giurisprudenziale - 5. Considerazioni conclusive: esiste la libertà di congedarsi dal mondo?

The experience of pain and the reasons for hope. Reflections on the end of life of postmodern man

ABSTRACT: The surprising development of biotechnology, new knowledge and unprecedented possibilities of intervention on human beings, have strongly affected the natural events of being born and dying, bringing out new rights and new instances of protection, aimed at ensuring respect for individual self-determination and human dignity in the face of the increasingly pressing intrusiveness of science and technology. Nonetheless, these possibilities offered by science may, for some, not coincide with the ideal conception of life and human dignity, since these are interventions capable of prolonging survival in often very critical conditions, not always adequate to guarantee a life worth living. At this point, the question is whether there is a way to pursue a harmonious composition between the concepts of life and human dignity, in the extreme variety of cases where there is a question of their protection, especially with regard to end-of-life issues.

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“A chiare lettere – Confronti” • La libertà di culto al tempo del coronavirus: una risposta alle critiche

SOMMARIO: 1. Parole e toni - 2. La bilateralità dimenticata - 3. L’art. 14 dell’Accordo di Villa Madama preso sul serio - 4. L’uomo non è un’idea.

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Genesi e vicende dello “Jus publicum ecclesiasticum” in età postridentina. Una risposta romano-cattolica alla modernità

SOMMARIO: 1. Preambolo - 2. Il diritto romano nell’esperienza cristiana - 3. Chiese e diritto romano nella “civiltà cristiana” - 4. Tra una giurisprudenza e l’altra: la mediazione medievale del diritto comune - 5. La civiltà del diritto nell’età del potere. Quale dogmatica? - 6. Lo jus publicum europaeum: verso una riduzione della Santa Sede a pura “potenza” religiosa - 7. Il retroterra politico di un nuovo diritto pubblico ecclesiastico - 8. (segue) La fondazione teorica di un nuovo diritto costituzionale - 9. Profili di una nuova costituzione materiale - 10. Posizioni di principio e di metodo vincenti a partire dalle dottrine del Bouix - 11. (segue) Dal conflitto alla stabilizzazione dell’emergenza - 12 Il tramonto dei diritti nel nuovo, e nel nuovissimo “jus populi Dei” - 13. (segue) La fine, di fatto e di principio, dell’attuazione giudiziaria del diritto.

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The ʻAnti-veilʼ Ruling of Lombardy Executive Committee and the New Paradigm of Public Security

Sommario: 1. Società democratica e simboli religiosi - 2. La delibera di Giunta e l’ordinanza del Tribunale. La delicata sovrapposizione delle esigenze di riconoscibilità e di identificazione - 3. La sentenza di secondo grado. Il primato assiologico della pubblica sicurezza - 4. Sicurezza percepita e insicurezza dei diritti - 5. Conclusioni.

The ʻAnti-veilʼ Ruling of Lombardy Executive Committee and the New Paradigm of Public Security

ABSTRACT: On 10 December 2015, Lombardy Executive Committee approved a ruling which forbids the access to some public facilities to people who wear types of clothing aimed at covering the face. This ruling, whose object is to prevent any dangers that could affect public security, risks to discriminate Muslim women who wear an integral veil for religious reasons. With a controversial judgement, the Milan Court of Appeal confirmed the legitimacy of the provision. Contrarily to the opinion of the Court, this essay aims at proving that the Regional ruling couldn’t effectively get through a proportionality test, given the excessive intensity of the prohibition. In addition, other doubts are risen by the meaning of public security expressed by the provision.

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The freedom of worship in coronavirus times

SOMMARIO: 1. La decretazione senza legge sul coronavirus - 2. Le disposizioni sulla libertà di culto - 3. Il limite della tutela della salute e l’inconferenza delle discipline pattizie - 4. Il bilanciamento delle specifiche misure - 5. Il rapporto laico tra Stato e confessioni religiose: un’icona.

The freedom of worship in coronavirus times

ABSTRACT: The state of emergency by coronavirus drove the italian government to legislate by means of decrees without law, that provided strong limits to constitutional rights as, among others, the freedom of worship. Particularly they banned masses coram populo in the churches and on occasion of funeral service in order to safeguard the health care. This paper aims to demonstrate that the Concordat beetween State and Church, well as the accords with other fellowships,  is another matter with regard to a higher collective interest, constitutionally protected, like the halth care. The paper points out, moreover, how the adopted measures are reasonable and proportionate and, finally, the new leadership, respecting the secular order, held in this aspect by the italian Church, following the prints of pope Francis.

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The Refusal of Mandatory Vaccinations for Conscientious Reasons. A Comparative Overlook

SOMMARIO: 1. Le “nuove” obiezioni di coscienza nelle società multiculturali. Il rifiuto dell’obbligo vaccinale - 2. Religioni e vaccini - 3. La situazione negli altri Paesi, in particolare il caso degli USA - 4. L’obbligo vaccinale in Italia - 5. È configurabile il diritto all’obiezione di coscienza rispetto alle vaccinazioni obbligatorie?

The Refusal of Mandatory Vaccinations for Conscientious Reasons. A Comparative Overlook

ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the possibility to design a new shape of conscientious objection : the refusal of mandatory vaccinations due to religious or ideological reasons. Some religions are against vaccines because of the ingredients they contain. In other cases the refusal to be vaccinated is based on the idea that only God can protect health. The legislatures of some Countries recognize the conscientious objection to mandatory vaccinations. The paper focuses the topic in a comparative perspective, paying attention to the italian and european context.

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General Authorizations to process of sensitive data by churches. Considerations on recent reforms in theme of privacy

SOMMARIO: 1. Il Regolamento UE 2016/679 e i dati di natura religiosa: un nuovo percorso normativo da analizzare - 2. Dalla legge n. 675 del 1996 al d.lgs. n. 196 del 2003: l’affermarsi delle “autorizzazioni generali” per il trattamento dei dati sensibili da parte delle confessioni religiose - 3. Le novità introdotte dal Regolamento europeo n. 679 del 2016 per il trattamento dei dati di natura religiosa e il mancato riferimento alle “autorizzazioni generali” - 4. Il d.lgs. n. 101 del 2018 e l’adeguamento italiano alla normativa comunitaria del 2016: il recupero delle “autorizzazioni generali” - 5. Il ruolo del Garante e la conferma parziale della legittimità dell’autorizzazione generale n. 3 - 6. Un nuovo ruolo per i responsabili del trattamento dei dati di natura religiosa: privacy by design, compliance normativa e tutela dell’autonomia delle confessioni religiose.

General Authorizations to process of sensitive data by churches. Considerations on recent reforms in theme of privacy

ABSTRACT: The Regulation (EU) 2016/679 – so-called GDPR - has resulted in a significant reform of the Italian system for the protection of personal data and crystallized in Legislative Decree no. 196 of 30 June 2003. The GDPR, which focuses on principle of accountability and the concepts of privacy by design and privacy by default, has rethought, in particular, the category of data in which those of a religious nature were inserted basing their discipline on a general prohibition of treatment and provided that churches, associations or religious communities can dictate and apply their own internal legislation in this field, provided that it complies with the community provisions of the regulation. Before entry into force of the GDPR, the processing of religious data was mainly linked to the provision by the Guarantor Authority for the protection of personal data of a General Authorization - No. 3 - which allowed religious confessions to process the data of their members. This system has been questioned in part by the GDPR and then re-read by Legislative Decree no. 101/2018, which confirmed the value of the General Authorization n.3 in the framework of a peculiar system of guarantees.

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Religious freedom and Corporate Social Responsibility

SOMMARIO: 1. Il diritto di libertà religiosa tra rendicontazione sui diritti umani e Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 2. Libertà religiosa, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights e RSI - 3. Libertà religiosa e standard nazionali: brevi osservazioni sul Piano d’Azione Nazionale (PAN) 2014-2016 sulla Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa e 2016-2021 su Impresa e Diritti Umani - 4. Valori religiosi e valori laici nella Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 5. Dall’RSI all’accountability: la rendicontazione sui diritti umani negli enti religiosi ETS e nell’Impresa sociale.

Religious freedom and Corporate Social Responsibility

ABSTRACT: International standards on Business and Human Rights and on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) define a system of rules currently in use to combat human rights violations in contemporary industrial societies. On the basis of these rules, governments adopt the so-called National Action Plans (NAPs), which also Italy has recently adopted. In this context, the protection of religious freedom plays a fundamental role as part of the range of needs of modern intercultural societies. This paper in this respect is divided into two parts. The first part investigates the role of religious freedom in international standards on Business and human rights and in the NAPs, paid attention to the Italian National Action Plans. The second part on the other hand, deals with the theme of accountability on human rights in the Italian non-profit area. In this context, the processes of accountability also involve entities who operate by expressing a certain tendency or religious aims. These entities can have a specific interest in the accountability on human rights because through the adherence to the so-called systems of Non-Financial Reporting (NFR) clearly reaffirm the values of the religious cultures of which they are the direct expression.

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“A chiare lettere - Editoriali” • L’aiuto al suicidio tra Corte costituzionale 242/2019 e BundesVerfassungsGericht 26 febbraio 2020

Il carattere eccezionale della “circoscritta area”, in cui la Corte costituzionale ha affermato la non punibilità di chi aiuta al suicidio o, meglio, assiste una persona nel morire, risalta nitidamente al cospetto dell’assenza di limiti dell’area individuata allo stesso fine dal BundesVerfassungsGericht (BVG) con una sentenza pubblicata molto di recente. Benché perciò non sia possibile in questa sede il commento approfondito che la decisione meriterebbe, si possono prendere, tuttavia, almeno alcuni appunti comparativi. (segue)

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The Italian Experience with Halal Certification: the Case of Halal Italia

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Brief Remarks on the Notion of Halal - 3. The Interests at Stake in Halal Certification - 4. Actors and Instruments Involved in Halal Certification - 5. The Constitutional Regulation of the Religious Factor and Its Impact on Halal Certification - 6. Halal Italia and the 2010 Inter-Ministerial Convention - 7. Conclusion.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to examine the Italian experience with halal certification and, in particular, the case of Halal Italia. After some brief preliminary remarks on the notion of halal, I will examine the general context of halal certification, by focusing on the interests at stake and on the actors and instruments involved. Next, I will take into account the impact of the constitutional regulation of the religious factor on halal certification. Finally, my analysis will turn to the trademark Halal Italia and the 2010 Inter-Ministerial Convention.

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Public spaces and religion

SOMMARIO: 1. Prospettive - 2. Duplice dovere - 3. Questioni I - 4. Questioni II - 5. L’accesso visto da Strasburgo - 6. Poteri pubblici e spazi pubblici - 7. Accesso pluralistico: regola ed eccezione.

Public spaces and religion

ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the legal issues related to the presence of religion in public spaces. The thesis is that it is necessary to consider the various issues (religious building, religious symbols in public buildings etc.) on the basis of the public character of the space. In this way it becomes possible: a) to compare the various issues; b) identify the tasks of public authorities, which must make spaces available to religion and must not discriminate access to spaces. However, there are exceptions to the rule necessary to protect children in classrooms.

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The Function of Punishment in the Teachings of Pope Francis

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: ambiti e obiettivi della ricerca - 2. Il diritto penale nel paradigma dell’ecologia integrale quale espressione del principio della misericordia - 3. La funzione della pena secondo Papa Francesco: i principi generali - 4. La pena di morte e la sua inconciliabilità con il Vangelo - 5. L’ergastolo come “pena di morte nascosta” e la tortura come “peccato mortale” - 6. Conclusioni.

The Function of Punishment in the Teachings of Pope Francis

ABSTRACT: This article analyses the doctrine about the function of punishment and the criminal justice system in the teachings of Pope Francis. The reflection about punishment is understood in the light of the principles of the Mercy of God and the Integral ecology. The central idea is represented by the concept of reparative justice. Particularly, it will be take in consideration the questions of death penalty, life sentence and torture, and - in the conclusions - a brief comparative analysis with the Italian legal justice system.

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Priesthood and celibacy in the Catholic Church

SOMMARIO: 1. Alto valore ecclesiale dello status di chierico sposato - 2. L’obbligo del celibato e le eccezioni - 3. Le norme speciali relative al clero cattolico orientale sposato, in Occidente - 4. Le norme speciali relative all’ordinazione di pastori protestati convertitisi al cattolicesimo - 5. La normativa della Chiesa antica - 6. La disciplina delle Chiese ortodosse.

Priesthood and celibacy in the Catholic Church.

ABSTRACT: In this period there is discussion about the possibility of abolishing the obligation of celibacy for the Catholic clergy of Latin rite in order to increase their vocations. Some exceptions to this obligation have already been foreseen by the regulations of previous Roman popes for specific cases, aimed at promoting the conversion of Protestant pastors to Catholicism. Canon 373 of the Code of Law of the Eastern Churches states that "must be held in honor the status of clerics united in marriage sanctioned over the centuries by the practice of the early Church and the Eastern Churches", opening up to a re-evaluation of the uxorato clergy. This study aims to recall what is happening today in Eastern Catholic Churches, the exceptions made against Protestant pastors in the Latin Church, as well as the legislation in force in the ancient church, maintained, in substance, in the Orthodox Churches.

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Contradictions and unclarities of “otto per mille”: between public interest in an open pluralism and individual interests in the rigidity of the religious marke

SOMMARIO: 1. Il problema del conflitto di interessi nel diritto ecclesiastico dell’Italia repubblicana. - 2. Conflitto di interessi e finanziamento pubblico delle religioni. - 3. L’ombra del conflitto di interessi che accompagna nel suo cammino l’«invenzione» dell’otto per mille. - 4. Note di discussione.

Contradictions and unclarities of “otto per mille”: between public interest in an open pluralism and individual interests in the rigidity of the religious market

ABSTRACT: Religion, like politics and economics, risks fueling various forms of conflict of interest in the State. The constitutional choice to affirm a pluralist (or open) laicità aims precisely at avoiding and contrasting potential conflicts of interest caused by religious influences. The contradictions and the unclarities detected by several voices about the "otto per mille" economic support system could be read as indicators that Italy failed to implement a management of the public interest which should guarantee the exclusion of favoritism towards individual interests. The original fault of "otto per mille" system lies in the negotiated nature of the legislation that provides for it; the choice of a bilateral source makes clear the will of the State to operate, for purposes of its political consolidation, a substantial connection with the specific interests of some religious denominations in the acquisition and preservation of advantageous positions. It is therefore hoped an unilateral work of reform by the State, in particular the repeal of the fascist legislation about admitted cults and the promulgation of a general law on religious freedom.

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Cunning and ambiguity in constitutional jurisprudence on religious matters

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa. La morte di Piero Calamandrei (27 settembre 1956) e il suo funerale - 2. L’oggetto del giudizio della Corte costituzionale. La sentenza della Corte costituzionale del n. 1 del 23 aprile 1956 - 3. 7 aprile 1957 : la relazione di Paolo Barile nel convegno degli Amici del Mondo su Stato e Chiesa in Italia al teatro Eliseo di Roma - 4. Le sentenze della Corte costituzionale nn. 30, 31 e 32 del 1971: il parametro della tutela dei principi supremi dell’ordinamento costituzionale italiano. Il principio costituzionale di eguaglianza non è un principio supremo dell’ordinamento costituzionale? - 5. Il convegno di Siena dal 30 novembre al 2 dicembre 1972. Due mondi diversi? - 6. La sentenza n. 195 del 1972 sul caso Cordero. Professori delle università cattoliche senza garanzie di rispetto della loro libertà di insegnamento? - 7. La sentenza n. 18 del 1982: un giudice e un giudizio pur sempre ci sono (?) - 8. La sentenza n. 203 del 1989. Insegnamenti diversi per bambini e ragazzi “credenti” cattolici e “non credenti”? - 9. Fu vera gloria? No, essa fu accolta in una parte del mondo della scuola con la dolorosa sensazione che si prova quando si è vittima di un inganno.

Cunning and ambiguity in constitutional jurisprudence on religious matters

Abstract: A journey to Florence for the funeral of Piero Calamandrei (September 27, 1956). A project for a secular and democratic Italy: dreams, hopes, illusions and disappointments. Religion jurisprudence in the decisions of the Constitutional Court no. 1 of 1956, 30, 31 and 32 of 1971, 195 of 1972, 18 of 182, 203 of 1989. The judicial remedy in school matters and the academic disappointment for a constitutional decision that introduced the supreme principle of secularism but at the same time confirmed as compliant to the Constitution the coexistence, in public schools, of separate classes for believers (in the catholic religion) and nonbelievers.

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1929: Freedom denied

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Revisionismo storico involontario - 3. Altri tempi - 4. L’art. 5 del Concordato - 5. La vicenda di Ernesto Buonaiuti - 6. La sua intransigenza morale - 7. Passato e presente - 8. Favor religionis - 9. Il sistema delle intese - 10. Il risveglio delle vecchie intolleranze.

1929: Freedom denied

ABSTRACT: This paper turns around the case and the figure of Ernesto Buonaiuti. We would like to show how the Lateran Pacts of 1929 had been signed in an atmosphere in which both sides, fascism and the  Catholic Church, denied freedom of conscience.

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The Constitutional Court’s position about worship facilities between limits against the freedom of religion and positive interventions

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: la pronuncia della Corte costituzionale e i nodi da sciogliere - 2. I limiti legittimi alla libertà religiosa - 3. Gli interventi positivi a favore del diritto al culto - 4. Brevi considerazioni conclusive: che cosa farà (o, meglio, cosa dovrebbe fare) il legislatore regionale?

The Constitutional Court’s position about worship facilities between limits against the freedom of religion and positive interventions

ABSTRACT: The Constitutional Court has another time pronounced about the right to have a place of worship. Its statements are crucial for this subject and are likely to produce an echo even outside the field of worship facilities. In particular, the Court affirms, on the one hand, that the freedom of worship might be limited only in order to guarantee concrete opposing interests, and not for mere exigencies of control. On the other hand, the Court declares that the freedom of religion, given its central and essential position in the Constitution, legitimizes and requires positive interventions by the legislator, in order to be promoted.

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The law on accepted cults, the agreements and the need for a common regulation on the religious issue

SOMMARIO: 1. L’intesa con l’Associazione Chiesa d’Inghilterra - 2. L’assenza di una legge generale nel periodo liberale - 3. La Conciliazione - 4. Il permanere dell’assenza di una legge comune - 5. Continuità e innovazione dopo il 1948 - 6. La mancata revisione della legge sui culti - 7. La polemica anticoncordataria - 8. Il progetto di una legge generale sulla libertà religiosa - 9. Un’unica legge per esigenze diverse - 10. La legge comune sul “fatto” religioso - 11. Il potenziale conflitto con le leggi di derivazione pattizia - 12. Uguaglianza e discriminazione - 13. Sulla possibile rilevanza dei diritti religiosi - 14. Sul rilievo di alcune minoranze - 15. Conclusioni.

The law on accepted cults, the agreements and the need for a common regulation on the religious issue

ABSTRACT: Taking the cue from the signing of the agreement with the association Chiesa d’Inghiterra, we note thelack of a common regulation not on religous freedom, which is protected by the rules of the Italian Constitution through directly effective regulations, and which could be invasive and inadequate, but of a common basic regulation on religion, such that in goes beyond the old law on accepted cults and equates, as far as possible, the condition of churches with an agreement with those that do not have one. The viewpoint of the bilaterally contracted law, inherited from and confirmed by the pre-Repubblican period, while meeting the needs of cults, is not able to ensure a certain uniformity of treatment for all denominations, i.e. it cannot be applied also to those cults that have not negotiated it, that do not want or cannot do so. What is lacking in a unilateral law of the State, which outlines the essential and common points, that is the basis and reference index for other laws, given that equality does not mean the same things and that differentiations are allowed, or rather imposed, as long as they are not arbitrary. Besides, there is the problem of religius instances referring to secular and profane aspects of the human person, which can be inserted into the formative process of the law, allowing for to norms, which in religiously motivated subjects receive a further compelling force. It is responsibility of a pluralist and secular State, aware and guarantor of its own values and indispensable rules, to supervise the process of synthesis of the different cultures.

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The so-called “anti-mosque” legislation between governance policies and protection of religious freedom

SOMMARIO: 1. Interventi legislativi della Regione Lombardia sui luoghi di culto - 2. La sentenza della Corte costituzionale n. 504 del 2019 sulla l.r. Lombardia del 2005 - 3. Pianificazione urbanistica secondaria e politiche regionali - 4. Considerazioni conclusive.

The so-called "anti-mosque" legislation between governance policies and protection of religious freedom

ABSTRACT: A recent intervention by the Constitutional Court of 2019 continued in the path intended to dismantle the Lombard legislation, also known as the "anti mosque" law, underlining the danger of a federalism, producing a growing fragmentation in a matter of such delicate constitutional relevance. The Court has currently canceled the obligation to regulate, through a Plan for religious equipment (PAR), the opening of any place of worship and the need to associate this Plan with the PGT (Territorial Government Plan). A territorial governance project, in fact, from the point of view of urban planning, must include the legal discipline of social religiosity, contextualising this intervention with the need for a structuring of aggregation spaces, open to all religious and secular bodies, concretely present in the social fabric. The construction of buildings intended for religious worship or, as more recently defined, of "equipment of common interest for religious purposes" is a matter by its nature suspended between the protection of religious freedom - even in its expression of collective law - and the legislation urbanism.

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Religious Garb in the Courtroom

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Simboli religiosi e sfera pubblica - 3. Il ruolo della giurisprudenza e il difficile rapporto con l’Islam - 4. Il porto di simboli religiosi nel contesto giudiziario - 5. Le pronunzie Hamidović v. Bosnia and Herzegovina e Lachiri v. Belgium - 6. Presenza o no di una base normativa che valga a giustificare la restrizione della libertà religiosa - 7. La tensione fra il test di proporzionalità e il margine di apprezzamento - 8. La connessione fra posizione individuale e istituzione pubblica …- a) … nel caso Hamidović - b) … nel caso Lachiri - 9. Disamina breve delle pronunzie in materia di porto di simboli e della loro ratio - 10. L’analisi del limite “dei diritti e delle libertà altrui” - 11. Una svolta a favore delle minoranze? - 12. La questione irrisolta di forme religiosamente motivate di face covering in ambito europeo - 13. L’uso di abbigliamento religiosamente caratterizzato nell’ambito delle aule giudiziarie in Canada: l’opinione di maggioranza nella pronunzia R. v. NS. - 14. La concurring opinion del giudice LeBel - 15. La dissenting opinion del giudice Abella - 16. Le potenziali ricadute della pronunzia canadese sulla libertà religiosa individuale e su quella del gruppo di appartenenza - 17. La giurisprudenza canadese successiva - 18. Il porto di simboli religiosi nelle aule giudiziarie negli U.S.A. – 19. Il porto del niqab nelle aule giudiziarie negli U.S.A. - 20. La questione del niqab nelle aule giudiziarie in Australia - 21. Le corti e le minoranze: un tentativo di comparazione fra la giurisprudenza dei giudici extraeuropei di common law … - 22. … e la giurisprudenza della Corte europea - 23. Lo strumento dell’„accomodamento ragionevole” negli ordinamenti extraeuropei di common law - 24. La possibilità del “trapianto” dell’accomodamento ragionevole in ambito comunitario. Il caso Eweida - 25. La conciliabilità del parametro dell’accomodamento ragionevole con gli standard della Corte europea - 26. La garanzia di propozionalità in ambito europeo e i suoi limiti - 27. Il limite del margine di apprezzamento - 28. La necessità di un più rigoroso bilanciamento fra margine di apprezzamento e principio di proporzionalità - 29 Le potenzialità del “ragionevole accomodamento” nell’ambito convenzionale europeo - 30. Una valutazione comparativa del rapporto fra libertà di espressione religiosa “privata” e spazio “pubblico” - 31. La libertà di manifestazione religiosa dei privati nelle aule giudiziarie … - a) … in ambito europeo - b) ... in ambito extraeuropeo - 32) Annotazioni riepilogative.

Religious Garb in the Courtroom

ABSTRACT: The present essay analyses the crucial issue of the freedom to wear religious garments in the courtroom. It provides a comparative survey of European, U.S., Canadian and Australian case law, investigating how they are facing the question concerning the place of religious expression in the public square, and taking into consideration different legal frameworks and their recent developments.

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The Supreme Court of the United States and the use or historical tradition in Establishment Clause jurisprudence

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. El significado esencial de las cláusulas religiosas de la Primera enmienda de la Constitución federal - 3. El argumento de la tradición histórica en la interpretación judicial de la Establishment Clause - 4. La tradición histórica como excepción a la aplicabilidad de los normales parámetros jurídicos de validez en materia de aconfesionalidad.

The Supreme Court of the United States and the use or historical tradition in Establishment Clause jurisprudence

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the study of the use of history and tradition that has been made by the Supreme Court of the United States when deciding certain cases concerning the First Amendment’s Establishment Clause. It explores the way in which, when confronted with certain practices that are in appearance clearly inconsistent with the Establishment Clause, sometimes the Supreme Court has simply ignored the different tests commonly settled for constitutional adjudication in this particular field such as the Lemon test, and has relied on historical tradition as the governing principle for that purpose. This circumstance leading to the setting of a controversial carve-out in Establishment Clause adjudication that might be better explained as a result of politics and political and social pressures rather than as a product of principled constitutional interpretation.

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Religion and public sphere in Jürgen Habermas’s discoursive theory

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Linguaggio, discorso e ragione - 3. Linguaggio ordinario e linguaggi esperti - 4. Linguaggio e sfera pubblica - 5. La teoria del discorso e le tradizioni religiose: alcuni cenni sul pensiero di Habermas - 6. Il fondamentalismo religioso - 7. La “traduzione neutralizzante” - 8. Conclusioni.

Religion and public sphere in Jürgen Habermas’s discoursive theory

ABSTRACT: The relationship between religion and the public sphere, from the perspective of Habermas's theory of discourse, gives a glimpse of the possibility of a shared space, reflected in democratic decision-making procedures, which has priority over every strategic and self-referential representation of the social. The "linguisticization of the sacred" process has gradually led the author to free the theory of modernity from a rigid theory of secularization; on the other hand, the religious phenomenon, freed from obsolete dogmatisms, reveals itself as the bearer of a procedural rationality capable of operating in everyday communication practice. In this dialogic path, which is anything but linear, Habermas' communicative reason seeks to find solutions capable of safeguarding both religious dimensions and the legacy of Enlightenment thought. This, first of all, to stem the monological drift of particularistic global interests able to endorse, even in sectors of a public nature, dynamics typical of strategic-functional action that lead to the restriction of the common space and to the loss of effectiveness of the institutions traditionally deputies for the democratic representation of interests. At the resolution of these questions, the discursive reason does not offer a single answer but indicates a path of learning and constructive conciliation of the visions of the world.

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The protection of religious confessions under current criminal law: the Oliviero Toscani case

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Brevi cenni all’impianto del Codice Rocco - 3. La novella del 2006 e la tutela delle confessioni religiose - 4. La giurisprudenza successiva alla novella: il caso Oliviero Toscani.

The protection of religious confessions under current criminal law: the Oliviero Toscani case

ABSTRACT: By the law n 85/2006 the Italian legislator modified criminal law provisions intended to protect collective religious feelings (art 402-406 criminal law code). In particular the new law has not confirmed old art 402 of the criminal law code, which provided for the generic crime of blasphemy. Insofar as the latter crime was characterised for its broad definition and scope, it raised serious questions of consistency with Art 21 of the Italian Constitution. However, the modifications introduced with law 85/2006 have been interpreted so leniently in subsequent case law that the old art 402 has been re-introduced as a matter of fact.

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Social Doctrine of the Church, contract, firm, competition

SOMMARIO: 1. La dottrina sociale della Chiesa. Considerazioni introduttive e selezione degli argomenti oggetto di esame - 2. Una lettura tecnicamente “laica” (o laicamente “tecnica”) della storicità della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa - 3. Il contratto - 4. L’impresa - 5. La concorrenza - 6. Conclusioni di sintesi. Dalla scelta “del modello” alla selezione “dai modelli”.

Social Doctrine of the Church, contract, firm, competition

ABSTRACT: The Social Doctrine of the Church consists of the set of principles, theories, teachings and directives of the Catholic Church in social and economic matters. It is based on the principle that the human being, created in the likeness of God, is the end and not the means of social institutions, both as an individual and in his family dimension. This principle is examined, in this research, in its applications in the fields of contract, business and competition

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A landmark decision concerning gender rectification in Tunisia: the right to a private life between comparative law, international law and fiqh

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. I precedenti giurisprudenziali - 3. Un nuovo ruolo per i giudici tunisini? - 4. La tutela dei diritti e delle libertà: tra comparazione e fiqh - 5. Profili comparatistici. Il processo di rettifica del genere in una pronuncia della Corte d’appello di Beirut - 6. Considerazioni conclusive.

A landmark decision concerning gender rectification in Tunisia: the right to a private life between comparative law, international law and fiqh

ABSTRACT: The decision of the Tribunal of Tunis, concerning gender rectification in public registries of a transgender FtM person who underwent sex reassignment treatment, is an example of innovative case law. The judgment, changing the previous case law, is characterized by the use of the comparative method, so that, in the grounds for ruling, legal principles from different foreign jurisdictions and the fiqh coexist. Specifically, the Tribunal of Tunis, showing an open and dialogical approach to other jurisdictions and legislations of the globe, has consecrated the fundamental human right of gender rectification in public registries, rarely recognized in other Arab countries.

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Presented uncostitutionality and justifiable assisted suicide: innovations in continuity

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La procedura costituzionale - 3. Il diritto penale - 4. I principî: a) la dignità … - 5. (segue) b) la coscienza … - 6. (segue) c) la separazione (ovvero la laicità).

ABSTRACT: For the first time the Italian Constitutional Court adopted a double ruling (anticipatory the one, deciding the other) in the same judicial review. And for the first time also elaborated the circumstances of a justifiable (doctor-) assisted suicide, that so far was in any case a crime. They are two outstanding jurisprudential innovations, however the aim of the Author is to demonstrate that they are not in break but in continuity with the decision techniques of the Court, on one hand, and the leading cases on the topic of criminal justifications, on the other hand. Particularly the concept of subjective dignity, that according to the Court is the reason behind the decision of the patient, is recurring in the precedents of the Court of Cassation. Generally, moreover, the concepts of conscience, life and death prevail on this matter, neverthless are differently interpreted according to an ethic, specially religious, perspective or a secular, specially state, perspective. The merit of the decision consists precisely of the separatist, secular planning between ethics and law.

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The “new” appearance of crimes against religious sentiment in the framework of the so-called “crimes of opinion”

SOMMARIO: 1. Gli approdi normativi nella tutela contro le offese al sentimento religioso - 2. I persistenti dubbi di compatibilità con la libertà di espressione e con il principio di legalità in materia penale - 3. La centralità del nesso strumentale tra il vilipendio di persone o di cose e l’offesa alla confessione religiosa - 4. Il bene giuridico protetto e la questione dell’ammissibilità della protezione dei fatti di sentimento legati alla sfera religiosa - 5. Il permanente ricorso allo strumento penale tra (dubbia) adeguatezza della sanzione e carattere (prevalentemente) simbolico della repressione.

ABSTRACT: This paper provides a critical analysis of the main issues raised by the crimes against religious sentiment (Articles 403-405 and 724 of the Italian Criminal Code). In particular, an analysis was made as to whether these crimes are consistent with the freedom of expression and with the principle of legality in criminal matters. Furthermore, it is investigated the issue related to the admissibility itself of a criminal protection referred to religious feelings, according to the constitutional principles.

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Commodification and instrumentalization of religious symbols in the secular State

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Fattore religioso e società multiculturale: alla ricerca di uno spazio giuridico dai contorni flessibili - 3. Crisi della rappresentanza e “resilienza laica” - 4. La politica a favore (o contro) i simboli e la funzione dello stato laico - 5. Uso patologico dei simboli religiosi e nuove “mappe giuridiche” (… oltre il diritto pattizio) - 6. Conclusioni.

ABSTRACT: The article deals with religious symbols and their use in the public and legal sphere by political actors. Following some recent events, the author shows that the (mis)use of symbols in political life generates disorientation in both social and electoral dynamics. Such (mis)use is also relevant to positive and secular law, insofar this latter is called to regain its natural flexibility, to meet new needs of individuals and collective formations, induced by social changes of multicultural society.

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Remarks on religions lacking any adequate institutional representatives in the light of social-ethnic context

SOMMARIO: 1. Riflessioni a margine della libertà religiosa con specifico riguardo alle confessioni senza rappresentanza - 2. I disegni di legge sulla libertà religiosa e i rapporti con le confessioni non strutturate o prive di adeguata rappresentanza istituzionale - 3. Le confessioni religiose senza rappresentanza: ulteriori osservazioni e prospettive.

ABSTRACT: Because of intense migratory flows today, the coexistence of various religious movement, often very different among them, in our society has increased. This phenomenon is known as ‘religious pluralism’ and it implies that before the law all religions have the right to exist, to preach their own doctrines, to worship, and to gain a recognition of ‘special’ juridical positions. In this background the religious factor is a diriment element and represents the focal point of cultural and juridical debate.

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The validity of the teaching of the Catholic religion in Italian public schools

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. L’atto di scelta - 3. L’intervento del Consiglio di Stato - 4. Osservazioni critiche - 5. Una lettura costituzionalmente orientata - 6. Conclusioni.

The validity of the teaching of the Catholic religion in Italian public schools

ABSTRACT: Catholic RE teaching in state schools of all types and at all levels is covered by the agreement amending the Lateran Concordat and the additional protocol thereto, implemented by means of Law No 121 of 25 March 1985, and the agreement between the Italian Ministry for Education and the President of the Italian Bishops’ Conference, implemented by means of Presidential Decree No 751 of 16 December 1985, as subsequently amended.

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Interpreting Article 17 TFEU: New Openings towards a European Law and Religion System

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction: From the Traditional Interpretation towards New Openings - 2. Some interpretative difficulties - 3. The Necessary Balance with Other European Interests - 4. Conclusions.

Interpreting Article 17 TFEU: New Openings towards a European Law and Religion System

ABSTRACT: Article 17 TFEU has been mainly interpreted as a “safeguard clause” aimed at preventing the EU from affecting (even indirectly) national disciplines religiously connoted. Although this traditional interpretation seems to find confirmation in the letter of the provision, in the systematic reading with Article 4 TEU, second paragraph, as well as in the original will of the parties, some scholars started giving credit to a different interpretation: the Article could allow the development of a European Law and Religion System. This article aims to investigate the current possibility for the aforementioned change of prospective. It focuses on three key factors: the interpretative difficulties concerning the Article, the recent jurisprudential evolution of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the growing axiological-systematic relevance of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. This work argues that Article 17 TFEU does not recognize a national competence ex ante in all religious matters; it only requires the EU to refrain from regulating cases that are concretely characterized by a high rate of denominational specificity.

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Benedict XV, the Kingdom of Italy, the “Great War”. The Roman Question in the years of the First World War

SOMMARIO: 1. L’avvio del pontificato di Benedetto XV e il nuovo corso vaticano - 2. Il nodo irrisolto della questione romana - 3. Il problema della condizione giuridica della Santa Sede alla luce della legge n. 214 del 1871 - 4. La “Grande Guerra” e le sue ricadute sulle relazioni tra l’Italia e la Sede Apostolica - 5. Il conflitto europeo come possibile occasione per la riproposizione della questione romana. L’interesse vaticano per una “internazionalizzazione” della medesima - 6. L’azione della Santa Sede in campo internazionale negli anni del conflitto, tra imparzialità e attivismo diplomatico - 7. L’oscillazione, nei primi anni della guerra, delle posizioni vaticane sulla via da seguire per la soluzione della questione romana e la “svolta conciliatorista” di Benedetto XV - 8. La (ritenuta) maggiore affidabilità della soluzione interna. L’imprescindibilità di una soluzione territoriale come base di partenza nelle trattative con il Governo italiano - 9. L’azione per la pace di Benedetto XV e le sue connessioni con l’interesse per una soluzione della questione romana - 10. La posizione italiana. I rapporti tra il Regio Governo e la Santa Sede negli anni del conflitto - 11. Propositi e tentativi di soluzione della questione romana durante il periodo bellico. Dalle proposte germaniche ai progetti vaticani. Lo schema di Trattato fra la Santa Sede e l’Italia del marzo 1917 - 12. Il fallimento del tentativo pontificio di legare le vicende del conflitto con quelle relative alla soluzione della questione romana. L’impossibilità di addivenire a una sistemazione dei rapporti fra le parti nel corso della guerra e al termine della medesima - 13. “Non tutto fu inutile”: Benedetto XV e la strada aperta per la Conciliazione.

Benedict XV, the Kingdom of Italy, the "Great War". The Roman Question in the years of the First World War

ABSTRACT: The paper analyses the role of Pope Benedict XV during the First World War: his political and humanitarian positions, his renewed conception of relations with the Kingdom of Italy, above all his attitude towards the definitive solution of the Roman Question. More in detail, it explains the operations of Vatican diplomacy to put an end to the anomalous position of the Holy See, deprived of the needed surietes and signs of independence of human powers due to the so-called Law of Guarantees (dated May 13, 1871), as well as the reasons of the failure of this action during the Great War and after its end. However, it concludes considering the long-term positive consequences of this action, which can be considered the first phase of that process of revision of the ecclesiastical legislation of the Kingdom of Italy which would then culminate, over a decade after the end of the Great War, in the stipulation of the Lateran Pacts of 1929.

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The ban on the integral veil in Italy and Spain: the Lombard and Catalan cases

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Planteamiento del problema y antecedentes en Europa - 3. El velo integral en la legislación italiana - 4. La sentencia del Consiglio di Stato italiano núm. 3076, de 19 de junio de 2008 - 5. La Delibera 4553, de 10 de diciembre de 2015, de la Giunta Regionale de Lombardía - 6. La sentencia del Tribunal de Milán de 20 de abril de 2017 – 7. La valoración de la Corte di Appello di Milano: la sentencia de 28 de octubre de 2019 - 8. El velo integral en el ordenamiento jurídico español – 9. La Ordenanza Municipal de Civismo y Convivencia de Lleida y su interpretación por el Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Cataluña - 10. La anulación de la Ordenanza Municipal de Civismo y Convivencia de Lleida por el Tribunal Supremo: la sentencia núm. 693 de 2013, de 14 de febrero - 11. La Ordenanza de Civismo de la ciudad de Reus y los autos del Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Cataluña - 12. Síntesis conclusiva: estudio comparativo de las realidades lombarda y catalana.

The ban on the integral veil in Italy and Spain: the Lombard and Catalan cases

ABSTRACT: In recent years we have been able to appreciate how phenomena such as immigration and globalization have transformed the religious decoration of European countries. Italy and Spain do not represent any exception, because in the streets of their towns and villages there is a growing religious diversity that every day does not stop increasing. That this means people who have arrived to Italy and Spain searching of better prospects for the future but without forgetting their customs, traditions and religion. The problems arise when in use of religious freedom, this people try that the host society admits or tolerates certain religious practices, foreign to the European Judeo-Christian tradition, which could collide with the European legal order. One of those controversial practices has to do with religious symbology, specifically, with the integral veil that Islamic women carry, mainly because of the security problems. By this reason, this article tries to describe the legal situation of the integral veil, analyzing and comparing the ways in which have been regulated in Italy (Lombardy) and Spain (some Catalonian municipalities like Lleida or Reus). The jurisprudential solutions emanating from the courts of both countries are also studied.

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The safeguard of the sacramental seal and the priest-penitent privilege between Canon law and Secular law

SOMMARIO: 1. Sigillum confessionis, secretum, intimitas, segreto, riservatezza, privacy - 2. Nuove questioni alla luce di recenti sviluppi sullo scenario nazionale e mondiale - 3. La disciplina del ‘segreto ministeriale’ in Italia nella normativa unilaterale e in quella bilaterale - 4. Gli interessi tutelati, tra ordinamento canonico e ordinamento italiano - 5. Un problematico arresto della Corte di Cassazione - 6. La lotta alla ‘piaga della pedofilia’ - 7. Le risposte del diritto canonico universale, in particolare l’obbligo di denuncia - 8. Le Linee guida della Conferenza Episcopale Italiana - 9. Incidenze sul tema trattato. La Nota della Penitenzieria Apostolica sull’importanza del foro interno e l’inviolabilità del sigillo sacramentale del 29 giugno 2019 - 10. Le ragioni e le strategie della protezione del segreto ministeriale. La giusta tutela della libertà religiosa.

The safeguard of the sacramental seal and the priest-penitent privilege between Canon law and Secular law

ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the interferences between - on one hand - recent developments in Canonical Penal law and in some State laws in order to strengthen the prevention and the repression of child sexual abuse committed by clerics and religious, and - on the other hand - the safeguard of the secrecy of the sacred ministers with regard to the informations that the faithful confide to them precisely because of their quality. In fact, there are currently tendencies in legislation and jurisprudence which tend to compress - if not to deny - the safeguard of the secrecy of such relations, risking to call into question the protection of an extremely important aspect of freedom of conscience and of religion, which is an outcome of a protracted historical evolution that has been safeguarded - at least in Italy - satisfactorily and effectively until now. The aim of the paper is to clarify the reasons underlying the involved juridical institutions, both in Canon law and in State law, in order to suggest solutions which - by preserving and promoting them - conform to justice.

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Populism, Religions, Law

SOMMARIO: 1. Alla ricerca del popolo - 2. Il popolo politico - 3. Il popolo religioso - 4. L’intreccio populistico ereditato - 5. L’intreccio populistico in atto - 6. L’assalto dell’anti-pluralismo - 7. L’antidoto della laicità.

Populism, Religions, Law

ABSTRACT – The political populism has a background that is not easily detectable: the sense of religious or the sacred that enlivens the holistic view, without intermediate groups, of the people. The political populism needs symbols and goes to the ancient religious image. This tissue is looming on the law plan because aims to break up the fundamentals principles of the constitutional state, particularly the citizens equality according to their cultures and identities. To counter the innate antipluralism of the populism there soars the principle of secularism with its content of respect for the differences and, under this point of view, limit of the popular soveregnty.

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Pour une agora politique partagée autour de la méditerranée

SOMMARIO : 1. Liminaire - 2. Les transformations du droit de liberté religieuse - 3. Transformations européennes, circulation de modelés et “universalisme modeste” - 4 Pour une “saine osmose” entre sphère séculière étatique et sphère religieuse.

For a shared political agora around the Mediterranean

ABSTRACT: The right to religious freedom is in profound transformation on both sides of the Mediterranean. While the Muslim presence shows European difficulties in the treatment of the collective dimensions of this right, the southern shore is confronted with the demands connected to the individualization of beliefs. On both sides, the challenge of freedom of conscience and religion and of the construction of pluralist constitutional democracies proposes ancient questions in renewed terms, soliciting a new rediscovery of the answers given by the universalistic constitutionalism of the second post-war period.

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Il whistleblowing e la denuncia degli abusi sessuali a danno dei minori nella Chiesa

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa sul possibile accostamento tra whistleblowing e gli attuali strumenti ecclesiali volti ad assicurare l’emersione degli abusi sessuali del clero - 2. Cenni sulla tipica fattispecie di whistleblowing disciplinata dalla normativa anticorruzione vaticana - 3. Gli errori della gerarchia ecclesiastica nella gestione della crisi degli abusi sessuali del clero sui minori - 4. Il mutamento di approccio al problema e la normativa canonica “emergenziale” degli ultimi anni - 5. Le analogie tra la posizione di soggezione del sacerdote autore della denuncia e quella del whistleblower - 6. La permanente assenza di un obbligo “giuridico”, di fronte al significato del ribadito obbligo “morale”, di denuncia all’autorità giudiziaria statale - 7. Il conflitto tra la rivelazione della notizia di reato e l’obbligo di conservazione del segreto - 8. Rilievi conclusivi.

Italian Regulation of “Whistleblowing” and Reporting of Child Sexual Abuses in the Church

ABSTRACT: The paper deals with new rules of Catholic Church which provide whistleblower protections for all members of clergy who report clergy sexual abuse to the local Ordinary: this conduct shall not constitute a violation of office confidentiality; furthermore, prejudice, retaliation or discrimination as a consequence of having submitted a report is prohibited. On the contrary, new church law doesn’t mandate reporting of sex abuse to police. The essay faces these topics by comparing canon law with Italian regulation on “whistleblowing” as provided for by law n. 179/2017.

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Sull’impresa sanitaria cattolica e il diritto d’impresa

SOMMARIO: 1. Le finalità dell’impresa sanitaria cattolica nel Messaggio di Papa Francesco per la XXVII Giornata mondiale del malato - 2. Lo scopo di lucro e il vincolo di economicità nell’art. 2082 c.c.: la sfera di auto-nomia dell’imprenditore - 2.1. L’alternativa del modello anglosassone della filantropia d’impresa - 3. La dimensione solidaristica: il progetto dell’impresa “comunità di uomini” - 3.1. Il ruolo dell’etica nella forma organizzativa e nell’attività d’impresa - 3.2. La centralità dei “bisogni fondamentali della comunità” e l’assetto economico-funzionale dell’impresa: l’esigenza di bilanciamento degli interessi - 3.3. L’assetto organizzativo e il modello partecipativo. Il ruolo dell’informazione - 3.4. La domanda di salute tra efficienza economica ed efficienza sanitaria - 3.5. L’offerta di salute: il mercato e il principio di responsabilità - 4. Sulla fisionomia dell’impresa sanitaria cattolica - 5. Lo statuto normativo e la forma organizzativa dell’impresa sanitaria cattolica - 6. L’impresa sanitaria cattolica e lo scopo di lucro.

On Catholic healthcare organizations and business law

ABSTRACT: The essay deals with the characteristics of the healthcare company inspired by the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church and the methods of pursuing its true values according to the enterprise law.

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Ancora sul procedimento di stipulazione delle intese tra Stato e confessioni religiose diverse dalla cattolica

SOMMARIO: 1. Ulteriori riflessioni su un tema controverso - 2. Intese e procedimento amministrativo - 3. La fase di accesso alle trattative - 4. Le trattative e la sottoscrizione dell’intesa - 5. L’iniziativa legislativa e l’iter legislativo di sottoscrizione dell’intesa - 6. Le conseguenze di regime - 7. Conclusioni.

Again about the procedure of stipulation of the agreements (ʻinteseʼ) between the State and the religious denominations

ABSTRACT: The essay focuses on the topic of the agreements which should be subscribed by the Italian Government and the representatives of the religious denominations, in compliance with the article 8, c. 3, of the Italian Constitution. In a recent and highly controversial judgement, the Constitutional Court has recognised that the act of selection of the denominations for the negotiations aimed to the subscription of such agreements has the nature of a ʻpolitical actʼ and could therefore not be reviewed by any judges of the Country. The judgement has been deeply criticized by the most of the Italian scholars specialized in the subject. The object of this essay is to demonstrate that at least some parts of the complex procedure of production of the above mentioned agreements could not be considered ʻpoliticalʼ, in the technical sense, but should rather be reduced to the model of the typical administrative procedure. In that case, the Government acts of selection and of withdrawal from the negotiations could be object of a common administrative judicial review.

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Le mutilazioni genitali femminili tra misure di prevenzione e di contrasto: prospettive per l’eradicazione del fenomeno in Italia

SOMMARIO: 1. Brevi considerazioni introduttive - 2. Mutilazioni genitali femminili: una questione anche italiana - 3. Profili risarcitori e misure repressive: il quadro normativo italiano - 4. Art. 583 bis c.p.: riflessioni sulla formulazione della norma - 5. Strategie integrate, approccio globale e multisettoriale nella lotta al fenomeno - 6. Inclusione sociale, sensibilizzazione delle coscienze e metamorfosi delle condotte nella strada maestra della prevenzione - 7. Politiche assistenziali e misure di protezione delle donne a rischio e delle vittime nelle strategie di prevenzione.

FGM between prevention and contrast measures: eradication perspectives of the phenomenon in Italy.

ABSTRACT: FGM includes practices of total or partial cutting or external genital lesions of women for no therapeutic reason. They are carried aut for socio-cultural or hygienic-prophylactic causes. Moreover, these rituals are also practiced by some religious communities despite the lack of impositive precepts in sacred texts. FGM is also widespread in Italy and it is constitute a violation of women’s human rights and child abuse. The Italian State fights the phenomenon with external and internal actions, through strategic measures of prevention, protection and assistance for victims. FGM does not exclude compensation for damage to the health of the women involved. In Italy, a new type of crime has been introduced with the art. 583 bis c.p. However, the rule has not been widely applied. This issue needs to faced up on a global level. Above all, it is necessary to persuade those who follow the practice to be the main actors of their own change.

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La libertà religiosa nella giurisprudenza delle Corti europee

SOMMARIO: 1. - La fisionomia del diritto di libertà religiosa nello spazio europeo: due sistemi a confronto - 2. La giurisprudenza della Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo in materia di libertà religiosa individuale: le nuove prospettive sul divieto di porto di simboli religiosi - 3. La Corte di giustizia e la libertà religiosa: l’(apparente) risvegliato interesse - 4. Brevi considerazioni conclusive.

Freedom of religion before European Courts

ABSTRACT: This essay aims to investigate the content of the right to religious freedom in the European Court of Human Rights’ and the EU Court of Justice’s case law. As a matter of fact, the approach of these courts appears to be very different. While in the Strasbourg Court’s case law this right is gradually recognized more and more clearly and the legitimate restrictions foreseen in the Convention are interpreted with increasing restraint, the Court of Luxembourg rarely applies the right recognized by art. 10 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights in a direct way and often decides the cases through the lenses of an extensive interpretation of the EU anti-discrimination law.

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Freedom of expression and the desecration of flags and religious books in Israeli law

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Flag Protection. Legislation - 3. Flag Protection. Jurisprudence - 4. Foreign Flags - 5. Desecration of Religious Books - 6. Conclusions.

ABSTRACT: Freedom of expression is axiomatic to liberal democracy. However, extremely divergent paradigms about when it must be curbed are manifest in the legal systems of different countries, especially concerning hate speech and speech offensive to religious or patriotic feelings. The United States is more protective of freedom of expression even at the cost of deliberately ignoring the need - especially in culturally diverse societies common in democratic countries nowadays - for dialogue rather than confrontation and for a pluralistic respect of the dignity and integrity of others and that which they cherish. In contrast, the European paradigm willingly sacrifices freedom of expression for the sake of protecting the sensibilities of the different segments of society. The theoretical question of the proper perimeters of such infringements upon freedom of expression aside, legislation prohibiting the desecration of national symbols on the one hand, and of religiously venerated objects on the other hand, can be seen as a measure of the emphasis ascribed in a jurisdiction to tolerance and pluralism as a justification for limiting democratic rights. This paper is a critical review of the legislation and case-law of flag burning statutes, and statutes outlawing the desecration of religious books, in Israel.

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Le nuove dipendenze in relazione alla incapacità a emettere un consenso matrimoniale valido

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. L'incapacità consensuale nel matrimonio - 3. Evoluzione della Giurisprudenza ecclesiastica - 4. Le nuove dipendenze - 5. Le radici della dipendenza patologica - 6. Sex addiction - 6a - Dipendenza da pornografia - 6b. Dipendenza da cyber pornografia - 7. Dipendenza dal lavoro (Work addiction) - 8. Il collezionismo patogeno - 9. Dipendenza dalla chirurgia estetica - 10. Dipendenza dallo shopping - 11. Dipendenza da selfie - 12. Dipendenza dal gioco d'azzardo - 12a. Dipendenza da Trading on line - 12b. Dipendenza dai videogiochi - 13. Dipendenza dallo sport o exercise addiction - 14. Internet addiction e psicotecnologie - 14a. Dipendenza da email - 15. Dipendenza dalla televisione - 16. L'incidenza delle nuove dipendenze sulla capacità di intendere e di volere - 16a. Gli effetti delle nuove dipendenze sulla capacità consensuale matrimoniale - 17. Considerazioni conclusive.

New dependencies in relation to the ability to issue a valid matrimonial consent

ABSTRACT: This article identifies and outlines the new addictions or psychiatric disorders that, whilst not deriving from the abuse of substances, still manages to make a person incapable of self-determination and make free and mature decisions. In recent years, the psychological distress in which many people find themselves living is taking on specific characteristics and is affected by social and cultural elements that make the process of developing emotional-affective skills, the possibility of having a certain identity and the achievement of stable balances very hard. To the already known pathologies are therefore added new ones often associated with borderline-narcissistic personality disorders; drug-free addictions are to be counted among the psychiatric disorders in which social, cultural, economic and psychological elements emerge. Those elements make these new problems interesting and relevant in the present-day but also difficult to insert into certain diagnostic frames.

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Sulla libertà di manifestare le proprie opinioni religiose nel luogo di lavoro: brevi note in merito ai casi Achbita e Bougnaoui

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La pregiudiziale belga: causa C-157/15, G4S Secure Solution - 3. La pregiudiziale francese: causa C-188/15, Bougnaoui e ADDH - 4. Le pronunce “gemelle” della Grande Sezione della Corte di giustizia: la sentenza 14 marzo 2017, Achbita, EU:C:2017:203 e la sentenza 14 marzo 2017, Bougnaoui, EU:C:2017:204 - 5. Uno sguardo alla più recente dottrina ecclesiasticistica - 6. La giurisprudenza della Corte Edu: la sentenza Eweida e altri c. Regno Unito del 15 gennaio 2013 (ricorsi nn. 48420/10, 59842/10, 51671/10 e 36516/10) - 7. Osservazioni conclusive.

Freedom to express religious beliefs in the workplace: brief notes on the Achbita and Bougnaoui cases

ABSTRACT: This paper seek to address the delicate issue of religious freedom, from a juridical perspective, analyzing the Achbita and Bougnaoui cases and comparing it with the Eweida one. It intends to elaborate some of the key question of the doctrinal debate on the links between the expression of one's religious beliefs and the workplace. Can neutrality be a valid defense against discriminations? To what extent can the religious freedom of the worker be sacrificed in favor of the business freedom? These are just some of the questions that are posed to the interpreter and to the scholar of ecclesiastical law. They require a careful evaluation of the values involved and the search for solutions of high balance and responsibility.

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Sicurezza e prevenzione del terrorismo cosiddetto islamista: il disagio della libertà

SOMMARIO: 1. La nuova retorica della sicurezza - 2. Il terrorismo cosiddetto islamista - 3. Il diritto penale preventivo e la libertà religiosa - 4. Deradicalizzazione e/è laicità - 5. Sicurezza e libertà: per un orientamento costituzionale.

Security and Prevention of so-called Islamic Terrorism: Freedom and its discontents

ABSTRACT: Security is becoming the priority of the western politics because of the international terrorism, so called Islamic terrorism. The preventive character that the criminal law takes in order to fight it risks hiting the religious freedom of the citizens, misinterpreted as participation to terroristic groups. The risk is high when the prevention measures consist in the deradicalization, read as religious re-education in unfundamentalist direction. In the constitutional State of law, a fair deradicalization has to aim only to the re-education about the separation between politics and religion so as to not prejudice the right of religious freedom.

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La natura giuridica delle fabbricerie alla luce della riforma del Terzo settore

SOMMARIO: 1. Singolarità della natura giuridica di ciascuna fabbriceria - 2. La controversa natura ecclesiastica delle fabbricerie - 3. Il patrimonio delle fabbricerie come “bene comune” economicamente rilevante - 4. L’interesse pubblico per la gestione comune delle fabbricerie - 5. Le poche fabbricerie attuali: una diversa dall’altra - 6. Le attuali fabbricerie: enti a esaurimento e a numero chiuso - 7. Tre diverse tipologie per le attuali fabbricerie - 8. Il controllo pubblico sulle attuali fabbricerie - 9. La controversa ecclesiasticità delle attuali fabbricerie - 10. La controversia circa la natura pubblica o privata delle attuali fabbricerie (un’eredità delle Onlus) - 11. La diversità di opinioni circa la natura giuridica delle diverse fabbricerie - 12. L’impatto della riforma del Terzo settore sulla natura giuridica delle attuali fabbricerie - 13. Quali conseguenze per le fabbricerie Onlus? - 14. L’irrilevanza giuridica di una previa qualificazione pubblica o privata comune alle attuali fabbricerie - 15. La plausibilità del ricorso da parte di alcune attuali fabbricerie alla qualificazione di “impresa sociale” - 16. Conclusione.

The legal nature of “fabbricerie” in the light of the Third Sector Law reform

ABSTRACT: The “fabbricerie” (fabrique in French: untranslatable into English) are ancient institutions responsible for the administration of the asset of some particularly important churches (for example, cathedrals). For the most part, they administer an invaluable artistic and cultural heritage. However, their legal discipline is controversial, especially after the approval of the recent reform of the Third Sector. This contribution briefly reconstructs the situation and expresses an orientation contrary to their equivalence with the new “Enti del Terzo settore”, but inclined to the possibility to give them (rectius: to some of them) the qualification of “impresa sociale”.

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La tutela della libertà religiosa del migrante nel sistema di accoglienza in Italia. Un’introduzione al tema

SOMMARIO: 1. Il sistema di accoglienza in Italia. Una premessa - 2. L’accoglienza per fasi e per status. Brevi cenni - 3. Le seconde accoglienze in Italia - 4. Il D.lgs n. 142 del 2015 e l’attuazione della Direttiva “Accoglienza” dopo la legge n. 132 del 2018. Un regresso di tutele? - 5. La tutela della libertà di culto nel sistema di accoglienza in Italia. L’inquadramento normativo - 6. La condizione del migrante tra libertà e dignità (negate) - 7. Dignità umana, libertà religiosa e identità del migrante nella gestione del fenomeno immigratorio in Italia. Un primo bilancio.

The Protection of Religious Freedom of Migrant in the Italian Reception System. An introduction

ABSTRACT: This essay concerns the issue of protection religious freedom in the reception system of migrants in Italy according to the current immigration legislation.

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Gli edifici di culto ortodossi in Italia come testimonianze della fede, delle memorie e cultura di popoli

SOMMARIO: 1. Gli edifici di culto come testimonianze di tradizioni religiose e culturali - 2. Peculiarità degli edifici di culto delle chiese ortodosse - 3. Il patrimonio storico e culturale greco-ortodosso - 4. La presenza delle comunità russofone - 5. Le altre circoscrizioni ecclesiastiche. La diocesi romena d’Italia. Le Comunità serba e bulgara - 6. Rilevanza della cultura armena.

Orthodox buildings of worship in Italy as testimonies of the faith, memories and culture of peoples

ABSTRACT: The buildings of worship testify and recall religious and cultural traditions of citizens-faithful, even when they are places of worship of the Eastern Churches, in species pertaining to the Greek Orthodox or Russian Orthodox cult, long present and officiated in Italy. The role of buildings already used for Roman Catholic worship and now given, in various capacities, to other Eastern Orthodox Churches is different. The centuries-old presence of Armenian culture in some areas of Italy is worth mentioning.

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Scienza giuridica italiana e Status Civitatis Vaticanae (1929-2019). Riflessioni sull’autonomia scientifica e didattica del diritto vaticano

SOMMARIO: 1. Premesse e linee di ricerca - 2. Un peculiare osservatorio: i manuali giuridici italiani e lo studio del diritto vaticano - 3. I manuali di diritto ecclesiastico - 4. I manuali di diritto canonico - 5. I manuali di diritto internazionale - 6. Monografie e saggi giusvaticanisti. La fioritura di studi (1929-1939) - 7. Giuristi ebrei e diritto vaticano: Federico Cammeo; Donato Donati e Mario Falco - 8. Gli altri Maestri e il diritto vaticano - 9. Il diritto vaticano tra oblio e studi elitari (1940-1999) - 10. Dal 2000 a oggi: la rinascita del diritto vaticano - 11. Il diritto vaticano nel quadro delle scienze giuridiche - 12. L’autonomia scientifica del diritto vaticano - 13. Autonomia didattica e insegnamento del diritto vaticano nelle università - 14. Verso un’autonomia scientifica e didattica del diritto vaticano, oltre il diritto ecclesiastico?

Italian legal science and Vatican City State (1929-2019). Some reflections on Vatican law and his scientific and didactic autonomy

ABSTRACT: This paper aims to clarify the history of the Vatican City State through the works of Italian jurists. A special attention is given to the scientific and didactic autonomy of Vatican law.

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Sulla questione della pignorabilità degli edifici di culto

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. Il quadro delle posizioni della dottrina e l’orientamento della giurisprudenza - 3. L’impignorabilità delle cose sacre prevista dall’art. 514, n. 1 c.p.c. e le asimmetrie con la disciplina prevista dall’art. 831, secondo comma, c.c. - 4. L’ambito applicativo del divieto di “espropriazione” degli edifici di culto contenuto nella legislazione bilaterale - 5. Le conseguenze della limitata attitudine del bene a essere oggetto di negozi e delle eccezionali condizioni di un suo utilizzo redditizio - 6. Conclusioni.

On the matter of whether religious buildings are assets exempt from execution

ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to answer the question of wheter religious buildings are assets exempt from execution. To do so, the Author examines specifically the protection offered to places of Catholic worship by the Agreement, with additional Protocol, between Italy and the Holy See, signed in Rome on 18 February 1984 (amending the Lateran Concordat of 11 February 1929). In the following of the article, a “de facto” incompatibility between proceeding of execution and some features of these goods is highlighted.

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Dalle tradizioni costituzionali comuni all’identità costituzionale il passo è breve? Riflessioni introduttive

SOMMARIO: 1. L’identità costituzionale: un crocevia nel rapporto fra ordinamenti - 2. Un’istantanea del dibattito - 3. Visto da Lussemburgo: la prospettiva della Corte di giustizia.

From common constitutional traditions to constitutional identity: is it a short road? A critical introduction

ABSTRACT: Constitutional identity has lately emerged as the most relevant argument underlying the dialogue between the national constitutional courts and the European Court of Justice nowadays. As a matter of fact, this new identitarian seam of the constitutional discourse represents the real battlefield between the national constitutional dimension and the European one. In order to analyse the main features of the EU legal landscape upon which this discussion takes place, this essay investigates the gradual development of the use of the common constitutional traditions as well as the progressive emergence of the concept of constitutional identity as a fundamental element of the whole EU integration process up to including in the Lisbon Treaty a specific provision on this matter, i.e. Art. 4, 2 TEU.

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Officium e munus tra ordinamento canonico e comunione ecclesiale

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Officium nella Vulgata - 3. Dalla comprensione potestativa alla visione teologica dell’ufficio ecclesiastico - 4. Il nesso tra munus e officium - 5. La nozione di munus tra teologia e diritto canonico - 6. La partecipazione personale e comunitaria al munus di Cristo mediante i doni gerarchici e carismatici - 7. Il munus dei Vescovi - 8. Il munus del Vescovo di Roma - 9. La rinuncia all’ufficio ecclesiastico di Vescovo diocesano - 10. La rinuncia di Benedetto XVI alla luce della nozione teologica di munus - 11. Dalla ministerialità alla munusialità.

Officium, and munus, between canonical order and ecclesial communion

ABSTRACT: the contribution reconsiders the relathionship between officium, munus and potestas, codified in the definition of the ecclesiastical office, in the light of the traditio canonica and conciliar teaching.

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Martini di fronte all’immigrazione e agli stranieri: prospettive per le istituzioni e la convivenza di tutti

SOMMARIO: 1. Il contesto socio-politico-ecclesiale del magistero del cardinale Martini circa l’immigrazione e gli stranieri: allargamento dell’UE, caduta delle divisioni in Europa, costruzione della nuova UE, crescente immigrazione extraUE - 2. La prospettiva ideale: il personalismo cristiano e il processo di unificazione europea - 3. La presenza degli stranieri privi di sicurezza giuridica e in cerca di lavoro e di ospitalità interpella i cittadini e i cristiani nel sostegno e nell’accoglienza: l’immigrazione come forma di povertà - 4. Non ignorare, né reprimere il fenomeno migratorio, ma accogliere ogni persona come tale: l’esigenza di norme condivise improntate all’eguaglianza nella tutela dei diritti fondamentali per regolare in modo ordinario l’immigrazione e la convivenza. Risolvere i problemi degli stranieri contribuisce a risolvere anche i problemi degli italiani - 5. Non generalizzare, ma discernere i diversi tipi di migrazione in base agli effetti positivi per la persona migrante e nell’ambito di un nuovo ordine economico globale: gli Stati di origine e quelli di immigrazione contengano le cause economiche e politiche che rendono insostenibile vivere e costringono a emigrare e favoriscano l’emigrazione come libera scelta derivante da interdipendenza e da desiderio di miglioramento culturale ed economico - 6. I diritti fondamentali di ogni persona umana da riconoscere a tutti, cittadini e stranieri: occorre prevedere un cammino graduale e progressivo verso la concreta realizzazione di una “carta dei diritti del migrante” - 7. L’immigrazione non come minaccia, ma come occasione profetica di rigenerazione e cambiamento per ogni società e per ogni Stato: nei rapporti tra nord e sud del mondo superare ogni forma di razzismo e imparare a convivere pacificamente in una società multiculturale, a superare le frontiere, ad accogliere, a educare al rispetto delle differenze e a rispettare norme comuni improntate all’eguaglianza e al rispetto dei diritti fondamentali della persona - 8. Condizione per una integrabilità che non introduca germi di scontri razziali e sociali è assicurare l’accettazione e l’assimilazione da parte di tutti di un nucleo minimo di valori: il principio di eguaglianza senza discriminazioni e la dichiarazione universale dei diritti dell’uomo. Conseguenze di tali principi: l’impossibilità di importare istituti giuridici fondati su discriminazioni o contrarie alla laicità dello Stato e di adottare politiche migratorie disumane o liberticide - 9. Occorrono atteggiamenti più solidi e maturi di fronte all’immigrazione: con azioni culturali ed educative aiutare a formare la società multiculturale; evitare chiusure e ripiegamenti su sé stessi e disciplinare con leggi il processo migratorio - 10. Imparare a conoscersi e a accettarsi reciprocamente e a convivere tra diversi in una società multiculturale e multireligiosa e di immigrazione: prospettive e dilemmi del pluralismo nei rapporti interpersonali e sociali, nella comunicazione, nell’educazione interculturale e nell’integrazione sociale - 11. Le prospettive del dialogo islamo-cristiano nella vita quotidiana: educare bambini e ragazzi a conoscere e rispettare le diversità religiose e convivere pacificamente rispettando le leggi senza chiedere trattamenti speciali e senza rinnegare la propria identità - 12. Una Chiesa da genti diverse, accogliente, aperta agli stranieri, un esempio per tutti di fraternità che favorisce la convivenza: il sogno della Chiesa di Ambrogio e il sogno della Chiesa di Martini - 13. A fondamento di tutto la visione dello straniero e delle migrazioni nella Bibbia: l’uomo migrante e i tre motivi (carismatico, cristologico, escatologico) per l’accoglienza dello straniero - 14. L’eredità del magistero di Martini su immigrazione e stranieri.

ABSTRACT: The paper analyses the relevance of the thought of Carlo Maria Martini, Cardinal and Archbishop of Milano from 1979 to 2003, with regard to the legal and political choices that national and European institutions must make in order to regulate both immigration and a multicultural and multireligious coexistence. After recalling the background of Christian personalism and of European unification, the paper focuses on the institutional and legal aspects of Martini’s thinking which is founded on the biblical message as well as on a true commitment to constitutional, international and European provisions. According to Martini, migration is an ordinary phenomenon and it should be managed in an ordinary way, also as a chance to improve everyone’s conditions and to renew all States. We must therefore both prepare ourselves and educate to coexistence among people of different cultures and religions: such a coexistence will be peaceful only if everyone respects the principle of equality, the secularity of the State and the fundamental rights of each person.

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Dalla tonaca alla toga: il monaco greco-ortodosso Ireneo capofila di un cambiamento?

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa in fatto - 2. L’impugnazione al Consiglio di Stato greco - 3. La recente sentenza (7 maggio 2019, C 431-17) della Corte di Giustizia UE e il suo approdo ermeneutico.

From the cassock to the court dress: is Ireneo, the Greek orthodox monk, leader of a change?

ABSTRACT: The European Court of Justice, declares the Greek legislation contrary to the UE law, according to the judgment of 7 May 2019, C-431/17. The Greek legislation prohibits a monk qualified for the legal profession in Cyprus from enrolling in the register and practicing the profession, in the host Member State, using the title of the Member State of origin.

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«Il Diritto Ecclesiastico» e la Spagna (1890-1948)

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La «Rivista di Diritto Ecclesiastico» / «Il Diritto Ecclesiastico» e la Spagna - 3. Ricerche sulla Spagna - 3.1. Di autore spagnolo - 3.2. Di autore non spagnolo - 3.3. Di autore sconosciuto - 3.4. Citazioni di ricerche sulla Spagna - 3.4.1. Di autore spagnolo - 3.4.1.1. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 3.4.1.2. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico - 3.4.1.3. Intorno a questioni di carattere generale - 3.4.1.4. Intorno a questioni relative ad altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici - 3.4.2. Di autore non spagnolo - 3.4.3. Di autore sconosciuto - 3.4.4. Autore spagnolo citato, senza l’opera - 4. Recensioni - 4.1. Di autore (dell’opera) spagnolo e autore della recensione conosciuto - 4.1.1. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 4.1.2. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico - 4.1.3. Intorno a questioni relative ad altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici - 4.2. Di autore (dell’opera) spagnolo e autore della recensione sconosciuto - 4.2.1. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 4.2.2. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico - 4.2.3. Intorno a questioni di carattere generale - 4.3. Di autore (dell’opera) non spagnolo - 5. Riferimenti bibliografici - 5.1. Libri - 5.1.1. Autore spagnolo - 5.1.1.1. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 5.1.1.2. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico - 5.1.1.3. Intorno a questioni di carattere generale - 5.1.1.4. Intorno a questioni di altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici - 5.1.2. Autore straniero su questioni relative alla Spagna - 5.2. Pubblicazioni periodiche - 5.2.1. Autore spagnolo - 5.2.1.1. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 5.2.1.2. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico - 5.2.1.3. Intorno a questioni di carattere generale - 5.2.1.4. Intorno a questioni di altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici - 5.2.2. Autore straniero - 5.2.2.1. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 5.2.2.2. Intorno a questioni di Diritto canonico trattate su riviste spagnole - 5.2.2.3. Intorno a questioni relative ad altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici trattate su riviste spagnole - 5.2.3. Autore sconosciuto - 5.2.3.1. Intorno a questioni relative alla Spagna - 5.2.3.2. Intorno a questioni di altri paesi/ordinamenti giuridici trattate su riviste spagnole - 5.3. Citazioni di riviste spagnole - 6. Notizie giuridiche e di politica ecclesiastica - 7. Considerazioni conclusive.

«Il Diritto Ecclesiastico» and Spain (1890-1948)

ABSTRACT: The contribution refers to the study of the presence of Spanish authors in the oldest Italian magazine referring to ecclesiastical law and canon law, in the period from 1890 to 1948.

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Religious freedom and inviolable lines in pluralist societies: the case of cultural crimes

SOMMARIO: 1. Multicultural societies and conflicts of loyalty: cultural crimes - 2. The Italian reaction to cultural crimes - 3. The case of kirpan: the recent judgment of the Court of Cassation - 4. A questionable decision: the fundamental role of pluralism in Western societies - 5. Conclusions: the centrality of human dignity.

ABSTRACT: Pluralist societies pose new challenges to legal systems, having to find trade-offs between accommodating the necessities of minorities and security concerns. Religions often impose prescriptive rules on the behaviour of their believers, leading to moral internal conflicts when these lead to break State laws. In Italy, this subject was already discussed between legal scholars, before it received large public attention in 2017, where a judgement of the Cassation Court has upheld the conviction of a Sikh indian for withholding a kirpan, a ritual dagger central to his faith. This work provides an overview of the debate raised by the ruling, with particular emphasis on the challenges in devising policies that address security concerns without sacrificing religious freedom and pluralism. The Italian answer to cultural crimes will be analysed in depth, given the distinctive element of positive laicità in 1948 Constitution that characterizes its context. In the conclusion, a possible solution focused on human dignity is suggested.

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Indipendenti e sovrani: considerazioni attorno all’art. 7, primo comma, Cost. a partire dalla ricerca delle pressioni Chiesa-Stato

SOMMARIO: 1. Coordinate definitorie - 1.1. Aspetti metodologici - 1.2. Aspetti terminologici: pressioni, interferenze, ingerenze - 1.3. Direzione e verso - 2. Elementi generali e strutturali - 2.1. Chiesa: missione universale, laicità e sovranità - 2.2. Le divisioni (anche mediatiche) del Papa (e della CEI) - 3. Rassegna di casi - 3.1. Immigrazione - 3.2. Unioni civili - 3.3. Le elezioni politiche del 2018 e il governo Conte - 3.4. Ambientalismo - 3.5. Le elezioni europee del 2019 e l’europeismo - 4. Declinazioni giuridiche nell’analisi dell’art. 7, primo comma, Cost. - 5. Considerazioni conclusive.

Independent and sovereign: considerations about art. 7, I of the Italian Constitution from the point of view of Catholic Church thrusts on Italian Republic

ABSTRACT: The article deals with the separation of Church and State in the frame of the Italian Constitution. It compasses various examples from the last years, and in particular during the pontificate of pope Francis, where the Catholic Church expressed strong opinions about any issue above the Parliament or the Government or tried to influence public opinion in Italy. It discusses how these episodes influence the relationships between State and Church.

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La disciplina giuridica del terziario esoterico

SOMMARIO: 1. Il terziario esoterico - 2. Il divieto di ciarlataneria - 3. Il terziario esoterico e la tutela del contraente/consumatore - 4. La disciplina del terziario esoterico tra pluralismo culturale e tutela del consumatore.

The Law Regulating Esoteric Services

ABSTRACT: The essay focuses on the law regulating esoteric services (fortune telling, selling of talismans, etc.). While in several legal systems the professional practice of magic was once clearly forbidden, nowadays its status is uncertain: such practices are seen as not necessarily illicit but highly suspicious from the point of view of consumer law. The essay explores the inherent tension between repression of fraud and unfair commercial practices and freedom of belief, particularly focusing on Italian case law and administrative practice.

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Le intese alla prova: nuovi attori e vecchi contenuti

SOMMARIO: 1. La Corte costituzionale e la pronuncia avanguardista - 2. I presupposti ragionati in sede Costituente dell’art. 8, terzo comma - 3. Ruolo delle intese nel processo storico di equiparazione con la condizione riservata alla Chiesa cattolica - 4. La fase dell’affermazione del pluralismo aperto a tutte le confessioni - 5. I nuovi soggetti religiosi e le loro rappresentanze - 6 Il contenuto delle intese tra diritto speciale e diritto comune - 7. Conclusioni.

The agreements to the test: new actors and old content

ABSTRACT: The Constitutional Court, in its judgement, has brought to light the critical aspects of the "system of agreements", highlighting the lack of a complete regulation of the procedure of stipulation. A short historical journey, starting from the works discussed in the Constituent Assembly, helps us to understand the evolution of the bilateral model provided for by Art. 8, third paragraph, of the Italian Constitution: from an initial phase in which it has been placed as a useful tool to fulfill an equal treatment to a subsequent one in which it has been used as a means of affirmation of open religious pluralism, to arrive at assuming an autonomous function unrelated to the first two paragraphs of Art. 8. The current system of "agreements-photocopies" can only be overcome by a general law on religious freedom that takes into account the specific content of the agreements. In this way, the agreements themselves would regain their original function of special law, reserved for religious confessions of sacred origin

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La presencia de la religión en la escuela pública inglesa: los actos de culto colectivo por primera vez impugnados ante la High Court

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción: las manifestaciones de la confesionalidad inglesa y su creciente cuestionamiento por la doctrina científica - 2. Confesionalidad estatal y sistema educativo en Inglaterra - 3. Los actos de culto colectivo en la escuela pública ante la High Court.

The Place of Religion in State-funded Schools of England: the Act of Collective Worship for the First Time on Trial at the High Court

ABSTRACT: Collective Worship that needs to be wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character is currently a statutory requirement in all State-funded schools under English law. This legal requirement, along with the inevitable presence in this same type of schools of religious education that also has to reflect the fact that the religious traditions in Great Britain are in the main Christian, whilst taking account of the teaching and practices of the other principal religions represented in Great Britain, are both two requirements that have been frequently considered as very controversial and arising from them are serious concerns about their compliance with human rights legal framework. Very recently a High Court action has been launched against this law on collective worship, in a case that will be heard on 29 November 2019 (Lee and Lizanne Harris v. Oxford Diocesan Schools Trust). This paper gives notice of this recent judicial challenge and briefly explores its main legal implications.

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L’esclusione del bonum prolis nella recente giurisprudenza rotale

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Il fondamento dell’esclusione del bonum prolis - 3. Lo ius ad actus coniugales - 4. La distinzione tra ius ed exercitium iuris - 5. Le tradizionali presunzioni giurisprudenziali - 6. La procreazione responsabile e alcuni casi particolari - 7. L’esclusione della prole nelle ipotesi di ricorso alla fecondazione artificiale - 8. Questioni relative alla prova - 9 Conclusione.

The exclusion of bonum prolis in the latest rotal jurisprudence

ABSTRACT: After having clarified the basis of the exclusion of bonum prolis and delineated the nature and content of the right/duty to marital acts suitable for procreation, the article explains the classic distinction between law and the exercise of the law, and on the presumptions elaborated in this matter by rotal jurisprudence. This is followed by an examination, conducted in the light of the doctrine of responsible procreation, of some peculiar cases of exclusion and use of artificial insemination; finally, the article focuses on the proofs needed. This research is based on recent unpublished rotal jurisprudence.

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L’ampliamento del ruolo processuale del Vicario giudiziale nel ‘sistema’ del Mitis iudex

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa d’inquadramento: la ‘centralità’ derivata del Vicario giudiziale - 2. La revisione della fase introduttiva e impugnatoria (con minimi riferimenti statistici) - 3. L’individuazione soggettiva della figura - 4. Un riscontro sintetico alla luce dell’art. 46 DC. - 5. Il discernimento e l’orientamento della forma processuale adeguata - 6. Le spettanze del Vicario giudiziale nei diversi tipi di processo - 7. Le competenze del Vicario giudiziale nel processo ordinario - 8. Le competenze del Vicario giudiziale nel processo più breve davanti al Vescovo - 9. Le competenze del Vicario giudiziale nel processo documentale - 10. La motivazione dei provvedimenti e i possibili ricorsi - 11. Le difficoltà operative e le problematiche aperte.

The extension of the procedural role of the Judicial Vicar in the “system” of the Mitis iudex

ABSTRACT: In the MIDI system, the centrality of the Bishop is also associated with the strengthening of the role of the Judicial Vicar, especially in the introductory and executive phase. This contribution examines first of all the identification of the minister and the possible extension of the introductory powers to the Assistant Judicial Vicars, and then dwells on the function of discernment and orientation of the procedural form. The duties relating to each procedural mode (ordinary, abbreviated and documentary) are then specifically and analytically outlined. The analysis ends with possible appeals against the initial measures and the determination of the attributions between the interdiocesan and diocesan Judicial Vicar, especially with reference to the processus brevior. The training and responsibility of the Judicial Vicar is crucial to ensure the proper implementation of the reform.

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L’aggravante della finalità di discriminazione ovvero come provare a combattere i pregiudizi attraverso lo strumento penale

SOMMARIO: 1. Sometimes They Come Back. Perché i fantasmi dell’intolleranza e del pregiudizio possono sempre riapparire - 2. L’approccio penalistico ai pregiudizi. L’aggravante prevista dall’art. 604-ter c.p. nel quadro degli interventi del legislatore contro gli atti di discriminazione razziale, etnica e religiosa - 3. L’apporto interpretativo della giurisprudenza - 4. Le criticità messe in luce dalla dottrina e il limitato rilievo dei problemi di composizione tra la libertà di manifestazione del pensiero, da un lato, e l’eguaglianza e pari dignità di ogni essere umano, dall’altro - 5. Lo strumento penale di fronte a nuove forme di aggressione della dignità umana: in particolare, lo scopo della repressione e la questione dell’eguaglianza quale bene giuridico oggetto di protezione penale - 6. Notazioni conclusive.

The aggravating circumstance for offences committed with the purpose of discrimination or hatred: how to try to combat prejudices through the penal instrument

ABSTRACT: The article examines the Mancino Law’s Article 3 the provides for a general aggravating circumstance for all offences committed for reasons of ethnic, national, racial or religious discrimination or hatred, or for the purpose of facilitating the activities of an organisation, associations, movement or group pursuing these goals.

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Ebraismo e cibo: un binomio antico e nuove tendenze alla prova del multiculturalismo

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Le regole alimentari nel contesto israeliano e l’irrisolto dualismo (anche simbolico) tra identità collettiva nazionale e religiosa - 3. L’approccio europeo al Kashrut e la questione della macellazione rituale - 4. Le relazioni tra precetti religiosi alimentari ebraici e normativa secolare negli ordinamenti della multiculturalità - 5. Le Kasher food laws negli Stati Uniti - 6. Nota conclusiva.

Judaism and Food: an ancient binomial and the new tendencies on the background of multiculturalism

Abstract: In Judaism, religion and food have always been the terms of a strong spiritual and cultural ‘binomial’, variously affecting the community as well as the individual dimension. In Jewish religious tradition, food is at the same time an instrument of religious elevation, and it represents a powerful factor of collective identity. The paper aims at deepening this binomial in a comparative perspective that takes into consideration some specific features that seem particularly relevant.  a) The role of the Constitutional Courts in the containment of sacred law, according to the Hirshl’s perspective (I. Hirshl, 2010), and in particular the case of Israel where the scope of religious authorities’ prerogative over the issue of kashrut certificates by the Chief Rabbinate represents an important part of the struggle between secular and religious attitudes. The judicial debate on Kashrut contributes to delineate the role of the Supreme Court of Israel in responding to the increased tension between Israel’s dual commitment to liberal-democratic and Jewish values. b) The new conflictual tendencies, in the relation between food and multiculturalism, concerning kosher slaughter in Europe.  c) The relationship between Jewish dietary laws, religious liberties, the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause in the United States constitutional system.  Starting from these topics, the paper will try to argue on the manifestation in food law of the intrinsic duality in the state of Israel, together Jewish and democratic, and the reflection of this duality in the other legal systems where constitutional theocracy is prevented by constitutional provisions of secularity and pluralism, but secularism appears in various and different forms.

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Omnia munda mundis. La pratica culturale dell’„omaggio al pene” del bambino: uno studio per la cultural defense

SOMMARIO 1. Definizione della pratica “omaggio al pene” del bambino - 2. La triplice fenomenologia della pratica: fisica, verbale, visuale - 3. Funzioni della pratica e gruppi presso cui è diffusa: Telogu (India), Afghanistan, Nuova Guinea, Hawai’i, Manchu (Cina), Cambogia, Vietnam, Corea, Tailandia, popoli Rom, Turchia, Albania … - 4. Lo studio dell’antropologo Philippe Ariès sull’infanzia: la presenza della pratica in Europa - 5. L’ostentatio genitalium di Gesù bambino come genere pittorico rinascimentale - 6. Forme di “omaggio al pene” del bambino in Italia - 7. Dall’antropologia al diritto: l’incriminazione per abuso sessuale dei padri che baciano o toccano i figli sui genitali per motivi culturali - 8. La sentenza della Corte Suprema di Cassazione, sez. III penale, 29 gennaio 2018, n. 29613. Due punti problematici: la troppo frettolosa dismissione del problema della prova sull’esistenza della pratica - 9. (segue …) La tesi dell’atto oggettivamente sessuale a prescindere dalla motivazione. Oltre la pratica dell’„omaggio al pene” del bambino: altri gesti che sembrano sessuali, ma non lo sono - 10. Omnia munda mundis: la necessità di un accomodamento ragionevole in luogo della sanzione penale - 11. Permesso tagliare, proibito baciare: il confronto tra la circoncisione maschile e la pratica dell’„omaggio al pene” del bambino - 12. Conclusioni. L’importanza della conoscenza antropologica per una corretta ermeneutica del fatto e la necessità di una mappatura delle pratiche culturali a uso dei giudici.

Omnia munda mundis. The “homage to the penis of the child” cultural practice: an analysis for the cultural defense

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with a new challenge of multiculturalism: the cultural motivated crime consisting in kissing a male child on the genitals to celebrate his virility and manifest the pride of having a son. Using the methodology of the applied legal anthropology, the paper describes the morphology and history of the cultural practice called “homage to the penis of the child” and suggests a reasonable accommodation, beyond the present criminalization.

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The Alabama Human Life Protection Act: criticità giuridiche, contraddizioni assiologiche e dinamiche politiche evolutive

SOMMARIO: 1. Oggetto del presente contributo e metodologia di ricerca - 2. Analisi giuridica e rilievi critici - 3. Il paradigma morale interno - 4. La dinamica evolutiva - 5. Conclusioni.

The Alabama Human Life Protection Act: juridical criticisms, moral contradictions and policy implications

ABSTRACT: The paper aims at analyzing and highlighting potential juridical criticism of the recent abortion law referred to as The Alabama Human Life Protection Act and verifying if the positive judgments, expressed by the international pro-life movement, and the potential legal, social and policy developments, triggered by this legislation, are consistent with the moral principles of the movement itself.

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Integrazione europea, nuove generazioni e dottrina sociale della Chiesa cattolica

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. L’obiettivo dell’integrazione e le nuove generazioni - 3. L’appannamento dell’obiettivo - 4. La via per uscire dalla crisi … - 5. … e i giovani - 6. Osservazioni finali: la stella polare.

European Integration, Youth and the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church

ABSTRACT: This article deals with the topic of European integration from the point of view of the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church, that is the part of the Teaching that focuses on the res publica. With a particular regard to the relationship between youth and European Union the article gives an analysis of the goals the European integration and the legitimation crisis of the Union’s institutions. As a possible way out of this crisis it suggests a re-focalisation of the “federalizing process” on the centrality of the human person and a valorisation of the fraternitas principle.

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Le riforme nella Chiesa. Per una convergenza tra diritto e teologia

Il libro "Per un cambio di paradigma. Diritto canonico, teologia, riforme nella Chiesa", in uscita a settembre prossimo presso le Edizioni Dehoniane di Bologna - di cui si riprende qui il testo della Prefazione per illustrarne metodo e finalità -, si sviluppa secondo un metodo e una scansione non del tutto usuali al genere e allo stile dei cultori delle materie interessate. Tratta, infatti, di problemi canonistici e teologici insieme (cosa ormai rara nel panorama recente degli studi) e, per giunta, sotto un profilo che ambisce a essere, almeno in parte, innovativo: intendo riferirmi alle questioni epistemologiche sottese a entrambe le discipline. (continua)

ABSTRACT: The twofold line of reform that Pope Francis has undertaken, that is, the synodal perspective in the Church and the renewal of the sacred sciences, re-proposes the problem of the accord between theology and canon law. The converging efforts of theologians and canonists should be aimed at preparing and legitimizing change in the Church in a coherent way.

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Il recupero dell’ICI non versata dagli enti non commerciali (anche religiosi). Presupposti ed esiti di una recente pronuncia della Corte di giustizia dell’Unione europea

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. L’esenzione ICI concessa agli immobili degli enti non commerciali: tratti salienti di una vicenda giuridica lunga e complessa – 3. La decisione della Commissione e la conferma del Tribunale UE: l’esenzione dall’ICI era un aiuto di Stato che non può essere recuperato - 4. Il recupero degli aiuti illegittimi: il contesto normativo e giurisprudenziale di riferimento – 5. Il merito della sentenza: la mancata leale collaborazione nella ricerca di modalità alternative per il recupero dell’aiuto - 6. Possibili esiti della sentenza – 7. Ipotesi di “modalità alternative” per il recupero dell’aiuto – 8. Il legittimo affidamento degli enti non commerciali – 9. L’incidenza del tempo sulla possibilità di recupero: la prescrizione – 10. Il valore dell’imposta da recuperare e la deroga prevista per gli aiuti de minimis.

Recovery of the ICI from non-commercial entities (including religious entities) in a recent Court of Justice EU ruling

ABSTRACT. On 6 November 2018, the Court of Justice ruled on the recover of ICI from non-commercial entities (including religious entities) carry out economic activities. The essay analys the judgment (C-622/16, Scuola elementare Maria Montessori/Commissione, EU:C:2018:873) and its practical significance.

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I diritti umani, questi (s)conosciuti

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Nominare i diritti umani - 3. La questione del fondamento - 4. Rileggendo Bobbio - 5. Considerazioni conclusive.

Human Rights, these (un)known

ABSTRACT: This paper intends to relaunch the Italian legal and philosophical debate on human rights by taking inspiration from the issue of migrants. The author proposes to reconsider the question of the theoretical foundation as crucial for the future development of the theory and practice of human rights.

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L’indipendenza della giustizia vaticana. Note sui magistrati addetti al Tribunale

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. La provenienza dei magistrati dall’Università - 3. La conoscenza del diritto canonico - 4. La nomina pontificia - 5. La stabilità delle funzioni - 6. La provenienza nazionale - 7. Annotazioni conclusive.

The independence of the Vatican justice. Notes on the magistrates of the Court

ABSTRACT: Among the judicial organs of the Vatican City State, the Court is the one that has undergone the greatest transformations and the most consistent processes of adaptation to the emerging needs in the juridical experience. The essay illustrates the methods through which the objective was pursued to ensure the independence of the magistrates in charge: at the same time a necessary requirement for the right process and a good thing to protect in a particular way considering the peculiar state reality.

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“Chiesa dalle genti”, il sinodo minore della diocesi di Milano. Profili canonistici

SOMMARIO: 1. La convocazione - 2. Le ragioni della convocazione - 3. La qualificazione del sinodo come “minore” - 4. Il tema del sinodo - 5. La commissione di coordinamento - 6. Il documento preparatorio - 7. Lo strumento di lavoro per i consigli diocesani - 8. I sinodali - 9. Le costituzioni -10. Valutazioni critiche.

"Chiesa dalle genti", the minor synod of the diocese of Milan. Profiles of Canon law

ABSTRACXT: In order to ensure a better pastoral care of foreigners the new archbishop of Milan has convened a minor synod. This form of ecclesial assembly is not contemplated by the Code of Canon Law, but has been practiced for centuries in the Ambrosian diocese. The archbishop renewed this tradition by inviting the diocesan presbyteral and pastoral councils to participate at the event. The decisions taken have had a significant impact on the life of the entire diocese, also as regards the territorial organization and the structure of the offices of the archiepiscopal curia. Overall, the synod can be considered exemplary in composition, procedure and efficiency, and hopefully will be imitated by other dioceses.

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Una lettura dell’istruzione Cor Orans sulla vita contemplativa femminile: sfide e prospettive

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Natura del documento - 3. I destinatari della CO - 4. L’autonomia giuridica dei monasteri - 5. L’obbligo di aderire a una federazione - 6. La formazione comune obbligatoria - 7. Il rilassamento della clausura - 8. Qual è la mens legislatoris?

An Analysis of the Instruction Cor Orans on Women's Contemplative Life: Challenges and Perspectives

ABSTRACT: This article is a commentary of Cor Orans, the Implementing Instruction of the Apostolic Constitution “Vultum Dei Quaerere” on Women’s Contemplative Life, published in 2018 by the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life. This Instruction has the character of a real pontifical law, in many aspects disrupting the law which hitherto governed enclosed nuns. By constraining every Monastery to be part of a federation, which although presented as a communion structure, in fact resembles a genuine structure of government, the Instruction harms the autonomy of Monasteries. This mandatory federal setup goes hand in hand with a slackening of the enclosure, and will give rise to a decrease in religious observance. The article further proceeds to outline the mens legislatoris, found between the pursuit of communion and shortage management, and underlines the reductive and materialistic view of contemplative life exhibited by the document. Finally, the article underlines the determination with which the Dicastery intends to apply the new norms, a determination which shows little consideration for the principle of legality.

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La delibazione delle sentenze di nullità matrimoniale: orientamenti giurisprudenziali e nuove questioni

SOMMARIO: 1. Il riconoscimento delle nullità matrimoniali canoniche nel Concordato lateranense - 2. L’efficacia civile delle sentenze ecclesiastiche di nullità matrimoniale nell’Accordo di Villa Madama - 3. Il requisito del mancato contrasto con l’ordine pubblico e l’evoluzione giurisprudenziale in materia: l’introduzione del criterio della buona fede - 4. La distinzione tra incompatibilità assolute e relative - 5. La rilevanza attribuita alla prolungata convivenza coniugale - 6. Le nuove questioni - 7. Considerazioni conclusive.

The exequatur of the judgments of nullity of marriage: jurisprudential orienttions and new issues

ABSTRACT: The study examines the exequatur of the judgments of nullity of marriage, highlighting the orientations of the jurisprudence and the new issues posed by the doctrine in the light of the reform of the canonical marriage process.

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“More sinned against than sinning”: la Corte Suprema pakistana e il caso Asia Bibi

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La blasphemy law - 3. Un campo di falsa, un sorso d’acqua e il “peccato” contro Asia Bibi - 4. La sentenza della Corte Suprema - 5. Leading case o moral suasion?

“More sinned against than sinning”:  the Pakistan Supreme Court and Asia Bibi case

ABSTRACT:  Asia Bibi case, a Christian woman falsely accused of being a blasphemer, finds her ‘judge in Berlin’ in the Supreme Court of Pakistan. The Court does not address the ratio legis of blasphemy law but points out how contrary to the spirit of Islam is the misuse of law for political purposes. The wide international echo of the case makes this SC verdict a possible leading case in theme of presumption of innocence.

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La Chiesa Ortodossa Russa e le riforme dell’inizio del XX secolo

SOMMARIO: 1. La riforma di Pietro il Grande e la paralisi della Chiesa - 2. La diffusa aspirazione a ridefinire i rapporti tra Stato e Chiesa - 3. Verso il superamento dell’intolleranza religiosa - 4. Le prese di posizione di Antonij (Vadkovskij) e di Sergej Witte - 5. La reazione del Pobedonoscev – 6. Il Memorandum dei 32 - 7. Il riconoscimento della tolleranza religiosa - 8. I vescovi e la riforma ecclesiastica - 9. Il Manifesto del 17 ottobre e i ritardi nella convocazione del Concilio.

The Russian Orthodox Church at the Beginning of the 20th Century

ABSTRACT: Peter the Great abolished the Patriarchate and entrusted the direction of the Church to a Holy Synod led by a laymen (Ober-prokuror). This reform had the consequence to paralyze the Church, as pointed out by F.M. Dostoevskij and by several outstanding Russian scholars. At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century the necessity to overcome the relationship of subjection of the Church to the State was clearly perceived both by the intellectuals and inside the Church. The Tsar himself realized that there was a need of a change: the Fundamental laws were consequently modified and religious tolerance was acknowledged on April 17th 1905. Of paramount importance was the role played by the Prime-minister Sergej Witte and by the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg Antonij (Vadkovskij) to overcome the conservative ecclesiastical policy carried out by the Ober-prokuror Konstantin Pobedonoscev. The answers given by the bishops to a questionnaire issued by the Holy Synod on July 27th, 1905, confirmed that the problem was clearly felt also inside the Church. The Council of the Russian Church, which was supposed to be gathered at the beginning of the century, was summoned several years later, at the eve of the bolshevik coup d’état.

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La questione della liceità della circoncisione “rituale” tra tutela dell’identità religiosa del gruppo e salvaguardia del diritto individuale alla integrità fisica

SOMMARIO: 1. Notazioni introduttive - 2. La circoncisione “terapeutica” e quella “profilattica” - 3. La circoncisione “tradizionale” e quella (propriamente) “rituale” - 4. L’orientamento che giudica la pratica contraria ai diritti fondamentali del minore - 5. La circoncisione rituale ebraica e la legge 8 marzo 1989, n. 101 - 6. La circoncisione rituale tra libertà religiosa, diritto alla salute e diritto all’integrità fisica - 7. Osservazioni conclusive.

The issue of lawfulness of “ritual” circumcision: protection of collective religious identity versus violation of individual’s right to physical integrity

ABSTRACT: The present essay deals with the issue regarding the lawfulness of male “ritual” circumcision, that is performed for non-therapeutic reasons. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered as a violation of human rights in the Western world; on the contrary, male circumcision for non-therapeutic reasons is currently tolerated. However, in many Countries experts hightlighted the permanent effect of circumcision on bodily integrity and the special importance of the right to self-determination. The Author stresses problems that the circumcision poses in the Italian legal system, considering special legislation related to Jewis (law No. 101/1989) and case law that assesses the practice lawful in case it is performed with the parents’ consent and according to the rules of medical art.

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Etica e pastorale in Attilio Nicora

SOMMARIO: 1. La personalità di Attilio Nicora, negoziatore, diplomatico, uomo di fede - 2. La formazione culturale, il rigore del metodo, la matrice montiniana - 3. Le lezioni della storia, la laicità, i rapporti tra Stato e Chiesa - 4. Volontà riformatrice, il coraggio dell’innovazione - 5. Le qualità del diplomatico, le sofferenze del Pastore - 6. Le virtù di Attilio Nicora, la sua eredità spirituale e culturale.

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Educación, proselitismo y adoctrinamiento: perfil y repercusiones jurídicas

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. El concepto de educación-enseñanza, vinculado a la libertad religiosa y el pluralismo - 3. El proselitismo o incitación articulada para compartir una opción de vida - 4. El concepto de adoctrinamiento, como conducta lícita e ilícita - 5. Consecuencias jurídicas: la educación y sus parámetros - 6. Consecuencias jurídicas: El proselitismo legítimo y el abusivo o ilícito - 7. Los conflictos del proselitismo en el seno de la familia, según el TEDH - 8. Consecuencias jurídicas: el “adoctrinamiento” en la educación familiar y reglada - 9. El adoctrinamiento en los tipos penales - 10. Conclusiones.

Education, proselytism and indoctrination: profile and legal treatment

ABSTRACT: Nowadays the identity is a big question, and his preservation depends by a great deal on the education, the proselytism and the indoctrination. These three concepts, close and complex, demand a juridical explanation. This study looks for to light up them, in the European and Spanish context, through the legislation and the case-law.

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Vulnerabilità, morte e pietas. L’atto della sepoltura e le sue implicazioni giuridiche

SOMMARIO: 1. Una chiarificazione concettuale - 2. Vulnerabilità e diritto - 3. L’atto della sepoltura - 4. Il diritto alla sepoltura - 5. Conclusioni.

Vulnerability, Death and Pietas. The Act of Burial and its Legal Implications

ABSTRACT: This paper offers a conceptual clarification of the concept “vulnerability”, focusing in particular on the legal meanings it has recently assumed. Considering the cultural legacy relative to the act of burial, the reflection will also lead to put at stake, through the vulnerability’s perspective, the need for a harmonization and an updating of the legislation referred to cemeteries and sepulchres.

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The Children Act: alla ricerca del “superiore interesse del minore” tra famiglie, comunità religiose e giudici

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Primo Movimento: Il minore nel contesto familiare e nel gruppo religioso - 3. Secondo Movimento: Il ruolo del giudice, tra autodeterminazione in materia sanitaria e best interests of the child - 4. Terzo Movimento: Conclusioni. L’evoluzione del minore in una società plurale.

The Children Act: Finding the best interests of the child between family, religious community and the court

ABSTRACT: Connections that bring together law and literature unceasingly prove to be very meaningful. Ian McEwan’s novel, The Children Act, offers an intriguing example of law in literature, cannily managing the complex theme of religion and justice. A young Jehovah’s Witness affected by a severe disease refuses to have his life saved by a blood transfusion. The Family Court finds in favour of the medical treatment against the child and his family’s convictions but the ruling triggers an unpredictable chain of events culminating in a tragic epilogue. Similarities between the novel and real law cases about refusals of medical treatments on religious grounds are traced throughout the article, which aims at analysing the controversial relations among the subjects and interests involved when dealing with a child medical consent and conscientious objections, mainly the duties of the family, the rights of the child and the responsibilities of the state. Concluding remarks will highlight that, in order for the child to express an autonomous and informed consent, a thorough and critical education is needed, provided through a pluralistic learning environment and an inclusive social framework, as international bodies - like the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child - clearly suggest.

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Libertà di religione e spazi per il culto tra consolidate tutele e nuove comunità religiose

SOMMARIO: 1. Pluralismo religioso e luoghi di culto - 2. Gli edifici di culto nell’ordinamento italiano - 2.1. La normativa unilaterale statale: una tutela plurifunzionale - 2.2. La normativa pattizia, tra garanzia e promozione degli interessi religiosi - 2.3. La legislazione urbanistica e antisismica - 2.4. Apertura e finanziamento degli edifici di culto - 3. I luoghi di culto delle confessioni religiose prive di intesa - 4. La questione dei luoghi di culto islamici - 5. Osservazioni conclusive.

Religious freedom and places of worship in Italian Law

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the complex legal framework and major issues concerning the churches and other places of worship in Italian legislation, which aims to protect an extraordinary historical and artistic heritage but, in the same time, is marked by an increasing inadequacy in order to meet the needs of new religious communities.

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Sur le film “Matilda“ dans le contexte de la protection de la dignité des croyants

SOMMAIRE: 1. Introduction - 2. Méthodes appliquées dans la recherche et le domaine de la réalité objective et analytique; objet de la recherche - 3. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 1 - 4. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 2 - 4.1. Recherche et l’appréciation de l’image formée et retransmise par le film “Matilda“ de l’Empereur de Russie Nicolas II (Romanov) canonisé par l’Eglise Orthodoxe Russe - 4.2. Recherche et l’appréciation de l’image formée et retransmise par le film “Matilda“ de l’épouse de l’Empereur Nicolas II, Alexandre Féodorovna, canonisée par l’Eglise Orthodoxe Russe - 5. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 3 - 6. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la Question № 4.

About the film “Matilda” in the context of protecting the dignity of believers

ABSTRACT: In 2017, the film «Matilda» caused a strong controversy in Russia. This article is devoted to the study of this film. The authors explore the film in the context of protecting the human dignity and the rights of believers, protecting their religious feelings. Critics of the film "Matilda" indicated that this film represents mockingly offensive images of those persons who are religiously revered by Orthodox Christian believers. The authors of the article check the validity of such critical assessments.

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Le proiezioni collettive della libertà religiosa

SOMMARIO: 1. Le proiezioni delle religioni nei rapporti giuridici collettivi - 2. “La dimensione collettiva dell’esperienza religiosa e teorizzazione giuridica costituzionale (1948-2018)” - 3. “Autonomia della ‘confessione’ islamica e neo-giurisdizionalismo. ‘Crisi’ della laicità? Le risorse della laicità come pluralismo confessionale e ‘culturale’” - 4. “La definizione della nozione di Confessione religiosa nel prisma della giurisprudenza: un’analisi dell’ordinamento giuridico italiano” - 5. “La funzione nomopoietica dell’art. 20 della Carta Costituzionale” - 6. “Autonomia confessionale e sistema delle fonti del diritto ecclesiastico. Riforma del Terzo settore e tutela della privacy: un banco di prova per la produzione normativa confessionale” 7. “Ambiente, creato, sviluppo umano integrale. Dimensione religiosa collettiva e prospettiva ecologica” - 8. “La tutela dei luoghi sacri naturali: valori spirituali e patrimonio bioculturale nell’ordinamento giuridico italiano” - 9. “Proselitismo porta a porta, attività organizzativa delle confessioni religiose e norme europee sulla tutela della privacy” - 10. ... Per una riflessione!

The collective projections of religious freedom

ABSTRACT: This paper investigates new perspectives on religious freedom in Italy. Many issues on religious freedom are on environment protection, religious organizations, heritage on holy places and privacy protection. Especially, the focus is real dimension on relationship between State and churches in the Constitutional statement of Italian Republic.

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Amministrazione pubblica e diritti fondamentali

SOMMARIO: 1. Libertà e diritti fondamentali - 2. Amministrazione e diritto alla salute - 3. Amministrazione e diritto all'unità familiare, all'istruzione e alle prestazioni sociali - 4. Amministrazione e diritto di proprietà - 5. Per una effettività dei diritti fondamentali attraverso l'amministrazione.

Public Administration and Fundamental Rights

ABSTRACT: Moving from a brief historical reconstruction, the present contribution examines the theme of fundamental rights, focusing in particular on those that are ultimately the subject of profound debate, such as the right to health, especially due to the implications it presents with other highly discussed issues such as, for example, the end-of-life, as well as the right to family unity, with particular reference to foreigners. He also pauses to analyze more traditional fundamental rights such as the right to property and the right to education.

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Il delicato bilanciamento costituzionale fra libertà di parola e tutela del sentimento religioso: profili comparati

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il quadro costituzionale in Pakistan - 3. La tutela del sentimento religioso nel codice penale pakistano - 4. Il quadro costituzionale tedesco - 5. La tutela del sentimento religioso nel codice penale tedesco - 6. Conclusioni.

The delicate constitutional Balance between Freedom of Speech and the Protection of religious Sentiment: comparative Profiles

ABSTRACT: The article focuses on the issue of freedom of speech and freedom of religion from the point of view of two countries with specific legislation in place (Pakistan and Germany). In particular, we will examine the two Constitutions and the two Criminal Law, which proved to have very different ways of expressing their sensitivity and a great attention to the religious sentiment of the population.

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