SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La vicenda storico-giuridica dell’Ente ecclesiastico Ospedale “Miulli” e l’attività svolta dal ramo Onlus Colonia Hanseniana - 3. Attuazione del principio di conformità confessionale e adeguamento alla prassi vigente in materia di Onlus.
ABSTRACT: The Law no. 6972/1890 transformed charities in public institutions of charity, then IPAB, no longer the prerogative of the Catholic charity. Fascism took shape a public system of social protection, then inherited by the state Republican. With regard to the development of non-profit sector are important rule no. 2 Cost. and the Law no. 266/1991, Law no. 381/1991, Legislative Decree no. 460/1997 and Legislative Decree no. 155/2006. With regard to Apulian reality is important Onlus Hospital’s Miulli in Acquaviva delle Fonti, civilly recognized ecclesiastical body, which carries out hospital and manages, through its own branch of non-profit organization, the activities of social and health care of lepers. We must remember the bishop's decree of establishing the non-profit organization on January 15, 1998, and additional regulation adopted by the next bishop's decree of October 31, 2003. Both Episcopal decrees are a tangible example of modern ecclesiastical standards, evidence of the Catholic Church's ability to use tools designed by the legislature to carry out charitable activities, in terms of collaboration with the State.