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El fenómeno asociativo en el marco de la personalidad jurídico-estatal de las entidades religiosas en España

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Régimen jurídico-constitutivo de iglesias, confesiones y comunidades religiosas - 2.1. La legislación específica de iglesias, confesiones y comunidades religiosas - 2.2. ¿Es de aplicación a las entidades religiosas ‘mayores’ la denominada garantía común asociativa? - 3. Régimen jurídico-constitutivo de asociaciones religiosas - 3.1. Antecedentes - 3.2. Problemática jurídica que plantea esta doble regulación normativa - 3.2.1. ¿Qué diferencias existen entre estos dos regímenes jurídicos, aptos en sus respectivos ámbitos de aplicación, en la regulación y constancia registral del fenómeno asociativo-religioso? - 3.2.2. ¿Resulta ajustado a Derecho este régimen diferenciado, o se constituye en inconstitucional por causante de discriminación? - 3.2.3. ¿Es necesario este doble y distinto régimen jurídico-asociativo? - 4. Epílogo.

Associations in the framework of state legal personality of religious organisations in Spain

ABSTRACT: The community dimension of religious freedom entails the existence of Churches, Denominations and Religious communities.  This paper addresses the issue of whether these entities are applied the common associative guarantee of Article 22 of the Spanish Constitution and, if applicable, the Organic Law on the right of association. The conclusion reached is that religious denominations are not legally considered associations of constitutional relevance. The paper also tackles the scope of application of this Organic Law on the right of association to religious ‘associations’ per se. The study notes they have a different legal regime, due to them being subject to this Law exclusively or to the Organic Law on religious freedom.

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Trent’anni di laicità (Rileggendo la sentenza n. 203 del 1989 e la successiva giurisprudenza costituzionale)

SOMMARIO: 1. Giurisprudenza e dottrina prima della sentenza - 2. La sentenza: l’insegnamento di religione cattolica e la laicità - 3. Benefici e costi del “nuovo” principio supremo - 4. La quiete dopo la sentenza - 5. Lo “sgonfiamento” del principio supremo - 6. La recezione della laicità.

Thirty years of Secularism (rereading Italian Constitutional Court 1989/203 and the subsequent Constitutional Jurisprudence)

ABSTRACT: The paper rereads at a distance of thirty years the italian leading case about the secularism and findes its underutilization as highest principle, in favour of the “ordinary” principles of equality and freedom of religion, and its not large, at times unnamed, reception in the jurisprudence.

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Laicità e progetti per una legge generale sulla libertà religiosa

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. 1990-2020: trent’anni di progetti per una legge generale sulla libertà religiosa - 3. Norme sulla libertà religiosa e laicità: indicazioni per un’indagine - 4. Quale laicità nei progetti di legge? - 5. Le leggi sulla laicità: alcuni esempi, molte suggestioni, qualche dubbio - 6 Nessuna nuova. Cattiva nuova.

Secularism and drafts law on Religious Freedom

ABSTRACT: This paper focuses the attention on the drafts law on Religious Freedom and aims to examine the links between Secularism and Freedom of Religion.

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Le novità normative nella lotta agli abusi sessuali a un anno dall’incontro in Vaticano del 2019

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. I provvedimenti del 26 marzo 2019 - 3. Il Motu Proprio Vos estis lux mundi - 4. I rescritti del dicembre 2019 - 5. Conclusioni.

The new regulations in the fight against sexual abuse one year after meeting in the Vatican in 2019

ABSTRACT: In February 2019, Pope Francis chaired a meeting with bishops from all over the world at the Vatican to listen to the victims, reflect and seek increasingly suitable solutions in the fight against crimes of abuse of minors and vulnerable people. This text examines the norms issued by the Pope following that meeting for the Church, the Roman Curia and the Vatican City State and offers some food for thought for any future interventions.

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Frammenti sospesi tra cielo e terra. La disciplina delle reliquie tra diritto canonico e diritti secolari

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. Le radici della disciplina canonica sulle reliquie e la fenomenologia dei furta sacra - 3. Il periodo aureo della legislazione in tema di reliquie: la riforma di Urbano VIII e la sistematizzazione di Benedetto XIV - 4. Il Codex del 1917: un supporto moderno per una normativa antica - 5. Il can. 1190 del Codice giovanneo-paolino: un frammento superstite di una esigua storia giuridica - 6. Dedicatio altaris: a cavallo tra obbligo e raccomandazione - 7. Autenticità e conservazione delle reliquie: la competenza della Congregazione delle cause dei santi - 8. La competenza della Congregazione per il culto divino e la disciplina dei sacramenti sul legittimo regime cultuale - 9. Le peculiarità proprie del Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium - 10. Il Catechismo della Chiesa cattolica e le indicazioni della CEI: disposizioni a completamento del quadro normativo - 11. È lecito parlare di compravendita di reliquie all’interno dell’ordinamento ecclesiale? - 12. La nuova primavera del commercio delle reliquie: profili civilistici - 13. Riflessioni sull’applicazione della legge penale: provocazioni e nuovi orizzonti d’esplorazione.

Fragments between heaven and earth. The discipline of relics between canon law and the secular one

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to give an account of relics and in order to achieve it the paper examines three different perspectives. The first section charts the origin of the reliquary cult through an historical and systematic reconstruction, starting from the early Christianity until the 1917 Code of canon law. The second segment looks in more detail at the demanding objective to examine Church’s law in force on relics as well as relics worship. The normative to be analysed is contained in many different legislative sources, which have been object of little interest in terms of canonistic doctrine. The third and last section of this study points out the rising of the market of relics in our contemporary society. In particular, this point will be analysed through the eyes of the jurist who deals with religious matters, taking into account the complexity that links the canonical system to the national one, underlying the significant difficulties that the secular judiciary has to face when it comes to express themselves about subjects of “different order”.

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“A chiare lettere – Confronti” • Sui principi di dogmatica costituzionale compatibili con le dinamiche di potere interne alla vita della Chiesa e alla storia dei loro mutamenti. Idee e problemi del passato e del presente

SOMMARIO: Avvertenza - 1. Sull’irrinunciabile laicità del pensare giuridico - 2. Reformatio ecclesiae e costituzionalismo moderno – 3. Tre innovazioni istituzionali di Paolo VI in via di desuetudine: il sinodo dei Vescovi come forma rafforzata di normazione papale, la riforma del S. Uffizio, la separazione dei poteri.

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Le virtù nascoste della laïcité. A proposito di certificat de verginité e dintorni

SOMMARIO: 1. Preludio: l’idea francese di una proposta di legge contro i “separatismi” - 2. I termini della questione concernente l’introduzione del divieto di rilascio dei certificat de verginité e del dibattito che ne è scaturito - 3. La presa di posizione dell’Organizzazione mondiale della sanità sui test di verginità - 4. Intermezzo: verginità e ordine pubblico nella vicenda giudiziaria dei coniugi di Lille - 5. Epilogo: la verginità tra libero consenso matrimoniale, potere certificativo del medico e valori irrinunciabili per il vivere insieme.

The hidden virtues of laïcité. About certificates of virginity and some related topics

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine the announced France’s draft bill to prohibit the issue of certificates of virginity. To do so, we first reconstructed the terms of the current debate provoked by the bill. Then, we examined the recent WHO statement which establishes that States should develop plans of action to encourage the elimination of the practice of so-called virginity testing. Finally, we illustrated the advantages and the risks of any solely restrictive approach in this matter.

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L’interazione fra esenzioni religiose e diritti LGBT sul luogo di lavoro: nuove traiettorie giudiziarie al crocevia fra narrative plurali

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Il frammentato quadro normativo in materia di LGBT rights - 3. Il caso Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia - 4. L’impatto della pronunzia Bostock sulle istituzioni religiose - 5. La tutela offerta dal Title VII all’esercizio della libertà religiosa - 6. La Section 702(a) del Title VII e le questioni interpretative irrisolte - 7. Nuove letture giurisprudenziali della Section 702(a) - 8. L’interazione fra esenzioni religiose ex Section 702(a) e sex discrimination: possibili futuri scenari alla luce del caso Bostock - 9. La specificità delle istituzioni impegnate nel settore dell’istruzione - 10. La ministerial exception e i limiti della sua applicabilità - 11. Il RFRA - 12. I rischi derivanti da un utilizzo over-expansive del RFRA - 13. La Free Exercise Clause - 14. Le vie percorribili per recepire nuove prospettive valoriali - 15. Il mancato intervento del Congresso - 16. Principio di non discriminazione ed esercizio della libertà religiosa: un binomio incompatibile? - 17. L’esempio della legislazione sui same-sex marriages - 18. La tutela dell’istituzionalismo religioso e i suoi “ragionevoli” limiti - 19. Conclusioni.

The interplay between religious exemptions and LGBT rights in the workplace: new judicial trajectories at the crossroads of plural narratives

ABSTRACT: A recent U.S. Supreme Court judgement found that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act covers discriminations founded on gender identity and sexual orientation. The present paper analyses the effect of this judgement on the exercise of religious freedom of faith-based organizations and investigates the possibility of finding ways to reconcile competing interests.

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Internet, culture e religioni. Spunti di riflessione per un web interculturale

SOMMARIO: 1. Sviluppo tecnologico, internet e dinamiche interculturali - 2. I nuovi mezzi di comunicazione sociale nel magistero della Chiesa cattolica - 3. Strategie confessionali e prospettive interculturali: il caso delle app religiose - 4. Il download di una app tra tutela della privacy e sicurezza sociale.

Internet, Cultures, Religions. Some insights for an intercultural web.

ABSTRACT: The article aims to investigate the relationship between the Internet and religions. Technological evolution has produced important consequences on society and relationships between people, also involving religious denominations. The latter have defined new ways of professing and excercizing their belief: creation of Christian communities on line, Internet as window of knowledge of monastic life or proselytizing tools, propaganda through religious videogames, app for smartphones and tablets. Such tools can contribute to the formation of an intercultural web. The use of the Internet and of modern technologies questions jurists about the protection of sensitive data of religious interest and of social security. Downloading an app on smatphones and tablets allows the provider to access even the user’s sensitive data, including their religious affiliation. This requires the intervention of Italian Data Protection Authority, whose task is to check whether the processing of sensitive data is carried out in compliance with the applicable regulations. The improper use of the Internet can also involve the protection of social security, through the denigration of a particularly weak social group and as a tool of spreading and inciting hatred (hate speech). The legislator is therefore called upon to define the sanctioning capacity of the existing legal systems.

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Il fine non giustifica i mezzi. In tema di “violenza o discriminazione per motivi di orientamento sessuale o identità di genere”

SOMMARIO: 1. L’estensione degli artt. 604-bis e 604-ter del codice penale - 2. La disciplina attualmente in vigore - 3. La mancanza di determinatezza di alcune fattispecie previste nel Testo unificato - 4. Il fine di sanzionare la violenza e altri fatti criminosi - 5. Il fine di prevenire la violenza, le manifestazioni di un pensiero discriminatorio e la discriminazione come tale - 6. Sull’equilibrio tra libertà ed eguaglianza.

The Ends Do Not Justify the Means. Considerations on The Bill on “Violence or Discrimination on Grounds of Gender or Sexual Orientation”

ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the legislative proposal on “violence or discrimination on grounds of gender or sexual orientation” currently under examination by the Italian Parliament. It exposes how, according to the bill, three types of behaviour would be punished under penal law: violent acts or incitements to violence, discriminatory acts, expression of discriminatory thoughts. The author shows why the new law would infringe the Italian Constitution in so far as it forbids the expression of ideas or punishes acts that have no link with violence. This would contrast with several fundamental freedoms such as the freedoms of expression, of assembly and of religion.

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Costituzione e religione in Italia al tempo della pandemia

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Libertà di culto e pandemia - 3. Logica deontica e bilancia costituzionale - 4. Le critiche agli interventi governativi - 5. Logica giuscostituzionale - 6. Libertas ecclesiae e pandemia - 7. Conclusioni e prospettive.

Constitution and Religion in Italy in a Time of Pandemic

ABSTRACT: In the first half of 2020, in Italy the coronavirus (Covid-19) has spread quickly, putting the country in an unprecedented emergency. From here stemmed the Government’s measures, which were (and are) without parallel in the history of the Italian State. These measures have led to an animated debate, especially when associated to the limitations imposed on the public liturgical life of the Catholic Church. That was also incorporated into the discussion concerning the long-standing principle-method of bilateralism, as established in Articles 7.2 and 8.3 of the Italian Constitution. With this article the Author analyses this debate in the light of the constitutional duty to protect human health, in the individual and collective sense of the terms.

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Autocefalia vo’ cercando ch’è si cara

SOMMARIO: 1. Stati a identità debole e rapporti con le confessioni religiose - 2. Il cratere balcanico - 3. La Bosnia Erzegovina terreno di confronto identitario e di rifiuto dell’autocefalia - 4. Un rapporto sinfonico contestato: il Montenegro - 5. Le denominazioni contese: la Macedonia del Nord - 6. L’Ucraina alla ricerca dell’identità - 7. Autonomia confessionale e autocefalia: per una nuova nozione di territorio canonico.

… Is seeking for autocephaly, which is so precious!/ They go in search of autocephaly- so precious! / Of autocephalous they journey: how dear it is!

ABSTRACT: The "Weak States" of the Balkans born from the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the USSR seek legitimacy and struggle to strengthen their national identity. This is currently happening through the recognition of autocephaly to their Orthodox Churches in order to build on the symphonic and stable relationship between State and Churches. The article analyzes the status of relations between the state entities of Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia and Ukraine. In this perspective, the conflict between different religious designations claiming to be represented as identity representations before the State is highlighted. Additionally, the conflicts within the Orthodox pae granting the tomos to recognize autocephaly are explored.

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Forme e pratiche del pluralismo religioso nello Stato di Israele. L’eredità ottomana e la tutela dei rapporti familiari

SOMMARIO: 1. Israele, uno Stato ‘ebraico’ e multiculturale? - 2. Il sistema degli statuti personali e la tutela delle relazioni familiari - 3. Matrimoni, divorzi e Corti religiose - 4. Pluralismo, multiconfessionismo e dinamiche demografiche. Prime conclusioni e prospettive di ricerca.

Forms and practices of the religious pluralism in the State of Israel. The Ottoman inheritance and the protection of family relationships.

ABSTRACT: The essay aims to explore, also in a historical perspective, the general characteristics, peculiarities and limits of the differentiated protection of family relationships in force in the legal system of (State of Israel), still based on the millet system. It allows the application of the personal statutes of the various ethnic-religious communities (Jewish, Muslim, Druze, Christian) present on the territory, not only to regulate the legal institutions typical of family law - especially marriage and divorce -, but also for the resolution of disputes on the matter that are devolved to the jurisdiction of the religious Courts of several religions. In examining the effectiveness and functionality of this model of religious and cultural pluralism, the study highlights the delicate problems of relevance and coexistence of the different religious normative complexes in the Israeli state system.

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Il diritto dei minori alla libertà religiosa: tra norme e prassi internazionali

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Brevi cenni sul contesto normativo internazionale - 3. La valenza della prassi internazionale: in particolare, il ruolo degli organismi internazionali indipendenti - 4. La giurisprudenza della Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo e la rilevanza delle convinzioni religiose dei genitori - 5. Segue: il rispetto del diritto all’educazione dei minori - 6. Il limitato rilievo dei principi generali a tutela dei minori e la necessità di riconoscere loro un locus standi in sede processuale.

Children's right to religious freedom: between international norms and practice

ABSTRACT: Religious freedom is considered a cornerstone of democratic societies, a vital element that contributes to forming the identity of believers and, with reference to minors, the course of their education and upbringing, accompanying them to adulthood. In international law studies, the right of minors to religious freedom, understood as the set of international obligations imposed on States, in both the negative and positive senses inherent in its achievement, has been little explored. The paper aims to identify systematic elements to help reconstruct the “minimum” content of a child’s right to religious freedom, pursuing two main lines of investigation: one relating to the exercise of freedom of worship in the various social contexts in which minors grow up; the other inherent in the educational project that leads them to adulthood. Recognition of the child of a locus standi in the independent court of law compared to that of the family members in charge of his care will help to realize the subjectivity of the child even in such a sensitive subject matter as religious freedom.

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Laicità e diritto all’edificio di culto

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Vivere al tempo dei “divieti”, con i temperamenti della Corte costituzionale - 3. Edifici, luoghi, spazi - 4. Un’architettura “scomposta”: dal minareto di cristallo all’area per la moschea destinata a parcheggio.

Secularism and Right to the Building of Worship

ABSTRACT: Article 19 of the Italian constitution guarantees the right to worship as one of the three subjective public rights, together with the right to profess one’s own creed and propagate it, through which religious freedom is manifested. However, people belonging to certain religions face obstacles in having places where they can perform their rituals. Particularly, the request to build mosques on Italian soil encounters many denials, especially of a legislative nature. The essay analyzes, also through the reference to concrete cases, the problems in the field and proposes to reflect on the concept of space where people can develop their personality and fulfill the mandatory duties of political, economic and social solidarity.

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I limiti all’esercizio del culto nell’emergenza sanitaria e la ‘responsabile’ collaborazione con le confessioni religiose

SOMMARIO: 1. Le restrizioni introdotte dalla normativa ‘emergenziale’ - 2. La legittimità delle restrizioni sotto il profilo del bilanciamento tra interessi - 3. (segue) e del rispetto del principio pattizio - 4. I protocolli per la ripresa delle funzioni religiose come strumenti di ‘responsabile’ collaborazione - 5. I profili di criticità - 6. Conclusioni.

The Limits to the Practice of Worship during the Health Emergency and the ‘Responsible’ Collaboration with the Religious Denominations

ABSTRACT: The severe pandemic which has affected the Italian country (as well as the rest of the world) led the Government to introduce restrictive measures whose aim was to hinder the diffusion of the virus. Such measures imposed a general prohibition to any movements and gatherings, thus affecting the exercise of many fundamental rights and, among these, the freedom of worship, considered in its interpersonal dimension. In particular, as far as this right was concerned, the legitimacy of its restriction had to be assessed not only in the light of its balance with other competing interests (namely, public health), but even of the constitutional principle which compels the State to regulate its relationships with the religious denominations on the base of agreements signed whith their representatives (art. 7, c. 2, and 8, c. 3, Cost.). For these reasons, some scholars criticized the unilateral nature of the restrictive measures, whilst they welcomed favorably the signing of the ‘health protocols’ adopted in order to restart the celebration of public worship ceremonies. This paper aims at assessing whether a unilateral limitation of the freedom of worship might be considered legitimate. In addition, it is going to investigate the juridical nature of the abovementioned health protocols, in order to highlight any critical profiles.

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Oltre il pluralismo religioso.Il veganismo come convincimento di coscienza

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il caso Casamitjana Costa v. The League Against Cruel Sports - 3. Il veganismo nella giurisprudenza italiana - 4. Pari dignità delle coscienze … - 5. (segue) e specificità del fenomeno confessionale - 6. Definire le convinzioni personali tra libertà del singolo e necessità di accertamento - 7. Spunti conclusivi.

Beyond religious pluralism. Veganism as an expression of freedom of conscience

ABSTRACT: A recent judgement of the Employment Tribunals and a following one of the Tribunal of Bologna recognized veganism as a belief worth of protection. The two judges went beyond the bounds of the religious sphere, exploring the horizon of cultural pluralism, which the Italian Republic, as a secular state, should guarantee. The sentences therefore represent a starting point for addressing the complex issue of the relationship between law and conscience, which recently acquired major importance. As a matter of fact, according to an authoritative doctrine, there is a tendency in all Western legal systems to leave moral or ethical matters to individual self-determination, in accordance with the personalist and pluralist principle. This contribution will then start from the examination of the sentences and then it will deal with some of the main problems concerning freedom of conscience and its protection.

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I musulmani di Tracia e la sentenza CEDU Molla Sali c. Grecia: un itinerario storico-giuridico tra pluralismo religioso e istanze d’uguaglianza

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: le tappe di un leading case controverso - 2. La presenza dei musulmani in Tracia: un itinerario storico tra fonti interne e internazionali - 3. Il quadro normativo vigente al momento della causa - 4. La Corte e il suo legal reasoning tra equità e uguaglianza - 5. Conclusione: il soft law come substrato valoriale di una decisione annunciata.

The Muslims of Thrace and the case Molla Sali c. Greece. A historical and legal itinerary between religious pluralism and demands for equality

ABSTRACT – The article is inspired by the Molla Sali v. Greece case, resolved by the ECHR. Starting from this case, the article analyzes the complex historical development of the legislation relating to the Muslim minority in the Greek region of Thrace. In particular, the article deals with the prerogatives of the mufti in the judicial field and the application of Islamic law to relations among private individuals. In addition to the treaties concluded between the decaying Ottoman Empire and the main European powers, the article explores the corresponding implementing rules in the Greek legal system. Finally, the article proposes some critical considerations about balancing the principle of equality and the rights of minorities.

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L’antinomia del reato culturalmente motivato. Ipotesi giusfilosofiche per un ripensamento

SOMMARIO: 1. La figura del “reato culturalmente motivato” e l’idea di multiculturalismo - 2. L’eterogeneità della categoria dei reati culturalmente motivati. Il principio di offensività come canone ermeneutico e veicolo di un approccio interdisciplinare - 3. Il “porto” del kirpan: l’approccio ‘fonografico’ del giudice di legittimità nell’ordinamento italiano - 4. La reasonable accomodation nell’interpretazione pluralista della Corte Suprema Canadese attraverso il caso Multani. Spunti per una comparazione - 5. L’„accomodation” alla prova del paradigma sicuritario. La vicenda del riconoscimento della personalità giuridica della comunità sikh in Italia.

Rethinking the antinomy of the cultural offence. Hypotheses from a legal-philosophical perspective

ABSTRACT: The essay is intends to problematize the epistemological perspective which, in the Italian system, upholds the judicial interpretation related to the cases that can be ascribed to the category of the so-called cultural offence. In this regard, t he article is focused on the case-law concerning the religious practices of the sikh believer and on the legal recognition affair of Sikhism in Italy, identifying this empirical field as a privileged observatory. The topic of the analysis, through the Canadian approach, makes it possible to assess the canons of the prevailing hermeneutics in matter and to envisage hypotheses toward a rethinking of the theoretical assumptions underlying the criminal law enforcement, especially considering non offensive conduct of a religious nature.

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Le colpe dei padri. Commento all’ordinanza della Corte di Cassazione n. 8325 del 29 aprile 2020

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La genitorialità intenzionale nell’attuale giurisprudenza italiana - 3. Profili critici - 4. La questione di illegittimità costituzionale - 5. Scenari possibili.

The Sins of the Fathers. Comment to Corte di Cassazione, judg. n. 8325 April 29th 2020.

ABSTRACT: This essay examines the Italian judgement (Ordinanza) n. 8325, issued on April 2020, that has raised a question of constitutionality against the jurisprudential address which, appealing to the limit of the public order, excludes the Italian recognition of foreign jurisdictional decisions that ascertain the right to be inserted - as an intentional parent - in the birth certificate of a child born through the so-called “surrogate motherhood”. In particular, after a survey of the current Italian case law (§ 2) and the problems that it raises (§ 3), the essay examines the arguments advanced by the judgement (§ 4), wondering about its possible outcomes (§ 5).

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(Sor)ridere al tempo del COVID 19

SOMMARIO: 1. Ironia 2.0: la vignetta in tempo di pandemia - 2. Satira vs libertà religiosa? - 3. Gioia e umorismo virtù anche cristiane - 4. Nota conclusiva.

Smiling and laughing during pandemic time

ABSTRACT: Are smiling and laughing ethically acceptable in times of Covid-Crisis? The paper tries to suggest an answer by taking into account a selection of comic strips posted on the WEB during the pandemic. The issue is addressed through two major points of view: the balance between the freedom of religion and the freedom of expression and the (possible) expressions of humor in the religious - particularly in the Catholic - tradition.

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Società multiculturali e tutela dell’identità alimentare: alcune riflessioni sulle macellazioni rituali

SOMMARIO: 1. Cibo e religione (e mercato) - 2. L’evoluzione storica del rapporto tra cibo e religione - 3. Elementi utili per una definizione giuridica di macellazione rituale - 4. La questione dello stordimento - 5. La sentenza della Grande Chambre della Corte di giustizia del 29 maggio 2018 (causa C-426/16): la posizione dell’Avvocato Generale Nils Wahl - 6. La sentenza della Grande Chambre della Corte di giustizia del 26 febbraio 2019 (causa C-497/17) - 7. Alcune considerazioni (non) conclusive.

Multicultural societies and protection of food identity: some reflections on ritual slaughter.

ABSTRACT: The intensification of migratory flows and the demographic increase of the population of the Islamic religion in Europe now make it unavoidable to consolidate that process of cultural integration between different ethnic, linguistic and religious components, which had already begun a few decades ago in Western countries and aimed at defining of a new model of open and pluralist society. This process calls into question, in various areas - including that of food protection - the values ​​of dignity, freedom and equality on which European democracies are founded, imposing the search for new balances between potentially conflicting interests. This contribution aims to investigate the compatibility profiles between respect for the food identity of religious minorities, the protection of human health and food safety and the prohibition of causing unnecessary suffering to animals, to highlight whether the principle of neutrality accepted by the current EU legislation is indeed the most suitable for promoting the fundamental values ​​of European society.

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Alevism in Turkey and in Transnational Space: Negotiated Identities between Religion, Culture and Law

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Alevi Population in Turkey and in Europe - 3. What is Alevism? Who are the Alevis? - 4. Discrimination against Alevis and Alevi Massacres from the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic - 5. Alevi Migration in Turkey and to Europe - 6. Alevi Organizations in Europe: Cultural, Social, and Historical Perspectives - 7. Discourses of “Other” vs “Equal” on Alevis - 8. Alevi Associations in Europe: Legal Perspectives - 9. Alevism in the Turkish Legal Setting - 10. Alevism at the European Court of Human Rights - 11. Concluding Remarks on Legal Issues - 12. Concluding Remarks on Social and Cultural Issues.

ABSTRACT: Using interdisciplinary lenses, this article examines the cultural, social, and juridical status of the Alevis in Turkey and Western Europe. The ongoing social exclusion and discrimination against Alevis in Turkey make their everyday lives challenging. In Europe, Alevis organized themselves in associations, forming vibrant transnational communities. They struggled for recognition of their cultural-religious rights, and in some European countries, they are given special status. As we will illustrate, their recognition in Europe significantly effected in their case in Turkey but failed to emancipate them fully and posed further issues to tackle with and for the Alevis in Turkey. Gedik and Birkalan-Gedik present sociological, historical, and political contexts to understand the current realities of Alevis in Turkey and Europe, mostly based on their ethnographic studies. Madera examines five cases between 2007-2016 which were presented by the Alevis to the European Court. We conclude that currently, Turkey does not try to suffice the European requirements, namely, the implementation of policies aimed at guaranteeing adequate protection of the collective dimension of religious freedom in a way consistent with European directives.

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La privacy della mente: alcune riflessioni sul rapporto tra protezione dei dati personali e libertà di pensiero

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Riservatezza psichica, profilazione e neurotecnologie - 3. Il valore della riservatezza psichica - 4. Privacy e libertà di pensiero.

Psychoprivacy: Some Remarks on the Relation between Protection of Personal Data and Freedom of Thought

ABSTRACT: This essay maintains that the same normative reasons that lead to ascribe to individuals a fundamental right to privacy imply a fortiori a certain degree of legal protection against the unwanted detection and disclosure of their ideas, beliefs, opinions, preferences, tastes, feelings, moods, dispositions, memories, aspirations, action plans and other conscious or unconscious products of their mind. This aspect of the right to privacy referred to the mental (cognitive, doxastic, intentional, mnemonic and emotional) dimension of individuals will be called psychoprivacy and examined in its relationship with freedom of thought. It will be concluded that the psychoprivacy of individuals conflicts with freedom of thought only if the latter is considered from the perspective of the speaking subject, that is, the one who claims the freedom to express their thoughts without any legal restrictions whatsoever. If, on the other hand, freedom of thought is centered on the thinking subject, and understood as the right to cultivate one's thoughts and purposes regardless of any expression or translation in practice, then there is no conflict with psychoprivacy, but rather harmony.

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Culturally Motivated Crimes: the Cultural Test in the Italian Jurisprudence. A Comparative Study

SUMMARY: 1. Key terms and definitions - 2. Two ways to look at culturally motivated crimes: the case of the kirpan in the Italian and in the Canadian jurisprudence - 3. Moving forward: the Italian Court of Cassation n. 29613/2018 - 3.1. Cultural tests: a comparative insight - 3.2. The cultural test in the Italian judgment of 2018 - 4. Final remarks.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to analyze culturally motivated crimes with a comparative focus and a case law approach. First of all, a set of definitions is given to have a common and shared understanding of the topic at stake. What is culture and what do we mean by culturally motivated crimes? Secondly, a comparative case-law study helps to focus the possible different solutions given to the cultural factor in criminal law. In fact, some legal systems -such as the Canadian one - appear to be more willing than others to make concrete accommodations of cultural differences. Lastly, the latest Italian Court of Cassation suggests a possible direction to be taken to better treat culturally motivated crimes in today’s multicultural society. What does it mean for criminal law to be culturally sensitive? How can courts take into consideration cultural factors through a proper legal method? These are the main questions on which criminal doctrine has focused its attention trying to reshape a criminal model which can be responsive to those different cultural values, needs and interests.

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Normativa “anti estremismo” e libertà religiosa nella Federazione Russa. Il caso dei Testimoni di Geova

SOMMARIO: 1. Gli interventi contro i Testimoni di Geova nella Federazione Russa - 2. La presenza storica dei Testimoni di Geova nel Paese - 3. La libertà religiosa nella normativa dell’Unione Sovietica - 4. Le leggi sulla libertà di coscienza degli anni ’90 - 5. La legislazione “anti estremismo” e antiterrorismo - 6. Considerazioni conclusive.

“Anti-extremism” Legislation and Religious Freedom in the Russian Federation. The case of Jehovah's Witnesses

ABSTRACT: The application of "anti-extremism" legislation to minority religious groups in the Russian Federation has led to a progressive institutional tightening of the persecution and heavy discrimination, especially against Jehovah's Witnesses. Although many of these legislative instruments have existed for over a decade, the Russian government has only recently begun to use them in sustained campaigns designed to punish or exclude "non-traditional" religions and movements. In the specific case of Jehovah's Witnesses, these measures have taken on the purpose of delegitimising an entire community, solely because of the religious faith being persecuted, with accusations ranging from missionary activity to offending the religious feelings of believers. Overall, these interventions are part of a wider process of ideological control over society, aimed at curbing, if not stifling, the forces of political and religious dissent. It is well known that secularism is based on two fundamental principles: the inviolability of human rights, which constitute the prodrome of political power and therefore of the State, and, secondly, the importance of a culture and institutions that guarantee the effectiveness of pluralism. The analysis of the Russian history is, in this sense, an important perspective because it calls into question the European model of recognition and guarantee of religious pluralism.

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Gloria e miseria della teologia politica

SOMMARIO: 1. Breve storia di un storia lunga - 2. La teologia giuridica di Hans Kelsen - 3. La teologia politica di Carl Schmitt - 4. Intermezzo - 5. Il lascito di Schmitt - 6. Il dito e la luna - 7. La religione del valore di Ronald Dworkin - 8. Una conclusione, … per iniziare.

Glory and misery about political theology

ABSTRACT. This paper deals with the interactions between religions and law. In particular, it analyses and discusses Kelsen’s, Schmitt’s, and Dworkin’s theories on legal and/or political theology. Although in different ways, these authors have well perceived a large number of links between religion and law; nevertheless their conceptions about religion are narrow and remains strictly Christian-centred. A wider concept of religion - as it has been conceptualized by anthropological and social studies - could reveals how many religious concepts underlie legal systems all over the world, and how much (Christian) religion is masked even in western secular law and institutions.

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Some preliminary remarks on the impact of COVID-19 on the exercise of religious freedom in the United States and Italy

Summary: 1. Introduction - 2. Italian legal responses to COVID-19: the Italian constitutional and legal framework on religious freedom - 3. The suspension of religious assemblies during phase one of the pandemic - 4. A “cautious resumption” of religious gatherings during the phase two in Italy - 5. U.S. legal responses to COVID-19: U.S. constitutional and legal framework about religious freedom - 6. The legal patchwork because of the pandemic - 7. Judicial balance between individual liberties and the preservation of health - 8. Litigation in lower courts about the exercise of religious freedom during Covid-19 - 9 New creative ways of worshipping in Covid-19 times: drive-in religious services - 10. Third-party burdens and the successful nondiscrimination approach - 11. Department of Justice statements - 12 Supreme Court intervention in temporary state restrictions on religious assemblies - 13. “Religious America” and “secular” Italy during Covid-19 phase one - 14. Management of religious freedom during the pandemic and the lack or presence of a statute governing religious freedom - 15. Effect of the pandemic on the question of whose religious freedom should be protected - 16. Guaranteeing a fair level of religious accommodation during a pandemic - 17. Enhanced need to balance the exercise of religious freedom with third-party harm during a pandemic - 18. Impact of the pandemic on the exercise of religious freedom in the long term.

ABSTRACT: The so-called lockdown, imposed to restrain (or at least limit) the spread of COVID-19, has, in the over four seemingly endless months since it started, had an overwhelming impact not only on our personal lives, but also on domestic regulatory frameworks. Legal systems responded individually, and with differences to the pandemic emergency, ranging from a complete interruption of the collective exercise of religious worship (Italy), to a more cautious recognition of forms of religious accommodation (United States). The present paper compares the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on the exercise of religious freedom in the United States and the Italian legal contexts, and investigates how the pandemic crisis emphasized underlying judicial, political, sociocultural, and economic challenges, giving rise to a tension between competing rights and exacerbating concerns about the “special” role of religion. As the COVID situation is changing so rapidly in the United States, in Italy, and around the world, I clarify that the information in the present paper relates at the situation as at the end of June 2020.

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The Development of Laws and Jurisprudence in Islam: Religious and Imperial Legacies

SUMMARY: 1. Scholar challenges and epistemological pitfalls - 2. Traditional Muslim hermeneutics and the development of schools of Jurisprudence - 3. Jurist’s authority and ruler’s governance from a comparative perspective - 4. Muslim legal tradition of plural jurisdictions - 5. The open scholar question of reciprocal legal influences with other juridical systems - 6. Conclusive remarks.

ABSTRACT: This article analyzes several open scholar debates regarding the Muslim legal system, from the conventional narrative of its formation and the triumph of the Traditionalist movement to the disputed question of reciprocal legal influences with other religious and secular juridical systems. This research tries to avoid two epistemological risks: first, the dangers of a simplistic binary debate like traditionalists v. revisionists, religious v. secular, or even Sunnis v. Shiite reducing the analysis to an ideologically polarized and ineffective dispute; and second, the improper use of juridical neologisms applied to the Islamic legal system, mainly from codified European continental law and English common law as a result of the Orientalist, colonialist, and secularist mentalities that, instead clarification create confusion. From a hermeneutical point of view, two characteristics to keep in mind: 1) the notion of divine law and its legal implications; and 2) the relationship between law and theology that is not correlative to the connection between secular legislation and ideology. From a comparative point of view, three challenging questions to address: 1) the distinction between Usul al-fiqh and Usul al-qanun often blurred in practice showing the complexities of the relationship among religious, legal, and political structures under Muslim ruling; 2) the intertwined relationship among Sharia, fiqh, and siyasa with pre-Islamic administrative, legal, and judicial traditions; 3) Jurisdictional pluralism in the Islamic legal practice concerning non-Muslim minorities.

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Il cardinale Gasparri, Francesco Saverio Nitti e la basilica di Santa Sofia

Venerdì 24 luglio 2020 la Turchia, o meglio il suo premier Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, ha riaperto al culto islamico il simbolo stesso di Istanbul rappresentato dal complesso monumentale di Santa Sofia. Una vicenda triste per la civiltà, che vede un gioiello artistico di valore universale piegato al nazionalismo religioso. Per la verità l’edificio non è nuovo ai cambi d’uso, come non lo sono altri manufatti di pregio che hanno attraversato i secoli, ma in questo caso non si tratta di un nuovo utilizzo ma di un ritorno al tempo della dominazione ottomana.  Tuttavia, questo non è un ritorno alle origini, perché - come sappiamo - Santa Sofia, costruita per l’imperatore Giustiniano in soli cinque anni dal 532 al 537, è considerata il capolavoro della nuova architettura basilicale bizantina quale espressione della “romanità cristiana e universale della cultura giustinianea”.

Cardinal Gasparri, Francesco Saverio Nitti and the basilica of Hagia Sophia

In reference to the current events that see the return to the destination for Islamic worship of the ancient Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, a Vatican document of the years immediately after the First World War is recalled which presents positions opposite to those prevalent today.

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Un panorama sullo stato laico e sulle sue implicazioni nel modello brasiliano

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La religione e la vita nella società - 3. Quello che il principio di laicità non è - 4. Lo Stato laico brasiliano - 5. Considerazioni finali.

The secular State and its implications on the brazilian model

ABSTRACT: For many years Law and Religion were subjects considered unnecessary by some, and, by others, analyzed with reservations and featured as a not legal topic. However, both of the matters has become important issues in the political, legal and social discussions, especially during political campaign, when moral, ethical and religious issues are brought to debate. Although many countries, as Brasil - for example, have been disussing the subject, the numerous and different interfaces between them, most of the time do not take into consideration the constitutional foundations, axiological and cultural values, and pasrticularly the spiritual aspect of the human being as the structuring of human life. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to clarify the conceptual unfolding of the Principle of Secularity and the characterization of the Secular State in Brazil, with the aim of demonstrating that the Brazilian model of Secularity does not mean the absence of religiosity in the public sphere, but the guarantee and safeguard all your expressions.

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I “nuovi accordi” Stato-confessioni in Italia tra bilateralità necessaria e diffusa

SOMMARIO: 1. La bilateralità “necessaria” e i suoi limiti - 2. Le intese apicali e il generale regime di libertà religiosa - 3. Le intese paraconcordatarie e la delegificazione - 4. La bilateralità “diffusa” e le intese ulteriori - 5. Le differenti bilateralità: una questione di metodo?

The "new agreements" State - religious denominations between necessary bilateralism and broad bilateralism

ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the system of sources of Italian ecclesiastical law in its two pillars of agreed rules and unilateral rules. The former are necessarily the result of an agreement between different legal systems because they govern the specific relations between the State and individual religious denominations, that is, between sovereign and autonomous entities in their respective orders. The unilateral rules, on the other hand, fall under State jurisdiction because they aim to regulate rights and procedures relating to the generic freedom of conscience of believers, non-believers and other believers. Nevertheless, even in this second area, bilateralism between the State and ethical-religious groups is increasingly being practiced. However, this must not strictly condition State autonomy in the political order, but must aim to enhance the democratic tool of dialogue, as broad as possible, between institutions and intermediate bodies. The two forms of bilateralism (the necessary one and the broad one) are in fact structured within the processes which grant ethical-religious issues varied legal forms and give rise to different types of sources. It is essential that institutional practice does not artfully confuse the two described "bilateralisms", ending up surreptitiously managing all the heterogeneous and plural ethical-religious factor through a single, heavy and comfortable, bureaucratic method based on mere political discretionality.

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Normativa anti Covid vs. Free Exercise Clause nella giurisprudenza della Corte Suprema USA: un ritorno alla dottrina della “neutralità” nell’interpretazione dei principi costituzionali in materia religiosa?

SOMMARIO: 1. L’intervento della Suprema Corte federale americana in tema di compatibilità della normativa emergenziale con la Free Exercise Clause - 2. I termini della questione originariamente sollevata e la pronunzia del giudice di primo grado - 3. L’appello dinanzi alla Corte del Nono Circuito e l’opinione dissenziente del giudice Collins - 4. Il problema della costituzionalità delle misure restrittive incidenti sulla libertà di culto nei contrapposti orientamenti seguiti dalle Corti inferiori - 5. Gli argomenti posti a fondamento del ricorso alla Corte Suprema - 6. La contrapposizione tra judicial deference e lettura rigorosamente neutrale dei termini della vicenda portata all’esame dei giudici - 7. Una riproposizione dei canoni di stretta neutralità anche nell’interpretazione dei principi costituzionali in materia religiosa? - 8. Notazioni conclusive.

Anti-Covid Law vs. Free Exercise Clause in US Supreme Court Case Law: is it a Return to the Doctrine of “Neutrality” in the Interpretation of Religious Clauses of the First Amendment?

ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the question of wheter the Stay-at-Home Order and the Reopening Plan that were issued by the State of California to combat the Covid-19 pandemic discriminate against places of worship in violation of the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. In South Bay United Pentecostal Church vs. Newsom, the Supreme Court of the United States upholds California’s guidelines for places of worship that limit religious worship services to 25% of a building’s capacity or a maximum of 100 attendees, because similar restrictions apply to comparable secular gatherings.

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L’edilizia di culto regionale (di nuovo) alla prova della giurisprudenza amministrativa e costituzionale

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. I giudizi promossi dal TAR Lombardia. Alcune riflessioni - 3. La decisione del TAR Lombardia. La fondatezza “anticipata” - 4. Il caso davanti alla Corte costituzionale: la sentenza n. 254 del 2019 - 5. Il new deal dell’art. 19 Cost. e della laicità ”positiva” per via giurisprudenziale (costituzionale). Brevi considerazioni.

Regional Religious Building. Legal Approach to the test of (again) administrative and constitutional case-law.

ABSTRACT: This essay concerns important judgements of the Regional Administrative Court and the Italian Constitutional Court on religious freedom and places of worship.

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Deus ex machina. Intelligenza artificiale e libertà religiosa nel sistema costituzionale degli Stati Uniti

SOMMARIO: 1. Intelligenza artificiale, singolarità tecnologica e diritti umani: uno sguardo nel futuro - 2. Quale religione? Alla ricerca di una definizione costituzionalmente orientata - 3. Transumanesimo, tecnoscienza e religione: una relazione pericolosa? - 4. Non avrai altro Dio al di fuori di AI: Way of the Future e il culto del Dio-computer - 5. (segue) Il transumanesimo a scuola - 6. (segue) Religion or not? La libertà religiosa dei fedeli di Way of the Future - 7. Anche gli androidi sognano divinità elettriche? La libertà religiosa dei robots - 8. Conclusioni: giorni di un futuro passato.

Deus ex Machina. Artificial Intelligence and Religious Freedom in the US Constitutional framework

ABSTRACT: The raise of the digital age and the developments of Artificial Intelligence is stressing the historical and complicate relationship between science, religion and law. Concepts like technological singularity or transhumanism are rapidly changing this relationship, and a growing number of scientists are now openly describing technological progress in religious terms or even establishing new religions and churches dedicated to the worship of Artificial Intelligence. This cultural and technological revolution is raising up new legal questions: are the traditional legal definition of “Religion” and “Churches” still addressing the challenge raised by new religions based on the worship of AI? Will the Transhumanism change the legal definition of person and his religious rights? Will robots have religious rights under the law? The aim of the paper is to investigate those questions within the of the US Constitutional framework.

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Le nuove frontiere del crimine religiosamente motivato: sul metodo interculturale di prevenzione e contrasto

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Spazio giuridico europeo e rilevanza penale della condotta - 3. Appartenenza cultural-religiosa e consapevolezza dell’agire - 4. Cultural defense e opzioni di diritto penale laico: il caso delle MGF come reato di genere - 5. Il terrorismo di ispirazione religiosa: un approccio multisettoriale per la lotta al fenomeno - 6. Brevi notazioni conclusive: mediazione interculturale e metodi di trasformative accomodation.

New Frontiers of Culturally Motivated Crimes. The Intercultural Method-Approach as a Tool to Prevent and Counter Religion-Inspired Crimes

ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the so-called culturally motivated crimes, focusing the attention on legal measures that may prevent and counter such misconducts. The Author points out some methods, such as those referring to the transformative accommodation, which may be able to solve conflicts between the need to safeguard human rights, including those related to religious freedom, and the Government's priority to protect public safety. From here stems the investigation on the so-called Islamic terrorism that, under some aspects, can be seen as a new frontier of religion-inspired crimes. This, on the other hand, suggests a multisectoral approach, which is important in order to deal with very serious threats while promoting intercultural and inter-religious integration.

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I lavori di codificazione del Titolo “De matrimonio” nel Codice di diritto canonico. Studio introduttivo

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Valore interpretativo dei lavori di codificazione - 3. La costituzione del Coetus de matrimonio e la prima fase del lavoro - 4. Le diciassette sessioni del Coetus de matrimonio - 5. L’invio dello Schema de sacramentis agli organi di consultazione e l’esame delle osservazioni pervenute - 6. Le cinque sessioni del parvus Coetus de matrimonio - 7. Le modifiche apportate nella Relatio complectens synthesim animadversionum (1981) - 8. La quinta Plenaria della Commissione di revisione del Codice (20-29 ottobre 1981) - 9. L’ultima revisione da parte di Giovanni Paolo II - 10. La comunicazione dei lavori del Coetus de matrimonio e il dibattito dottrinale - 11. Le fonti alla base della riforma del diritto matrimoniale - 12. Conclusione.

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La via francese alla limitazione delle libertà e il dialogo con le religioni al tempo del coronavirus

SOMMARIO: 1. Cenni introduttivi - 2. Le limitazioni normative alle libertà personali - 3. Il dialogo e la collaborazione delle autorità statali con le autorità religiose e morali del Paese - 4. La libertà religiosa tra preparazione e prima attuazione della fase del cosiddetto deconfinamento - 5. La decisione del Conseil d’État e il successivo intervento governativo - 6. Il graduale ritorno alla “normalità”. Brevi conclusioni interlocutorie.

The French way to the restriction of freedoms and the dialogue with religions at the time of the coronavirus

ABSTRACT: The essay focuses on the French legal system at the time of the Coronavirus and the analysis of two different profiles, even if they are intimately related to each other. The first involves the analysis of the legal mechanisms through which the State has achieved the restriction of personal freedoms, including religious freedom. The second, instead, essentially concerns the analysis of the relations maintained, in this circumstance, by the State institutions, with the different religious groups and conversely.

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Il Romano Pontefice Vicarius Christi

SOMMARIO: 1. Il tema – 2. Le fonti scritturistiche – 3. L’origine del titolo – 4. La moderna ecclesiologia - 5. Una speciale potestà vicaria.

Roman Pontiff “Vicarius Christi”

ABSTRACT: The papal title of Vicarius Christi, in recent ecclesiology, is no more exclusive than the Roman Pontiff, but belongs to each diocesan bishop, as specified in Council documents and in the latest codifications; each bishop holds his own particular church as Vicarius Christi with the powers that the law confers on him. Different is the exclusive power of the Roman Pontiff, who, by virtue of the Petrine office, which is proper to him, according to Catholic theology, has a true vicarious potestas, which allows him to derogate from positive divine law on the subject of indissolubility of marriage, dissolving marriages ratified and not consummated.

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La “leale collaborazione tra i poteri” ha ultimato la sua parabola. Brevi considerazioni a margine della sentenza della Corte costituzionale n. 242 del 2019

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il principio di leale collaborazione tra i poteri in Italia - 3. I significati del principio di leale collaborazione all'interno di un ordinamento - 4. Tipologia di pronuncia della sentenza n. 242 del 2019 - 5. Metodo decisorio della Corte - 6. Considerazioni conclusive.

The "loyal collaboration between the powers" has completed its parable. Brief considerations on the sidelines of the Sentence n. 242/2019.

ABSTRACT: The Italian Constitutional Court in sentence no. 242 of November 2019 founded its decision to rewrite the contested rule by claiming its power to "manage the constitutional process". The author's aim is to solicit a reflection on the work of the Court which cannot and must not legislate in place of Parliament since only the latter has had the popular mandate in order to implement the laws necessary for the nation.

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La tutela dei minori nell’ordinamento vaticano

Sommario: 1. Introduzione - 2. La normativa precedente alla Legge n. VIII - 3. Il Titolo II della Legge n. VIII del 2013 - 4. I provvedimenti del 26 marzo 2019 - 5. Conclusioni.

The protection of minors in the Vatican legal system

ABSTRACT: In recent decades, the sensitivity of public opinion and governments on the subject has increased considerably, new and more restrictive rules have been issued all over the world regarding the protection of minors and the most vulnerable people. Even the Vatican City State has proceeded to integrate its own legal system integrating it with specific new crimes that now allow to offer complete protection of the victims. The contribution analyzes the rules in the penal code and those recently introduced in 2013 and 2019, trying to give an overview of the various measures taken.

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Legge versus giurisprudenza (con speciale riguardo alla materia giusfamiliare)

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: lo Stato di diritto e alcuni suoi corollari - 2. La ‘rivoluzione clandestina’ conseguente al recente fenomeno dell’espansionismo giurisprudenziale - 3. La giurisprudenza italiana in materia giusfamiliare: un esempio eloquente di giurisprudenza creativa - 4. L’affidamento condiviso e il diritto alla bigenitorialità secondo i giudici italiani - 5. L’assegnazione e la perdita della casa coniugale secondo i giudici italiani - 6. L’affidamento dei minori a soggetti terzi e la responsabilità genitoriale secondo i giudici italiani - 7. Il mantenimento diretto secondo i giudici italiani - 8. L’ordine di distrazione di somme dovute da terzi a uno dei coniugi secondo i giudici italiani - 9. Conclusioni.

Legislation versus Case Law (with special regard to Family Law).

ABSTRACT: Starting from historical analysis of the knowledge of ‘Rechtstaat’, the following essay is dedicated to the evolution of domestic juridical system, particularly with reference to the attitude of the Italian courts towards legislation. That’s like attending a kind of ‘clandestine revolution’: case law does not seem anymore submitted to statutory legislation, but statutory rules are neglected and manipulated by judicial order. This is particularly clear in family law; that means that judges make law against legislation by the use of general clauses. This essay outlines the necessity of adherence to positive law as guarantee of certitude and defence against arbitrariness and judicial excess, contrary to the authors who claim that law-making is essential to the jurisdictional role.

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“Diritto” e “religione” nell’Australia indigena

SOMMARIO: 1. Il diritto Yolngu come “credenza religiosa” - 2. Tre xenonimi Yolngu dell’italiano ‘diritto’ - 2.1. ‘Rom’ - 2.2. ‘Madayin’ - 2.3. ‘Ngarra’ - 3. La “connessione” tra “diritto” e “religione” Yolngu: likan - 4. “Diritto” e “religione” Yolngu: una duplice correlazione.

“Law” and “religion” in Indigenous Australia

ABSTRACT: This work takes on the relationship between law and religion in Indigenous Australian societies, particularly focusing on Yolngu group (North-East Arnham Land). The essay aims to enlighten the nature of the “connection” between “legal” and “sacred” dimensions of Yolngu culture and cosmology, originally noted in several Australian judicial decisions and governamental reports. First, the essay undertakes a linguistic analysis of Yolngu terminology surrounding law, presenting three Yolngu terms translatable as “law” and discussing their meaning and bond with Yolngu sacred ancestors and ritual objects and ceremonies. Second, it explains the essence of the connection between law, sacred ancestors and ritual objects and ceremonies by presenting the Yolngu linguistic and conceptual category of “likan”. The article concludes that Yolngu law is a “sacred” one in at least a two-fold way: beacuse it was surrendered to humans by sacred ancestors; and since it arises from ritual objects and ceremonies.

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Credo ateistico organizzato e libera comunicazione propagandistica degli orientamenti ideal-spirituali

Sommario: 1. Introduzione - 2. La dimensione della ‘non credenza’ e le direttive costituzionali - 3. Fenomeno ateistico collettivo, eguale libertà e pluralismo ideale - 4. Il libero esercizio della propaganda come strumento irrinunciabile di realizzazione della dimensione comunitaria della miscredenza.

Organized atheistic belief and free propagandistic communication of the ideal-spiritual orientations

ABSTRACT: With an its recent intervention, the Court of Cassation has clearly affirmed that the freedom of conscience of non-believers falls within the broader freedom, in religious matters, ensured by the articles 19 and 21 of the Constitutional Charter. A freedom to be understood also in the negative sense, having to exclude, within our system, any form of differentiation for the protection of the free, individual and collective, explanation both of religious faith and of atheism. In this order of ideas, any limits and prohibitions to the exercise of the right to propaganda of atheistic associations integrate the extremes of discrimination that are incompatible with the constitutional and supranational norms to guarantee the freedom of expression of thought, the ideal and confessional pluralism, the dignity of the human person and the neutrality of public authorities.

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Conflitti di interessi e corruzione: annotazioni sparse sul nuovo assetto normativo previsto dal Motu proprio su “trasparenza, controllo e concorrenza nelle procedure di aggiudicazione”

SOMMARIO: 1. Breve premessa – 2. Le rationes che hanno portato alla cristallizzazione di una normativa anti-corruzione e all’implementazione della Convenzione di Merida – 3. I principi fondamentali del nuovo Motu proprio – 4. La nozione di conflitto di interesse e strumenti “preventivi” – 5. Segue. Le cause di incompatibilità – 6. Le tipologie di procedure aggiudicatorie e documentazione – 7. L’esecuzione del contratto oggetto della procedura di aggiudicazione: risvolti civilistici – 8. La lotta alla corruzione – 9. I rimedi giurisdizionali previsti.

Conflicts of interest and corruption: scattered notes on the new regulatory framework envisaged by the Motu Proprio on “transparency, control and competition in the award procedures”

ABSTRACT: This contribution expresses the first notes on the fight against corruption, but even before the fight against conflicts of interest in the Vatican City State and the Holy See a few days after the adoption of the Apostolic Letter in the form of a Motu Proprio adopted by the Supreme Pope Francis for transparency, control and competition in award procedures. Far from wanting to be a decisive contribution, given the novelty of the discipline, surely the paper investigates the reasons that led to the adoption of such legislation, the founding principles that must permeate the entire discipline, the different types of award procedures and the “preventive” tools set as a “bulwark” of the fight against corruption and, even before, its so-called phase “prodromal”, represented by conflicts of interest. The contribution also focuses on the exquisitely civil aspects (good faith, correctness, exactness of the fulfillment) regarding the execution of the contract to be awarded and on the procedural aspects.

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Il diritto al cibo religiosamente orientato al tempo di pandemia

SOMMARIO: 1. I diritti fondamentali al tempo di pandemia - 2. Il “diritto al cibo” – 3. La normativa speciale anti-epidemica sulla libertà di movimento - 4. Diritti garantiti o libertà compresse?

The religion-oriented right to food during pandemic time

ABSTRACT: In this historical period, the epidemiological emergency has prompted governments, both local and national, to issue a series of measures aimed at tackling the pandemic, with the consequent and inevitable compression of citizens' fundamental freedoms, in particular those regarding movement and religious freedom, on the base of the predominant right to health. In relation to these rights, the problem arises regarding the purchase of religiously oriented food or particular foods for people suffering from certain diseases or allergies. Is it worth to compress, in pandemic times, the fundamental freedom in the name of the predominant right to health? The right to health and the right to food should be to guarantee to all citizens, therefore also to those suffering from particular pathologies or those professing specific religious faith in such a way they are not forced to eat “harmful or impure” food for their psychophysical health.

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Accomodamenti ragionevoli basati sulla religione tra diritto antidiscriminatorio e diversity management

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Premessa teorica: la funzione di orientamento sociale del diritto - 2.1. Chiarezza dei messaggi normativi (a monte) - 2.2. Chiarezza dei messaggi normativi (a valle) - 3. Accomodamenti ragionevoli nel diritto antidiscriminatorio dell’Unione europea - 3.1. Perché manca una disposizione sugli accomodamenti ragionevoli basati su tutti i fattori? - 3.2. Perché ampliare la norma sugli accomodamenti ragionevoli? - 4. Dalla norma inderogabile al diversity management - 5. Ripensare il diritto antidiscriminatorio e il diversity management in una prospettiva interculturale - 6. Considerazioni conclusive.

Reasonable Accommodation Based on Religion in Law and Diversity Management

ABSTRACT: The ban on discrimination against workers grounded on religion is a fundamental principle enshrined in the European Union’s primary legislation and anti-discrimination law. However, currently, there is no binding provision at this level of legislation which imposes on employers to adopt reasonable accommodation based on this category. Many scholars promote the adoption of this measure based on religion. Still, the recent jurisprudence of the Court of Justice does not seem encouraging in this sense. In light of this situation, the article aims to investigate the reasons underlying the limitations of the hard law provisions and the implications of the shift from the level of the mandatory norm to that of policy and diversity management in accommodating religious diversity at work, with particular regard to Muslim women working in the private sector. European institutions seem to delegate the law-related function of social orientation to policy and diversity management. Various critical issues emerge from this process of de-juridification, although diversity management generates some good practices, also within the so-called Diversity Charters. With the aim to support the implementation of reasonable religion-based accommodation, this article suggests rethinking the anti-discrimination law and diversity management from an intercultural perspective.

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Il diritto canonico nell’età secolare

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Secolarizzazione e diritto canonico. - 3. Processo di secolarizzazione e Chiesa cattolica in Europa - 4. Il diritto canonico nell’età secolare: tendenze e sfide - 5. Modelli recenti di secolarizzazione del diritto canonico - 6. La codificazione - 7. Una Costituzione per la Chiesa: il progetto di Lex Ecclesiae Fundamentalis - 8. Il dibattito sui diritti fondamentali del fedele e la loro tutela - 9. Limiti del diritto canonico e suo rapporto con gli ordinamenti secolari - 10. Gli abusi sessuali del clero sui minori - 11. La gestione economica degli enti ecclesiastici - 12. Osservazioni conclusive.

Canon Law in the Secular Age

ABSTRACT: The essay deals with the relationship between the historical process of secularisation and the Roman Catholic Church’s Canon Law. After some preliminary remarks on the concept of secularisation related to Canon Law, it identifies and examines some recent examples or models of secularisation affecting the historical development of Canon Law: the Codification of Canon Law, the proposal of a canonical Constitution of the Church, and the debate concerning the fundamental Rights of the Christian Faithful. In the end, the author focuses on the limits of Canon Law and its relationship with secular legal systems in the current age.

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Considerazioni sul nuovo ordinamento giudiziario dello Stato della Città del Vaticano

SOMMARIO: 1. Prolegomena - 2. Princìpi ispiratori - 3. Gli organi giudiziari: a) il Tribunale e la Corte di Appello - 4. Segue: b) la Corte di Cassazione - 5. Gli avvocati - 6. L’organizzazione degli uffici giudiziari - 7. Annotazioni conclusive.

Considerations on the new judicial system of the Vatican City State

ABSTRACT: Law 16 March 2020 n. CCCLI upon the Vatican judiciary system is an important part of the reform process underway for twenty years, to adapt the Vatican State's legal system to the needs of the historical moment. The reform examined responds to the highest levels of protection required by the "fair trial" and to the need to harmonize the Vatican system with the norms contained in international conventions signed by the Holy See. The essay critically examines the fundamental points of the reform.

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“A CHIARE LETTERE” - CONFRONTI” • I “Protocolli per la ripresa delle celebrazioni delle confessioni diverse dalla cattolica”: una nuova stagione nella politica ecclesiastica italiana

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La cronaca: come sono nati i protocolli - 3. Un metodo laico.

The "Protocols for the resumption of religious ceremonies": the first signal of a new season in the Italian ecclesiastical politics

ABSTRACT: In Italy the religions have signed with the Government some protocols for the resumption of religious ceremonies after the lockdown for the Covid-19 emergency. Those protocols are an important step in the way of an effective protection of religious freedom in a pluralistic society. The protocols inaugurate a new season in the relationships between the religions and the state in Italy.

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Sulla “scomparsa dei diritti” nella Chiesa postridentina: frammenti di una mutazione epocale nella pace delle istituzioni ecclesiali

SOMMARIO: 1. Preambolo - 2. Tra Riforma e Rivoluzione. “Controriforma” e dottrine dei diritti - 3. Tra “lacune” conciliari ed esaltazione del primato: incertezze di fronte alla constatazione di rilevanti problematiche di armonizzazione applicativa dei decreti tridentini con il Corpus juris canonici. Difficoltà di individuare un percorso di convincente superamento dello stallo: crisi del carisma di mediazione della canonistica? - 4. Un concilio ad usum Curiae , attuato con modalità plebiscitarie, propizie all’accesso a modelli napoleonici di produzione giuridica, per seppellire il pluralismo della Tradizione canonica (già colpito col divieto delle liturgie cinesi e malabariche e la eliminazione delle reducciònes amazzoniche) - 5. Dalla scomparsa della communitas utentium alla sostituzione (Kuttner) dell’antica piattaforma consuetudinaria del diritto con l’idea di una sua creazione discendente, alimentata dal mito di un’inerranza papale. Adattamento di tale credenza alle strategie di potere della Curia - 6. La modernità ecclesiastica (Fantappiè) mediata dalla liquidazione, nel ventennio 1904-1923, di qualsiasi forma di sindacato sugli atti di esercizio del potere esecutivo (fino all’esenzione dei suoi addetti da accuse giustiziabili per abusus potestatis, oltre che da responsabilità ex lege aquilia) - Fine della divisione dei poteri. Rinvio - 7. Il tentativo fallito di Paolo VI di introdurre elementi di giustizia amministrativa importati (manipolandoli) dai sistemi a Conseil d’Etat; loro ulteriore svuotamento mediante deroghe della produzione normativa (poi ampliate nella prassi di Curia) dalle guide-lines indicate al legislatore dal Sinodo dei Vescovi del 1967.

Concerning the “disappearance of rights” in the Latin Church of the 20th century. Fragments of an epochal mutation in the peaceful coexistence of ecclesiastic institutions

ABSTRACT: The article intends to review the major milestones in the historical dynamics of ecclesiastic politics prior to the establishment of the Code of Canon Law. The perspective adopted is one of broad contextualization rather than mere critique of the events and the historical actors of thosetimes. The article closes with a reflection on the effects of the antimodernist and antiliberal posture of the Holy Seed, which led to the development of a movement for a codification aimed at eliminating any separation of powers within the Church.

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La religion dans les constitutions africaines: l’Afrique francophone entre héritage laïque et traditions religieuses

SUMMAIRE: 1. Introduction - 2. La démocratisation et l’héritage laïque - 2.1. La constitutionnalisation de la laïcité - 2.2. Une laïcité aux contours flous - 3. Ruptures et résurgence des spécificités africaines - 3.2. Réinvestissement du religieux dans l’espace public - 3.3. Références religieuses dans les nouvelles constitutions - 4. Conclusion - Références bibliographiques.

RÉSUMÉ: Alors que l’importance croissante de la religion en Afrique est un phénomène bien connu, les références religieuses dans les révisions constitutionnelles de ces dernières années est, en revanche, moins soulignée. L’héritage laïque greffé dans toutes les Constitutions d’Afrique francophone est à l’épreuve de pressantes revendications religieuses. Cette légitimation du religieux dans les chartes constitutionnelles donne lieu à son instrumentalisation par le politique et met en péril l’équilibre des forces sociales, juridiques et institutionnelles dans les pays francophones. Cette situation soulève ainsi la récurrente problématique de la réception, en Afrique, de modèles constitutionnels étrangers et plus généralement celle du statut des sources du droit en Afrique. Le rejet des modèles importés qu’on observe, sous le signe de l’authenticité africaine permettra-t-il de fonder l’État de droit sur des valeurs endogènes? Les dynamismes internes des sociétés africaines peuvent constituer des facteurs sur lesquels l’État africain peut s’appuyer pour, espérons-le, produire un modèle constitutionnel favorisant une gestion cultuelle beaucoup plus stable.

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L’intesa tra la Repubblica italiana e la Chiesa d’Inghilterra. Un’analisi genealogica

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il profilo soggettivo: la confessione Chiesa d’Inghilterra - 3. I contenuti: un’analisi genealogica - 4. (segue) la carenza di specificità - 5. Spunti conclusivi.

The Agreement between the Italian State and the Church of England. A Genealogy

ABSTRACT: On 30 July 2019, the Church of England signed an Agreement with the Italian State pursuant to art. 8, last paragraph, of the Italian Constitution. The Agreement is the first following Sentence no. 52 of 2016 by the Italian Constitutional Court, a judgement which was highly criticized by the doctrine as it gave too few attentions to concrete problems which affect minority denominations. As expected, the Agreement presents the same flaws of the previous ones to which is actually similar. More precisely, it seems to borrow entire articles from them, simply making systematic adjustments of the provisions. For these reasons, it seems possible to make ‘a genealogy’ of it in order to detect the juridical roots of its content and, therefore, a sort of evolution in the process of standardization. The operation seems to reveal a progressive loss of relevance of the negotiations on content, as the sole purpose of the Agreements seems to be to grant to denominational parties the set of privileges consolidated over time.

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La quarantena dell’anima del civis-fidelis. L’esercizio del culto nell’emergenza sanitaria da Covid-19 in Italia

SOMMARIO: - Parte Prima. Un virus tra Stato e Chiesa cattolica - 1. Brevi considerazioni introduttive - 2. Misure di contenimento della diffusione della malattia da Covid-19 in Italia: il quadro normativo - 3. Le (cogenti) misure restrittive sull’esercizio del culto - 4. Limiti alla libertà della missione pastorale ed alla libera organizzazione del pubblico esercizio del culto, del magistero e del ministero spirituale della Chiesa cattolica - 5. Un virus nei principi di bilateralità e degli ordini distinti - Parte Seconda. Limiti alla libertà religiosa ed all’esercizio del culto nell’emergenza sanitaria - 6. Strumenti normativi per fronteggiare la crisi sanitaria e questioni di legittimità: brevi cenni - 7. Libertà religiosa e diritto alla salute: bilanciamento tra diritti fondamentali - 8. L’anima dei cives-fideles ai tempi del coronavirus.

Souls quarantine of the cives-fideles. The exercise of worship in the health emergency from Covid-19 in Italy

ABSTRACT: The Italian government has issued regulatory provisions during the lockdown due to health emergency from Covid-19, in order to prevent the spread of epidemiological outbreaks. These new rules have not fulfilled the agreements made with Catholic Church, specificly article 2 of Agreement 1984, especially about the freedom of management and organization of pastoral activities, and they have imposed serious restrictions on the right to religious freedom too. In particular, in order to avoid gatherings, the emergency rules have suppressed the religious ceremonies, as well as masses and last rites. Only recently the right to exercise worship was partially allowed and on May 7th, 2020, a Protocol was signed with Italian Episcopal Conference for the gradual reopening of the celebrations coram populo. The issue concerns the balance between the right to health and the rights of freedom. The question is whether this balance of rights was correctly applied.

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“A chiare lettere - Confronti” • Brevi considerazioni in materia di governance delle pratiche di culto tra istanze egualitarie, soluzioni compiacenti e protocolli (quasi) “fotocopia”

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. I pezzi si muovono sulla scacchiera - 3. Azioni e reazioni (cenni) - 4. La libertà religiosa non è a rischio: il problema sta altrove - 5. “Predicare bene e razzolare male” - 6. Un protocollo ti salva la vita - 7. Un passo avanti … e due indietro - Appendice.

Short remarks on the governance of religious practices between egalitarian requests and complaisant solutions

ABSTRACT: In Italy, in the context of the Covid-19 emergency, issues concerning the governance of religious practices have emerged and have been faced by different religious groups. In this contribution political and legal distortions are analyzed in the context of the non-coherent (according to the author) reading of the constitutional framework by the Italian government.

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Turkish secularism’s ordeal with lucifer at Strasbourg: reflexions inspired by the Işik v. Turkey case


SUMMARY: 1. Preliminary remark - 2. The Işık v. Turkey case before the European Court of Human Rights and its background - 3. The previous case-law of the ECtHR in connection with the Işık case - 4. A new protagonist on the Strasbourg stage: The Religious Affairs Directorate - 5. Follow-up cases and subsequent developments – 5.1. ECtHR’s case law – 5.2. Domestic law - 6. Instead of a conclusion: trying to analyse an identity crisis.


 

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Accordi spagnoli con la Chiesa cattolica. Dubbi di costituzionalità e necessità di modifiche

SOMMARIO: 1. Costituzione, neutralità e cooperazione - 2. La nomina degli arcivescovi, vescovi e coadiutori - 3. Nomina del vicariato militare - 4. Notifica della denuncia di azioni criminali - 5. Autonomia della Chiesa e diritti fondamentali dei suoi fedeli - 6. Assistenza religiosa - 7. Insegnamento della religione cattolica - 8. Creazione e gestione delle università cattoliche - 9. Finanziamento sulla base dell’IRPEF - 10. Finanziamento indiretto - 11. Alcune conclusioni.

Agreements between Spain and the Holy See. Doubts about their constitutionality and need for change

ABSTRACT: The Agreements between Spain and the Holy See were signed forty years ago, and there are still doubts about their constitutionality. This paper studies the main topics related to the agreements from the constitutional perspective: the participation of the head of the State in the appointment of bishops (particularly the Military Vicar General); the teaching of the Catholic religion in the public school; the Catholic military chaplains in the armed forces; or the public financing of the Catholic Church through the personal income tax. Finally, the paper analyzes the agreements as a technique of cooperation between the State and the Catholic Church.

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Trifles for a pandemic

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La democrazia in pericolo? - 3. La libertà religiosa tra Costituzione e Concordato - 4. Sulla libertas Ecclesiae e sulle regole del diritto internazionale - 5. Le trattative diplomatiche de facto tra la CEI e il Governo e il dibattito pubblico - 6. Il FEC e il (mancato) trasferimento della proprietà delle chiese con personalità giuridica in favore dell’autorità ecclesiastica: un case study.

Trifles for a pandemic

ABSTRACT: The emergency regulations for the containment of Covid-19 as well as affecting religious freedom (art. 19 of the Italian Constitution) can also be relevant from the point of view of the bilaterality of the pact between the Italian State and the Holy See by opening up to the principles of international law and the Vienna Convention the entrance to the list of instruments that can be applied for the solution of the problem, alongside the usual pragmatic instruments of realpolitik.

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The development of the concept of public order in the judicial proceeding of exequatur for ecclesiastical judgements of marriage nullity in Italy

SOMMARIO: 1. Alle origini del concetto di ordine pubblico nel giudizio di delibazione (Corte cost., sent. n. 18 del 1982) - 2. L’interpretazione giurisprudenziale: il criterio della “maggiore disponibilità” verso l’ordinamento canonico e il principio di tutela dell’affidamento incolpevole (Cass. civ., S.U., sent. 1° ottobre 1982, n. 5026) - 3. La delibazione nella nuova disciplina concordataria del 1984 e l’autonomia delle parti - 4. Il decorso del tempo, la convivenza dei coniugi e le esigenze di riforma del regime degli effetti patrimoniali della delibazione (Cass. civ., S.U., sent. 20 luglio 1988, n. 4700) - 5. L’evoluzione dell’ordinamento italiano e la sua incidenza sul concetto di ordine pubblico - 6. La tipicità dei vizi di nullità come espressione dell’accresciuta rilevanza del rapporto coniugale nella disciplina civilistica del matrimonio. La convivenza dei coniugi come elemento ostativo alla delibazione (Cass. civ., S.U., sent. 18 luglio 2008, n. 19809) - 7. Le successive oscillazioni della giurisprudenza: verso la pronuncia delle Sezioni Unite del 2014 - 8. Ragioni del progressivo allontanamento dell’ordine pubblico italiano dal sistema matrimoniale canonico - 9. Le esigenze di protezione della persona e il principio della parità dei coniugi alla base della rilevanza assunta dal rapporto coniugale nell’evoluzione dell’ordine pubblico in materia matrimoniale - 10. Criticità delle pronunce delle Sezioni Unite del 2014 - 11. Il superamento della pregiudiziale economica e i suoi effetti sul processo canonico - 12. Osservazioni conclusive.

The development of the concept of public order in the judicial proceeding of exequatur for ecclesiastical judgements of marriage nullity in Italy

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the controversial development of the concept of public order in the judicial proceeding of exequatur in the decisions of the Italian Supreme Court. Under the current Concordat between Italy and the Holy See (1984) the concept of public order represents a limit for the civil recognition (“delibazione”) of a declaration of marriage nullity. The paper then focuses on the effects of the latest judgements issued by the United Sections of the Supreme Court (2014), banning the exequatur of ecclesiastical nullity sentences for marriages lasting over three years. It provides a critical view of this restrictive move in the light of the deep transformations undergone by Italian family law in the last decades.

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For a religious republicanism. Freedom and faith in Maurizio Viroli’s historiography

SOMMARIO: 1. Un’idea della politica - 2. Del rapporto costitutivo tra libertà e religione - 3. Repubblicanesimo e religione - 4. Lo spazio (pubblico) della religione.

For a religious republicanism. Freedom and faith in Maurizio Viroli's historiography

ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the Maurizio Viroli's historiographic thought, highlighting the central relationship between the spirit of freedom and the religious sentiment, from which a full knowledge of the public significance of religion descends.

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Between the Economics of Religion and Religious Economics. Tangent Questions Regarding Italian History and Economic Theory.

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Una rivoluzione contraddittoria - 3. Chiesa e denaro: la questione del prestito a interesse - 4. La svolta della Rerum Novarum: associazionismo e cooperazione - 5. Cattolicesimo e corporativismo - 6. Gli anni ’30 e l’eclissi dell’economia liberale - 7. Il dopoguerra italiano: un miracolo a metà - 8. Gli effetti negativi dei cattolici in politica, Giovanni Paolo II e il dialogo con il mercato.

Between the Economics of Religion and Religious Economics. Tangent Questions Regarding Italian History and Economic Theory.

ABSTRACT: The paper discusses the most important points of the relationship between social Christian thought and economic facts and how they developed in Italy, with particular reference to the application of competitive market principles. Starting with the second half of the 1800s, it is possible to argue that both the social doctrine and market theories had scarse impact on each other and more importantly, that they did not interact in a way which would have been useful. The author covers the main and most significant contributions that economists, sociologists, philosophers and politicians tried to bring to this missing debate between economic science and religious principles. In view of the creation of a society which responds to mankind’s real needs, we feel the lack of such a debate even though today we are witnessing a certain awakening.

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A New Bill to Recognize the Belief Marriage in England: the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Caracteres generales del proyecto de ley: el reconocimiento del matrimonio de creencia - 3. Algunas claves jurídicas de esta nueva propuesta normativa.

A New Bill to Recognize the Belief Marriage in England: the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill

ABSTRACT: In this paper the author briefly examines the content of the Marriage (Approved Organisations) Bill, a proposal recently introduced in the House of Lords, which is aimed to amend the wedding law in England and Wales in order to recognise al last the humanist marriages and, more widely, the marriages of the so called belief bodies that have already been introduced in almost every other jurisdiction in the British Islands, so these new belief marriages can be granted an equivalent status to the one currently conferred to religious marriages.

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The Union of Italian Jewish Communities between adherence to Orthodox Judaism and representation of all Jew in Italy: Is the constitutional Agreement of 1987 with the Italian State still adequate?

SOMMARIO: 1 - Introduzione - 2. Il quadro pluralistico dell’ebraismo diasporico e delle sue organizzazioni - 3. Peculiarità dell’organizzazione dell’ebraismo italiano - 4. Pluralismo interno e tensioni nel contesto unitario delle Comunità - 5. Le origini storiche del peculiare assetto organizzativo dell’ebraismo italiano: l’assenza del movimento riformato in Italia e la normativa statualistica del 1930-31 - 6. La struttura unitaria e l’adesione delle Comunità all’ortodossia nello Statuto e nell’Intesa - 7. Conclusioni: la necessaria conciliazione tra pluralismo e unitarietà tra le varie anime dell’ebraismo italiano.

The Union of Italian Jewish Communities between adherence to Orthodox Judaism and representation of all Jew in Italy: Is the constitutional Agreement of 1987 with the Italian State still adequate?

ABSTRACT: Relations between Italian Judaism and the Italian State are governed legally by the Agreement (“Intesa”) concluded in 1987 pursuant to Article 8 of the Italian Constitution, enforced by Law No. 101 of 1989.The organization of the Italian Jewish communities and their central “Union” is governed by the By-Laws (“Statuto”) adopted by them at that time, which reflect the Intesa. In conformity also with the tradition of Italian Judaism local communities take care of all Jewish activities, religious, social or educational, and the Unione officially represents all Jews and Jewish groups. Since 1987 however, there has been an explosion of various Jewish groups and denominations in Italy, from the Lubavitch to Reformed groups, which organize themselves autonomously. These groups considers themselves part of Italian Judaism and recognize more or less the central role of the local communities and Unione. However they increasingly ask a say in the latter management.. The issue discussed in the paper is whether the unitary structure of Italian Judaism, as enshrined in Intesa and recognized by Italian public authorities, is still adequate to cope with this evolution, and whether a plurality of independent Jewish organizations, separately recognized by Italian authorities would be compatible with Article 8 of the Constitution and preferable in practice.

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Islamic finance compatibility with the Italian legislation

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Sharia compliant - 3. Murabah - 4. Ijaraha - 5. Istisna’a - 6. Sukuk - 7. Conclusioni.

Islamic finance compatibility with the Italian legislation

ABSTRACT: Some verses of Allah that were revealed to the Prophet Mohammad in Quran were regarding economic issues. Further they were enriched in the legal framework of reference by other sources of Islamic law “Sharia” like; the Hadith (the sayings of the Prophet transmitted first orally and then transcribed), the Sunna (the tradition dictated by the words and actions of the prophet and the remembrance of the prophet statements by his first followers), and finally of Fiqh that is the Islamic jurisprudence dictated by the doctrinal interpretation of the various juridical schools. Islamic finance products which are derived from Sharia based on religious principles are very compatible with the system of traditional financial products, except for some ethical (excluded by the Sharia supervisory board) and fiscal (to avoid double taxation measures of some Islamic finance transactions), which could enhance the market attaractiveness prespective. The present study aims to investigate and identify the regulatory changes that can be implemented in the Italian legislations to make them compatible with the applicability of the typical Islamic financial contracts.

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“A CHIARE LETTERE” - CONFRONTI” • The Pope and the challenge of the pandemic

SOMMARIO: 1. Unilateralità e/o bilateralità dei provvedimenti Covid-19 e libertà della Chiesa - 2. L’esercizio della libertà religiosa di fronte alla pandemia - 3. Gli atti rituali nell’era del Covid-19 - 4. La dimensione territoriale della religione.

The Pope and the challenge of the pandemic

ABSTRACT: The measures taken to tackle the pandemic, although taken unilaterally by the State, were shared by the ecclesiastical authority without giving rise to disputes. Pope Francis unilaterally adopted ways of celebrating the rites and administering the sacraments in order to protect life. His innovative use of the media has updated the language, the forms of celebration of the rites and collective participation of the Catholic faithful, arousing perplexity in some faithful who complain about violations of religious freedom and the principle of bilaterality in Church-State relations.

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“A chiare lettere - Confronti” • Quando l’etica è intolleranza

L’ultimo numero della Rivista ha ospitato un singolare intervento ad personam: la mia. Non intendo discutere nel merito le critiche mossemi, la cui consistenza, come lo stesso prof. Pacillo ammette, è affidata al dibattito, che, del resto, su questo tema si sta sviluppando in maniera virale. Sì, invece, la premessa - un intero paragrafo - sulla “necessità etica”, dalla quale egli si dice essere stato mosso in conseguenza del mio approccio, asseritamente privo di “forme rispettose e sempre dubitative” laddove Nanni Moretti ci ha parlato dell’importanza delle parole e Pacillo stesso di quella dei toni. (segue)

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Religious freedom and the challenge of Covid-19. Legal asymmetries in the “state of emergency” and new opportunities for social actors

SOMMARIO: 1. Breve premessa orientativa - 2. Verso dove convergere - 3. Il nuovo statuto della solidarietà - 4. Rinnovate pratiche di relazioni sociali: il laboratorio della libertà religiosa - 5. Socializzare i diritti/espandere le libertà - 6. Il test della libertà religiosa in tempi di Coronavirus - 7. Fare tesoro dell’esperienza, modulare le risposte, organizzare il futuro.

Religious freedom and the challenge of Covid-19. Legal asymmetries in the “state of emergency” and new opportunities for social actors

ABSTRACT: The essay develops some concrete, both legal and political, analyses concerning the relationship between the Covid-19 pandemic and the fundamental right of religious freedom. The "state of emergency" that came about and the consequent decisions taken by the government to contain the spread of the coronavirus, have put pressure on certain fundamental freedoms and rights of both individuals and social formations, including religious freedom - according to some, more compressed from the point of view of its practical expressions. The question arises of how much, in the mid-long term, such measures will affect the structure of relations between the State and religious confessions and, more generally, religiosity as a sentiment widespread at societal level.

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“A chiare lettere - Transizioni” • “Senza D”. La campagna Uaar tra libertà di propaganda e divieto di discriminazioni

1 - Nel tempo della pandemia l'attenzione di commentatori e studiosi si è concentrata sulle limitazioni al (diritto di riunirsi per finalità di) culto. Non sembra avere ricevuto lo stesso interesse un altro contagiato dal virus, ancor più a rischio perché malato cronico: l'esercizio della propaganda in contesto di effettivo pluralismo, sul quale grava il consueto silenzio. Il dramma che oggi tutti viviamo è favorevole a un racconto incline ad accentuare le componenti emotive dei messaggi veicolati, al fine di coinvolgere la platea più ampia di "spettatori". Trionfa così la rappresentazione, fortemente mediatizzata, delle immagini di maggior efficacia, da rendere iconiche per il loro impatto sinestetico: potenti strumenti di persuasione a svantaggio, in un circolo vizioso, delle fedi di minore "ascolto", più che mai senza voce. (segue)

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Finanza cattolica: il potere del denaro per il bene comune

Prendo spunto per iniziare il mio intervento citando il punto n. 19 del documento Oeconomicae et Pecuniariae Quaestiones (d’ora in poi, “OPQ”): “La sanità del sistema, del mercato finanziario dipende dalla sanità delle singole persone e dalle singole azioni che vi vengono attuate”. Le mie riflessioni partono dall’essere in primis cristiano e cattolico, e poi dall’essere un professionista che lavora in una determinata realtà bancaria, e che partecipa al Comitato di Presidenza dell’Associazione Bancaria Italiana, l’ABI, con deleghe sulla Corporate Social Responsibility e sull’Innovazione tecnologica. (segue)

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Le conferenze episcopali dalle origini al Concilio Vaticano II

SOMMARIO: Parte prima. Le origini - 1. Le prime esperienze - 2. Il fondamento teologico - 3. Le materie prese in esame - 4. Conferenze episcopali e concili particolari - 4. Conferenze episcopali e concili particolari - 5. I fattori di sviluppo - Parte seconda. Verso una regolamentazione di diritto universale - 6. Prime disposizioni durante il pontificato di Pio X - 7. Il Codice piano-benedettino - 8. Gli interventi di Pio XI - 9. Una singolare contraddizione - 10. Il decisivo impulso di Pio XII.

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The hard relationship between confessional autonomy and trade union freedom

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La libertà religiosa, l’autonomia confessionale e i ministri di culto: 2.1. La dimensione collettiva della libertà religiosa ed i diritti dei gruppi religiosi riguardanti il proprio personale; 2.2. La dottrina della Corte EDU sull’autonomia confessionale: i suoi limiti (brevi spunti): 2.2.1 La protezione dell’autonomia dei gruppi religiosi di fronte allo Stato; 2.2.2. Le crescenti limitazioni all’autonomia religiosa nelle controversie di lavoro; 2.3. Riflessioni conclusive - 3. Brevi spunti sulla libertà sindacale e l’effettiva difesa dei diritti dei lavoratori: 3.1. Riconoscimento e dimensione collettiva della libertà sindacale; 3.2. Libertà sindacale ed azione sindacale nella dottrina della Corte EDU; 3.3. Conclusioni - 4. Eventuali problemi legati alla costituzione di sindacati nelle chiese: 4.1. Unità versus dialettica di conflitto all’interno di una chiesa; 4.2. Identità propria delle chiese e dovere di neutralità dello Stato - 5. Insegnamenti del caso Sindicatul “Păstorul cel Bun” c. Romania; 5.1. Breve presentazione degli aspetti centrali del caso; 5.2. La decisione della Grande Camera della Corte EDU: il bilanciamento tra libertà sindacale e autonomia religiosa; 5.3. Il paradossale risultato del bilanciamento tra libertà sindacale e autonomia religiosa nel caso Sindicatul - 6. Bibliografia - 7. Appendice I: Estratto dallo statuto del sindacato "Pâstorul cel Bun" - 8 Appendice II: Dichiarazione dell’Ufficio Stampa del Patriarcato della Romania del 3 febbraio 2012, in occasione della prima sentenza della Corte EDU sul caso Sindicatul “Păstorul cel Bun” c. Romania.

The hard relationship between confessional autonomy and trade union freedom

ABSTRACT: This essay focuses on the hard relationship between religious autonomy and trade union freedom. Its purpose is to reflect on some problems, which could arise due to the establishment of trade unions within religious communities, particularly where created by the ministers of these same communities. It first describes some key points of religious groups’ autonomy and of the right to unionize as well. Secondly, it examines some potential problems related with the creation of unions within the churches. Finally, a reference is made to the Sindicatul “Păstorul cel Bun” v. Romania case, in which the European Court of Human Rights had the opportunity to rule on a controversy resulting from an attempt to create a union within the Romanian Orthodox Church. A truly useful case for understanding the difficulties of the exercise of the right of unionize by the members of the clergy

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The experience of pain and the reasons for hope. Reflections on the end of life of postmodern man

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa di metodo - 2. Giustizia limiti e sacralità del “fine vita” - 3. Tra indisponibilità della vita e diritto di autodeterminazione individuale. La prospettiva della Corte EDU … - 4. … e le prudenti soluzioni del diritto italiano tra leggi e prassi giurisprudenziale - 5. Considerazioni conclusive: esiste la libertà di congedarsi dal mondo?

The experience of pain and the reasons for hope. Reflections on the end of life of postmodern man

ABSTRACT: The surprising development of biotechnology, new knowledge and unprecedented possibilities of intervention on human beings, have strongly affected the natural events of being born and dying, bringing out new rights and new instances of protection, aimed at ensuring respect for individual self-determination and human dignity in the face of the increasingly pressing intrusiveness of science and technology. Nonetheless, these possibilities offered by science may, for some, not coincide with the ideal conception of life and human dignity, since these are interventions capable of prolonging survival in often very critical conditions, not always adequate to guarantee a life worth living. At this point, the question is whether there is a way to pursue a harmonious composition between the concepts of life and human dignity, in the extreme variety of cases where there is a question of their protection, especially with regard to end-of-life issues.

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“A chiare lettere – Confronti” • La libertà di culto al tempo del coronavirus: una risposta alle critiche

SOMMARIO: 1. Parole e toni - 2. La bilateralità dimenticata - 3. L’art. 14 dell’Accordo di Villa Madama preso sul serio - 4. L’uomo non è un’idea.

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Genesi e vicende dello “Jus publicum ecclesiasticum” in età postridentina. Una risposta romano-cattolica alla modernità

SOMMARIO: 1. Preambolo - 2. Il diritto romano nell’esperienza cristiana - 3. Chiese e diritto romano nella “civiltà cristiana” - 4. Tra una giurisprudenza e l’altra: la mediazione medievale del diritto comune - 5. La civiltà del diritto nell’età del potere. Quale dogmatica? - 6. Lo jus publicum europaeum: verso una riduzione della Santa Sede a pura “potenza” religiosa - 7. Il retroterra politico di un nuovo diritto pubblico ecclesiastico - 8. (segue) La fondazione teorica di un nuovo diritto costituzionale - 9. Profili di una nuova costituzione materiale - 10. Posizioni di principio e di metodo vincenti a partire dalle dottrine del Bouix - 11. (segue) Dal conflitto alla stabilizzazione dell’emergenza - 12 Il tramonto dei diritti nel nuovo, e nel nuovissimo “jus populi Dei” - 13. (segue) La fine, di fatto e di principio, dell’attuazione giudiziaria del diritto.

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The ʻAnti-veilʼ Ruling of Lombardy Executive Committee and the New Paradigm of Public Security

Sommario: 1. Società democratica e simboli religiosi - 2. La delibera di Giunta e l’ordinanza del Tribunale. La delicata sovrapposizione delle esigenze di riconoscibilità e di identificazione - 3. La sentenza di secondo grado. Il primato assiologico della pubblica sicurezza - 4. Sicurezza percepita e insicurezza dei diritti - 5. Conclusioni.

The ʻAnti-veilʼ Ruling of Lombardy Executive Committee and the New Paradigm of Public Security

ABSTRACT: On 10 December 2015, Lombardy Executive Committee approved a ruling which forbids the access to some public facilities to people who wear types of clothing aimed at covering the face. This ruling, whose object is to prevent any dangers that could affect public security, risks to discriminate Muslim women who wear an integral veil for religious reasons. With a controversial judgement, the Milan Court of Appeal confirmed the legitimacy of the provision. Contrarily to the opinion of the Court, this essay aims at proving that the Regional ruling couldn’t effectively get through a proportionality test, given the excessive intensity of the prohibition. In addition, other doubts are risen by the meaning of public security expressed by the provision.

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The freedom of worship in coronavirus times

SOMMARIO: 1. La decretazione senza legge sul coronavirus - 2. Le disposizioni sulla libertà di culto - 3. Il limite della tutela della salute e l’inconferenza delle discipline pattizie - 4. Il bilanciamento delle specifiche misure - 5. Il rapporto laico tra Stato e confessioni religiose: un’icona.

The freedom of worship in coronavirus times

ABSTRACT: The state of emergency by coronavirus drove the italian government to legislate by means of decrees without law, that provided strong limits to constitutional rights as, among others, the freedom of worship. Particularly they banned masses coram populo in the churches and on occasion of funeral service in order to safeguard the health care. This paper aims to demonstrate that the Concordat beetween State and Church, well as the accords with other fellowships,  is another matter with regard to a higher collective interest, constitutionally protected, like the halth care. The paper points out, moreover, how the adopted measures are reasonable and proportionate and, finally, the new leadership, respecting the secular order, held in this aspect by the italian Church, following the prints of pope Francis.

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The Refusal of Mandatory Vaccinations for Conscientious Reasons. A Comparative Overlook

SOMMARIO: 1. Le “nuove” obiezioni di coscienza nelle società multiculturali. Il rifiuto dell’obbligo vaccinale - 2. Religioni e vaccini - 3. La situazione negli altri Paesi, in particolare il caso degli USA - 4. L’obbligo vaccinale in Italia - 5. È configurabile il diritto all’obiezione di coscienza rispetto alle vaccinazioni obbligatorie?

The Refusal of Mandatory Vaccinations for Conscientious Reasons. A Comparative Overlook

ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the possibility to design a new shape of conscientious objection : the refusal of mandatory vaccinations due to religious or ideological reasons. Some religions are against vaccines because of the ingredients they contain. In other cases the refusal to be vaccinated is based on the idea that only God can protect health. The legislatures of some Countries recognize the conscientious objection to mandatory vaccinations. The paper focuses the topic in a comparative perspective, paying attention to the italian and european context.

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General Authorizations to process of sensitive data by churches. Considerations on recent reforms in theme of privacy

SOMMARIO: 1. Il Regolamento UE 2016/679 e i dati di natura religiosa: un nuovo percorso normativo da analizzare - 2. Dalla legge n. 675 del 1996 al d.lgs. n. 196 del 2003: l’affermarsi delle “autorizzazioni generali” per il trattamento dei dati sensibili da parte delle confessioni religiose - 3. Le novità introdotte dal Regolamento europeo n. 679 del 2016 per il trattamento dei dati di natura religiosa e il mancato riferimento alle “autorizzazioni generali” - 4. Il d.lgs. n. 101 del 2018 e l’adeguamento italiano alla normativa comunitaria del 2016: il recupero delle “autorizzazioni generali” - 5. Il ruolo del Garante e la conferma parziale della legittimità dell’autorizzazione generale n. 3 - 6. Un nuovo ruolo per i responsabili del trattamento dei dati di natura religiosa: privacy by design, compliance normativa e tutela dell’autonomia delle confessioni religiose.

General Authorizations to process of sensitive data by churches. Considerations on recent reforms in theme of privacy

ABSTRACT: The Regulation (EU) 2016/679 – so-called GDPR - has resulted in a significant reform of the Italian system for the protection of personal data and crystallized in Legislative Decree no. 196 of 30 June 2003. The GDPR, which focuses on principle of accountability and the concepts of privacy by design and privacy by default, has rethought, in particular, the category of data in which those of a religious nature were inserted basing their discipline on a general prohibition of treatment and provided that churches, associations or religious communities can dictate and apply their own internal legislation in this field, provided that it complies with the community provisions of the regulation. Before entry into force of the GDPR, the processing of religious data was mainly linked to the provision by the Guarantor Authority for the protection of personal data of a General Authorization - No. 3 - which allowed religious confessions to process the data of their members. This system has been questioned in part by the GDPR and then re-read by Legislative Decree no. 101/2018, which confirmed the value of the General Authorization n.3 in the framework of a peculiar system of guarantees.

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Religious freedom and Corporate Social Responsibility

SOMMARIO: 1. Il diritto di libertà religiosa tra rendicontazione sui diritti umani e Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 2. Libertà religiosa, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights e RSI - 3. Libertà religiosa e standard nazionali: brevi osservazioni sul Piano d’Azione Nazionale (PAN) 2014-2016 sulla Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa e 2016-2021 su Impresa e Diritti Umani - 4. Valori religiosi e valori laici nella Responsabilità Sociale d’Impresa - 5. Dall’RSI all’accountability: la rendicontazione sui diritti umani negli enti religiosi ETS e nell’Impresa sociale.

Religious freedom and Corporate Social Responsibility

ABSTRACT: International standards on Business and Human Rights and on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) define a system of rules currently in use to combat human rights violations in contemporary industrial societies. On the basis of these rules, governments adopt the so-called National Action Plans (NAPs), which also Italy has recently adopted. In this context, the protection of religious freedom plays a fundamental role as part of the range of needs of modern intercultural societies. This paper in this respect is divided into two parts. The first part investigates the role of religious freedom in international standards on Business and human rights and in the NAPs, paid attention to the Italian National Action Plans. The second part on the other hand, deals with the theme of accountability on human rights in the Italian non-profit area. In this context, the processes of accountability also involve entities who operate by expressing a certain tendency or religious aims. These entities can have a specific interest in the accountability on human rights because through the adherence to the so-called systems of Non-Financial Reporting (NFR) clearly reaffirm the values of the religious cultures of which they are the direct expression.

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“A chiare lettere - Editoriali” • L’aiuto al suicidio tra Corte costituzionale 242/2019 e BundesVerfassungsGericht 26 febbraio 2020

Il carattere eccezionale della “circoscritta area”, in cui la Corte costituzionale ha affermato la non punibilità di chi aiuta al suicidio o, meglio, assiste una persona nel morire, risalta nitidamente al cospetto dell’assenza di limiti dell’area individuata allo stesso fine dal BundesVerfassungsGericht (BVG) con una sentenza pubblicata molto di recente. Benché perciò non sia possibile in questa sede il commento approfondito che la decisione meriterebbe, si possono prendere, tuttavia, almeno alcuni appunti comparativi. (segue)

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The Italian Experience with Halal Certification: the Case of Halal Italia

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Brief Remarks on the Notion of Halal - 3. The Interests at Stake in Halal Certification - 4. Actors and Instruments Involved in Halal Certification - 5. The Constitutional Regulation of the Religious Factor and Its Impact on Halal Certification - 6. Halal Italia and the 2010 Inter-Ministerial Convention - 7. Conclusion.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to examine the Italian experience with halal certification and, in particular, the case of Halal Italia. After some brief preliminary remarks on the notion of halal, I will examine the general context of halal certification, by focusing on the interests at stake and on the actors and instruments involved. Next, I will take into account the impact of the constitutional regulation of the religious factor on halal certification. Finally, my analysis will turn to the trademark Halal Italia and the 2010 Inter-Ministerial Convention.

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Public spaces and religion

SOMMARIO: 1. Prospettive - 2. Duplice dovere - 3. Questioni I - 4. Questioni II - 5. L’accesso visto da Strasburgo - 6. Poteri pubblici e spazi pubblici - 7. Accesso pluralistico: regola ed eccezione.

Public spaces and religion

ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the legal issues related to the presence of religion in public spaces. The thesis is that it is necessary to consider the various issues (religious building, religious symbols in public buildings etc.) on the basis of the public character of the space. In this way it becomes possible: a) to compare the various issues; b) identify the tasks of public authorities, which must make spaces available to religion and must not discriminate access to spaces. However, there are exceptions to the rule necessary to protect children in classrooms.

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The Function of Punishment in the Teachings of Pope Francis

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: ambiti e obiettivi della ricerca - 2. Il diritto penale nel paradigma dell’ecologia integrale quale espressione del principio della misericordia - 3. La funzione della pena secondo Papa Francesco: i principi generali - 4. La pena di morte e la sua inconciliabilità con il Vangelo - 5. L’ergastolo come “pena di morte nascosta” e la tortura come “peccato mortale” - 6. Conclusioni.

The Function of Punishment in the Teachings of Pope Francis

ABSTRACT: This article analyses the doctrine about the function of punishment and the criminal justice system in the teachings of Pope Francis. The reflection about punishment is understood in the light of the principles of the Mercy of God and the Integral ecology. The central idea is represented by the concept of reparative justice. Particularly, it will be take in consideration the questions of death penalty, life sentence and torture, and - in the conclusions - a brief comparative analysis with the Italian legal justice system.

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Priesthood and celibacy in the Catholic Church

SOMMARIO: 1. Alto valore ecclesiale dello status di chierico sposato - 2. L’obbligo del celibato e le eccezioni - 3. Le norme speciali relative al clero cattolico orientale sposato, in Occidente - 4. Le norme speciali relative all’ordinazione di pastori protestati convertitisi al cattolicesimo - 5. La normativa della Chiesa antica - 6. La disciplina delle Chiese ortodosse.

Priesthood and celibacy in the Catholic Church.

ABSTRACT: In this period there is discussion about the possibility of abolishing the obligation of celibacy for the Catholic clergy of Latin rite in order to increase their vocations. Some exceptions to this obligation have already been foreseen by the regulations of previous Roman popes for specific cases, aimed at promoting the conversion of Protestant pastors to Catholicism. Canon 373 of the Code of Law of the Eastern Churches states that "must be held in honor the status of clerics united in marriage sanctioned over the centuries by the practice of the early Church and the Eastern Churches", opening up to a re-evaluation of the uxorato clergy. This study aims to recall what is happening today in Eastern Catholic Churches, the exceptions made against Protestant pastors in the Latin Church, as well as the legislation in force in the ancient church, maintained, in substance, in the Orthodox Churches.

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Contradictions and unclarities of “otto per mille”: between public interest in an open pluralism and individual interests in the rigidity of the religious marke

SOMMARIO: 1. Il problema del conflitto di interessi nel diritto ecclesiastico dell’Italia repubblicana. - 2. Conflitto di interessi e finanziamento pubblico delle religioni. - 3. L’ombra del conflitto di interessi che accompagna nel suo cammino l’«invenzione» dell’otto per mille. - 4. Note di discussione.

Contradictions and unclarities of “otto per mille”: between public interest in an open pluralism and individual interests in the rigidity of the religious market

ABSTRACT: Religion, like politics and economics, risks fueling various forms of conflict of interest in the State. The constitutional choice to affirm a pluralist (or open) laicità aims precisely at avoiding and contrasting potential conflicts of interest caused by religious influences. The contradictions and the unclarities detected by several voices about the "otto per mille" economic support system could be read as indicators that Italy failed to implement a management of the public interest which should guarantee the exclusion of favoritism towards individual interests. The original fault of "otto per mille" system lies in the negotiated nature of the legislation that provides for it; the choice of a bilateral source makes clear the will of the State to operate, for purposes of its political consolidation, a substantial connection with the specific interests of some religious denominations in the acquisition and preservation of advantageous positions. It is therefore hoped an unilateral work of reform by the State, in particular the repeal of the fascist legislation about admitted cults and the promulgation of a general law on religious freedom.

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Cunning and ambiguity in constitutional jurisprudence on religious matters

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa. La morte di Piero Calamandrei (27 settembre 1956) e il suo funerale - 2. L’oggetto del giudizio della Corte costituzionale. La sentenza della Corte costituzionale del n. 1 del 23 aprile 1956 - 3. 7 aprile 1957 : la relazione di Paolo Barile nel convegno degli Amici del Mondo su Stato e Chiesa in Italia al teatro Eliseo di Roma - 4. Le sentenze della Corte costituzionale nn. 30, 31 e 32 del 1971: il parametro della tutela dei principi supremi dell’ordinamento costituzionale italiano. Il principio costituzionale di eguaglianza non è un principio supremo dell’ordinamento costituzionale? - 5. Il convegno di Siena dal 30 novembre al 2 dicembre 1972. Due mondi diversi? - 6. La sentenza n. 195 del 1972 sul caso Cordero. Professori delle università cattoliche senza garanzie di rispetto della loro libertà di insegnamento? - 7. La sentenza n. 18 del 1982: un giudice e un giudizio pur sempre ci sono (?) - 8. La sentenza n. 203 del 1989. Insegnamenti diversi per bambini e ragazzi “credenti” cattolici e “non credenti”? - 9. Fu vera gloria? No, essa fu accolta in una parte del mondo della scuola con la dolorosa sensazione che si prova quando si è vittima di un inganno.

Cunning and ambiguity in constitutional jurisprudence on religious matters

Abstract: A journey to Florence for the funeral of Piero Calamandrei (September 27, 1956). A project for a secular and democratic Italy: dreams, hopes, illusions and disappointments. Religion jurisprudence in the decisions of the Constitutional Court no. 1 of 1956, 30, 31 and 32 of 1971, 195 of 1972, 18 of 182, 203 of 1989. The judicial remedy in school matters and the academic disappointment for a constitutional decision that introduced the supreme principle of secularism but at the same time confirmed as compliant to the Constitution the coexistence, in public schools, of separate classes for believers (in the catholic religion) and nonbelievers.

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1929: Freedom denied

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Revisionismo storico involontario - 3. Altri tempi - 4. L’art. 5 del Concordato - 5. La vicenda di Ernesto Buonaiuti - 6. La sua intransigenza morale - 7. Passato e presente - 8. Favor religionis - 9. Il sistema delle intese - 10. Il risveglio delle vecchie intolleranze.

1929: Freedom denied

ABSTRACT: This paper turns around the case and the figure of Ernesto Buonaiuti. We would like to show how the Lateran Pacts of 1929 had been signed in an atmosphere in which both sides, fascism and the  Catholic Church, denied freedom of conscience.

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The Constitutional Court’s position about worship facilities between limits against the freedom of religion and positive interventions

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: la pronuncia della Corte costituzionale e i nodi da sciogliere - 2. I limiti legittimi alla libertà religiosa - 3. Gli interventi positivi a favore del diritto al culto - 4. Brevi considerazioni conclusive: che cosa farà (o, meglio, cosa dovrebbe fare) il legislatore regionale?

The Constitutional Court’s position about worship facilities between limits against the freedom of religion and positive interventions

ABSTRACT: The Constitutional Court has another time pronounced about the right to have a place of worship. Its statements are crucial for this subject and are likely to produce an echo even outside the field of worship facilities. In particular, the Court affirms, on the one hand, that the freedom of worship might be limited only in order to guarantee concrete opposing interests, and not for mere exigencies of control. On the other hand, the Court declares that the freedom of religion, given its central and essential position in the Constitution, legitimizes and requires positive interventions by the legislator, in order to be promoted.

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The law on accepted cults, the agreements and the need for a common regulation on the religious issue

SOMMARIO: 1. L’intesa con l’Associazione Chiesa d’Inghilterra - 2. L’assenza di una legge generale nel periodo liberale - 3. La Conciliazione - 4. Il permanere dell’assenza di una legge comune - 5. Continuità e innovazione dopo il 1948 - 6. La mancata revisione della legge sui culti - 7. La polemica anticoncordataria - 8. Il progetto di una legge generale sulla libertà religiosa - 9. Un’unica legge per esigenze diverse - 10. La legge comune sul “fatto” religioso - 11. Il potenziale conflitto con le leggi di derivazione pattizia - 12. Uguaglianza e discriminazione - 13. Sulla possibile rilevanza dei diritti religiosi - 14. Sul rilievo di alcune minoranze - 15. Conclusioni.

The law on accepted cults, the agreements and the need for a common regulation on the religious issue

ABSTRACT: Taking the cue from the signing of the agreement with the association Chiesa d’Inghiterra, we note thelack of a common regulation not on religous freedom, which is protected by the rules of the Italian Constitution through directly effective regulations, and which could be invasive and inadequate, but of a common basic regulation on religion, such that in goes beyond the old law on accepted cults and equates, as far as possible, the condition of churches with an agreement with those that do not have one. The viewpoint of the bilaterally contracted law, inherited from and confirmed by the pre-Repubblican period, while meeting the needs of cults, is not able to ensure a certain uniformity of treatment for all denominations, i.e. it cannot be applied also to those cults that have not negotiated it, that do not want or cannot do so. What is lacking in a unilateral law of the State, which outlines the essential and common points, that is the basis and reference index for other laws, given that equality does not mean the same things and that differentiations are allowed, or rather imposed, as long as they are not arbitrary. Besides, there is the problem of religius instances referring to secular and profane aspects of the human person, which can be inserted into the formative process of the law, allowing for to norms, which in religiously motivated subjects receive a further compelling force. It is responsibility of a pluralist and secular State, aware and guarantor of its own values and indispensable rules, to supervise the process of synthesis of the different cultures.

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The so-called “anti-mosque” legislation between governance policies and protection of religious freedom

SOMMARIO: 1. Interventi legislativi della Regione Lombardia sui luoghi di culto - 2. La sentenza della Corte costituzionale n. 504 del 2019 sulla l.r. Lombardia del 2005 - 3. Pianificazione urbanistica secondaria e politiche regionali - 4. Considerazioni conclusive.

The so-called "anti-mosque" legislation between governance policies and protection of religious freedom

ABSTRACT: A recent intervention by the Constitutional Court of 2019 continued in the path intended to dismantle the Lombard legislation, also known as the "anti mosque" law, underlining the danger of a federalism, producing a growing fragmentation in a matter of such delicate constitutional relevance. The Court has currently canceled the obligation to regulate, through a Plan for religious equipment (PAR), the opening of any place of worship and the need to associate this Plan with the PGT (Territorial Government Plan). A territorial governance project, in fact, from the point of view of urban planning, must include the legal discipline of social religiosity, contextualising this intervention with the need for a structuring of aggregation spaces, open to all religious and secular bodies, concretely present in the social fabric. The construction of buildings intended for religious worship or, as more recently defined, of "equipment of common interest for religious purposes" is a matter by its nature suspended between the protection of religious freedom - even in its expression of collective law - and the legislation urbanism.

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Religious Garb in the Courtroom

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Simboli religiosi e sfera pubblica - 3. Il ruolo della giurisprudenza e il difficile rapporto con l’Islam - 4. Il porto di simboli religiosi nel contesto giudiziario - 5. Le pronunzie Hamidović v. Bosnia and Herzegovina e Lachiri v. Belgium - 6. Presenza o no di una base normativa che valga a giustificare la restrizione della libertà religiosa - 7. La tensione fra il test di proporzionalità e il margine di apprezzamento - 8. La connessione fra posizione individuale e istituzione pubblica …- a) … nel caso Hamidović - b) … nel caso Lachiri - 9. Disamina breve delle pronunzie in materia di porto di simboli e della loro ratio - 10. L’analisi del limite “dei diritti e delle libertà altrui” - 11. Una svolta a favore delle minoranze? - 12. La questione irrisolta di forme religiosamente motivate di face covering in ambito europeo - 13. L’uso di abbigliamento religiosamente caratterizzato nell’ambito delle aule giudiziarie in Canada: l’opinione di maggioranza nella pronunzia R. v. NS. - 14. La concurring opinion del giudice LeBel - 15. La dissenting opinion del giudice Abella - 16. Le potenziali ricadute della pronunzia canadese sulla libertà religiosa individuale e su quella del gruppo di appartenenza - 17. La giurisprudenza canadese successiva - 18. Il porto di simboli religiosi nelle aule giudiziarie negli U.S.A. – 19. Il porto del niqab nelle aule giudiziarie negli U.S.A. - 20. La questione del niqab nelle aule giudiziarie in Australia - 21. Le corti e le minoranze: un tentativo di comparazione fra la giurisprudenza dei giudici extraeuropei di common law … - 22. … e la giurisprudenza della Corte europea - 23. Lo strumento dell’„accomodamento ragionevole” negli ordinamenti extraeuropei di common law - 24. La possibilità del “trapianto” dell’accomodamento ragionevole in ambito comunitario. Il caso Eweida - 25. La conciliabilità del parametro dell’accomodamento ragionevole con gli standard della Corte europea - 26. La garanzia di propozionalità in ambito europeo e i suoi limiti - 27. Il limite del margine di apprezzamento - 28. La necessità di un più rigoroso bilanciamento fra margine di apprezzamento e principio di proporzionalità - 29 Le potenzialità del “ragionevole accomodamento” nell’ambito convenzionale europeo - 30. Una valutazione comparativa del rapporto fra libertà di espressione religiosa “privata” e spazio “pubblico” - 31. La libertà di manifestazione religiosa dei privati nelle aule giudiziarie … - a) … in ambito europeo - b) ... in ambito extraeuropeo - 32) Annotazioni riepilogative.

Religious Garb in the Courtroom

ABSTRACT: The present essay analyses the crucial issue of the freedom to wear religious garments in the courtroom. It provides a comparative survey of European, U.S., Canadian and Australian case law, investigating how they are facing the question concerning the place of religious expression in the public square, and taking into consideration different legal frameworks and their recent developments.

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The Supreme Court of the United States and the use or historical tradition in Establishment Clause jurisprudence

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. El significado esencial de las cláusulas religiosas de la Primera enmienda de la Constitución federal - 3. El argumento de la tradición histórica en la interpretación judicial de la Establishment Clause - 4. La tradición histórica como excepción a la aplicabilidad de los normales parámetros jurídicos de validez en materia de aconfesionalidad.

The Supreme Court of the United States and the use or historical tradition in Establishment Clause jurisprudence

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the study of the use of history and tradition that has been made by the Supreme Court of the United States when deciding certain cases concerning the First Amendment’s Establishment Clause. It explores the way in which, when confronted with certain practices that are in appearance clearly inconsistent with the Establishment Clause, sometimes the Supreme Court has simply ignored the different tests commonly settled for constitutional adjudication in this particular field such as the Lemon test, and has relied on historical tradition as the governing principle for that purpose. This circumstance leading to the setting of a controversial carve-out in Establishment Clause adjudication that might be better explained as a result of politics and political and social pressures rather than as a product of principled constitutional interpretation.

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Religion and public sphere in Jürgen Habermas’s discoursive theory

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Linguaggio, discorso e ragione - 3. Linguaggio ordinario e linguaggi esperti - 4. Linguaggio e sfera pubblica - 5. La teoria del discorso e le tradizioni religiose: alcuni cenni sul pensiero di Habermas - 6. Il fondamentalismo religioso - 7. La “traduzione neutralizzante” - 8. Conclusioni.

Religion and public sphere in Jürgen Habermas’s discoursive theory

ABSTRACT: The relationship between religion and the public sphere, from the perspective of Habermas's theory of discourse, gives a glimpse of the possibility of a shared space, reflected in democratic decision-making procedures, which has priority over every strategic and self-referential representation of the social. The "linguisticization of the sacred" process has gradually led the author to free the theory of modernity from a rigid theory of secularization; on the other hand, the religious phenomenon, freed from obsolete dogmatisms, reveals itself as the bearer of a procedural rationality capable of operating in everyday communication practice. In this dialogic path, which is anything but linear, Habermas' communicative reason seeks to find solutions capable of safeguarding both religious dimensions and the legacy of Enlightenment thought. This, first of all, to stem the monological drift of particularistic global interests able to endorse, even in sectors of a public nature, dynamics typical of strategic-functional action that lead to the restriction of the common space and to the loss of effectiveness of the institutions traditionally deputies for the democratic representation of interests. At the resolution of these questions, the discursive reason does not offer a single answer but indicates a path of learning and constructive conciliation of the visions of the world.

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The protection of religious confessions under current criminal law: the Oliviero Toscani case

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Brevi cenni all’impianto del Codice Rocco - 3. La novella del 2006 e la tutela delle confessioni religiose - 4. La giurisprudenza successiva alla novella: il caso Oliviero Toscani.

The protection of religious confessions under current criminal law: the Oliviero Toscani case

ABSTRACT: By the law n 85/2006 the Italian legislator modified criminal law provisions intended to protect collective religious feelings (art 402-406 criminal law code). In particular the new law has not confirmed old art 402 of the criminal law code, which provided for the generic crime of blasphemy. Insofar as the latter crime was characterised for its broad definition and scope, it raised serious questions of consistency with Art 21 of the Italian Constitution. However, the modifications introduced with law 85/2006 have been interpreted so leniently in subsequent case law that the old art 402 has been re-introduced as a matter of fact.

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Social Doctrine of the Church, contract, firm, competition

SOMMARIO: 1. La dottrina sociale della Chiesa. Considerazioni introduttive e selezione degli argomenti oggetto di esame - 2. Una lettura tecnicamente “laica” (o laicamente “tecnica”) della storicità della Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa - 3. Il contratto - 4. L’impresa - 5. La concorrenza - 6. Conclusioni di sintesi. Dalla scelta “del modello” alla selezione “dai modelli”.

Social Doctrine of the Church, contract, firm, competition

ABSTRACT: The Social Doctrine of the Church consists of the set of principles, theories, teachings and directives of the Catholic Church in social and economic matters. It is based on the principle that the human being, created in the likeness of God, is the end and not the means of social institutions, both as an individual and in his family dimension. This principle is examined, in this research, in its applications in the fields of contract, business and competition

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A landmark decision concerning gender rectification in Tunisia: the right to a private life between comparative law, international law and fiqh

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. I precedenti giurisprudenziali - 3. Un nuovo ruolo per i giudici tunisini? - 4. La tutela dei diritti e delle libertà: tra comparazione e fiqh - 5. Profili comparatistici. Il processo di rettifica del genere in una pronuncia della Corte d’appello di Beirut - 6. Considerazioni conclusive.

A landmark decision concerning gender rectification in Tunisia: the right to a private life between comparative law, international law and fiqh

ABSTRACT: The decision of the Tribunal of Tunis, concerning gender rectification in public registries of a transgender FtM person who underwent sex reassignment treatment, is an example of innovative case law. The judgment, changing the previous case law, is characterized by the use of the comparative method, so that, in the grounds for ruling, legal principles from different foreign jurisdictions and the fiqh coexist. Specifically, the Tribunal of Tunis, showing an open and dialogical approach to other jurisdictions and legislations of the globe, has consecrated the fundamental human right of gender rectification in public registries, rarely recognized in other Arab countries.

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Presented uncostitutionality and justifiable assisted suicide: innovations in continuity

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La procedura costituzionale - 3. Il diritto penale - 4. I principî: a) la dignità … - 5. (segue) b) la coscienza … - 6. (segue) c) la separazione (ovvero la laicità).

ABSTRACT: For the first time the Italian Constitutional Court adopted a double ruling (anticipatory the one, deciding the other) in the same judicial review. And for the first time also elaborated the circumstances of a justifiable (doctor-) assisted suicide, that so far was in any case a crime. They are two outstanding jurisprudential innovations, however the aim of the Author is to demonstrate that they are not in break but in continuity with the decision techniques of the Court, on one hand, and the leading cases on the topic of criminal justifications, on the other hand. Particularly the concept of subjective dignity, that according to the Court is the reason behind the decision of the patient, is recurring in the precedents of the Court of Cassation. Generally, moreover, the concepts of conscience, life and death prevail on this matter, neverthless are differently interpreted according to an ethic, specially religious, perspective or a secular, specially state, perspective. The merit of the decision consists precisely of the separatist, secular planning between ethics and law.

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The “new” appearance of crimes against religious sentiment in the framework of the so-called “crimes of opinion”

SOMMARIO: 1. Gli approdi normativi nella tutela contro le offese al sentimento religioso - 2. I persistenti dubbi di compatibilità con la libertà di espressione e con il principio di legalità in materia penale - 3. La centralità del nesso strumentale tra il vilipendio di persone o di cose e l’offesa alla confessione religiosa - 4. Il bene giuridico protetto e la questione dell’ammissibilità della protezione dei fatti di sentimento legati alla sfera religiosa - 5. Il permanente ricorso allo strumento penale tra (dubbia) adeguatezza della sanzione e carattere (prevalentemente) simbolico della repressione.

ABSTRACT: This paper provides a critical analysis of the main issues raised by the crimes against religious sentiment (Articles 403-405 and 724 of the Italian Criminal Code). In particular, an analysis was made as to whether these crimes are consistent with the freedom of expression and with the principle of legality in criminal matters. Furthermore, it is investigated the issue related to the admissibility itself of a criminal protection referred to religious feelings, according to the constitutional principles.

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Commodification and instrumentalization of religious symbols in the secular State

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Fattore religioso e società multiculturale: alla ricerca di uno spazio giuridico dai contorni flessibili - 3. Crisi della rappresentanza e “resilienza laica” - 4. La politica a favore (o contro) i simboli e la funzione dello stato laico - 5. Uso patologico dei simboli religiosi e nuove “mappe giuridiche” (… oltre il diritto pattizio) - 6. Conclusioni.

ABSTRACT: The article deals with religious symbols and their use in the public and legal sphere by political actors. Following some recent events, the author shows that the (mis)use of symbols in political life generates disorientation in both social and electoral dynamics. Such (mis)use is also relevant to positive and secular law, insofar this latter is called to regain its natural flexibility, to meet new needs of individuals and collective formations, induced by social changes of multicultural society.

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Remarks on religions lacking any adequate institutional representatives in the light of social-ethnic context

SOMMARIO: 1. Riflessioni a margine della libertà religiosa con specifico riguardo alle confessioni senza rappresentanza - 2. I disegni di legge sulla libertà religiosa e i rapporti con le confessioni non strutturate o prive di adeguata rappresentanza istituzionale - 3. Le confessioni religiose senza rappresentanza: ulteriori osservazioni e prospettive.

ABSTRACT: Because of intense migratory flows today, the coexistence of various religious movement, often very different among them, in our society has increased. This phenomenon is known as ‘religious pluralism’ and it implies that before the law all religions have the right to exist, to preach their own doctrines, to worship, and to gain a recognition of ‘special’ juridical positions. In this background the religious factor is a diriment element and represents the focal point of cultural and juridical debate.

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