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Autocefalia ortodossa e pluralismo confessionale nella Macedonia del Nord - ​ Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: Premessa - 1. La Chiesa Ortodossa Macedone - 2. Problemi giuridici della costituzione della Chiesa Ortodossa (autocefala) di Ohrid - 3. Gli effetti dell’autocefalia e il consolidamento dello Stato della Macedonia del Nord - 4. L’ortodossia tra autocefalia e pluralismo confessionale - 5. L’ecumene ortodossa e la problematica gestione della diaspora - 6. Il ruolo dei Patriarcati della diaspora nel rinnovamento dell’Ortodossia.

Orthodox autocephaly and confessional pluralism in Northern Macedonia

ABSTRACT: The paper reconstructs the history of the Macedonian Orthodox Church and the path that led it, after many vicissitudes, to obtain autocephaly from the Serbian Orthodox Church, with the name of the Orthodox Church of Ohrid, using the mediation of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. The implications of the affair are analyzed with the schism that opposes the Ecumenical Patriarchate to the Russian Patriarchate and its repercussions on pan-Orthodox relations, also in relation to the Orthodox diaspora.

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Gli enti delle confessioni religiose diverse dalla cattolica. Il dialogo istituzionale e la prassi amministrativa - ​ Maria d'Arienzo

SOMMARIO: 1. Il riconoscimento della personalità giuridica degli enti acattolici quale realizzazione di una “convergenza di interessi” - 2. L’attività consultiva del Consiglio di Stato: sindacato di conformità o principio di conformazione? - 3. Le confessioni religiose senza intesa. Il processo decisionale di riconoscimento della personalità giuridica degli enti esponenziali tra vecchie e nuove dinamiche.

The bodies of the non-Catholic religious denominations. Institutional dialogue and administrative practice

ABSTRACT: Through an analysis of the administrative practice, the contribution examines the system of relations between public institutions and religious denominations without an agreement, with specific regard to the application profiles of Article 2 of Law no. 1159 of 1929.

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Una lettura ‘strutturale’ di “Praedicate Evangelium” - ​ Massimo del Pozzo

SOMMARIO: 1. La valenza costituzionale della riforma della Curia romana - 2. La linea della ‘universalitas participata et pluralis Ecclesiae’ - 3. I beni della comunione e l’architettura delle Istituzioni curiali - 4. La congenita strumentalità dell’Istituzione curiale - 5. L’orizzonte istituzionale del servizio della Curia romana - 5.1. La vicarietà potestativa - 5.2. La cooperazione organica al servizio primaziale - 5.3. La corresponsabilità decentralizzante - 6. L’orizzonte personale del servizio della Curia romana - 6.1. La professionalità e la laicità - 6.2. La pastoralità e la spiritualità - 6.3. L’universalità e la temporaneità degli incarichi - 7. La promozione della razionalità e funzionalità della Curia - 8. Il cammino sinodale della riforma.

A ‘Structural’ Reading of “Praedicate Evangelium”

ABSTRACT: The article examines the (indirect and limited) constitutional value of the reform of the Roman Curia. The basic framework of Praedicate Evangelium is connected to the missionary impulse instilled by pontificate of Francis in the shared and plural structure of universality. The service of the Curia to the Church and to the world is founded upon its instrumental institutional character and on the maximum possible distribution of and participation in the goods of communion. Beyond the regulative aspects, this normative intervention develops various vectors and features of organization. At the institutional level, the vicarious dimension of power, the organic cooperation between the curial institutions and the decentralizing co-responsibility in the role of the episcopacy emerge. At the personal level, there is the encouragement of professional roles, of laity, of pastorality and spirituality, of the universality, and of the temporary nature of the offices. The criteria of rationality and functionality synthesize the aspiration to revise the central government. The reform of the Curia denotes a significant passage of the synodal way of the Church, which provides reasons for certain ecclesiological and speculative analysis, as well as for the perfection of canonical knowledge from a constitutional viewpoint.

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“The icing on the cake”. Alla ricerca del giusto equilibrio tra libertà del pasticciere e divieto di discriminazione delle coppie omosessuali - ​ Angelo Licastro

 SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. I casi di rifiuto opposto da pasticcieri per motivi religiosi di vendere torte commissionate da clienti omosessuali - 3. Libertà di contrarre e interessi contrapposti - 4. L’attuale assetto del quadro normativo in materia di diritto contrattuale antidiscriminatorio - 5. I tentativi della dottrina civilistica di ricondurre la materia all’interno di una cornice di coerenza sistematica - 6. Una inedita rappresentazione in ambito europeo del difficile equilibrio tra libertà di espressione e divieto di discriminazione a causa dell’orientamento sessuale - 7. Dalla libertà di espressione alla libertà di creazione “artistica” il passo è breve? - 8. La decisione di inammissibilità del ricorso presentato davanti alla Corte di Strasburgo dall’attivista di QueerSpace.

“The Icing on the Cake”. Looking for the Right Balance between the Baker’s Freedom and the Prohibition of Discrimination of the Same-Sex Couples

ABSTRACT: When a baker refuses to sell a cake for the wedding of a homosexual couple on religious grounds, a conflict arises between two fundamental rights, equality, and freedom of religion. In some cases, freedom of expression may also be involved. This article examines the question of whether these rights can be balanced, considering the doctrinal approach to anti-discrimination contract law and the most recent case law.

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Il carattere del battesimo e della confermazione: i fondamenti del sacerdozio comune dei fedeli tra diritto e spiritualità - ​ Ilaria Zuanazzi

SOMMARIO: Premessa - 1. La res et sacramentum quale effetto strutturante del sacramento - 2. La necessità di una comprensione unitaria, complessiva e dinamica degli effetti dei sacramenti - 3. La rilevanza e la traduzione giuridica degli effetti dei sacramenti dell’iniziazione cristiana - 4. Le lacune nello statuto giuridico comune dei fedeli: la confermazione e l’abilitazione ai ministeri ecclesiali - 5. Le lacune nello statuto giuridico comune dei fedeli: l’eucaristia e i vincoli di piena comunione - 6. Verso una considerazione più sostanziale degli effetti dei sacramenti dell’iniziazione cristiana: la rilevanza giuridica della dimensione spirituale nello statuto comune dei fedeli - 7. Il valore giuridico delle situazioni interne e non manifeste - 8. Il dovere di vivere seriamente la partecipazione ai mezzi di grazia - 9. Il dovere di condurre una vita santa.

The character of baptism and confirmation: the foundations of the common priesthood of the faithful between law and spirituality

ABSTRACT: The work examines how canon law manages to translate the constitutive effects of the sacraments of Christian initiation into legal terms, highlighting how in the legal status of the faithful contained in the Code of Canon Law the identity of the Christian is regulated in a static and formal manner. A new approach to the legislation is therefore proposed to give greater juridical relevance to the substantial spiritual dimension of the condition of the members of the People of God.

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Santa Sede e debito illegittimo. Il cammino verso la Corte internazionale di giustizia (2015-2022) - ​ Raffaele Coppola

SOMMARIO: 1. Il discorso del Santo Padre Francesco (Santa Sede in senso proprio) ai membri dell’Assemblea Generale dell’Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite - 2. La posizione della Santa Sede in senso lato e dei vertici della Chiesa italiana - 3. Odierne prospettive nella linea di lavoro politico - 4. La via africana sul debito - 5. Argentina e Fondo Monetario Internazionale (FMI).

Holy See and illegitimate debt. The path to the International Court of Justice (2015-2022)

ABSTRACT: This work offers a synthesis of the main steps of the process towards the International Court of Justice, accomplished over a seven-year period by the Holy See and the Cartel of jurists inspired by the Charter of Sant’Agata de’ Goti – Declaration on Usury and International Debt (1997). The starting point is Holy Father Francis’ speech at the United Nations General Assembly (New York, September 25, 2015), where the devastating deviations of speculative finance were condemned. Next, the points of convergence with the positions taken on the matter by the Italian Bishops’ Conference (CEI) are described, as well as today’s perspectives on debt and the International Court of Justice, in the line of political engagement, with regard to the Gentiloni government and the first Conte government. Completing the discussion is a report on what the author calls the African way on debt and an in-depth look at the differences from a recent wide-ranging initiative aimed at resolving the long-standing issue of the Argentine debt.

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Ecclesiastical properties as common goods. A challenge for the cultural, social and economic development of local communities - ​ Davide Dimodugno


SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. The temporal goods of the Church and the principle of subsidiarity - 3. The notion of common goods in Italy - 4. Some practical cases of ecclesiastical heritage as common goods in Italy- 5. A comparative perspective with Belgium: the strategic plans for the future of churches in Flanders - 6. Future perspectives and conclusions.

ABSTRACT: According to recent studies, there are about 600,000 places of worship and several thousands of monasteries and convents in Europe. The process of secularization, the decrease and displacement of the population, the reduction of vocations to the sacred life can be held responsible for the redundancy of the assets of the Catholic Church. These buildings represent an impressive heritage of faith, work and creativity of the communities which made them over the centuries. Most of them are considered as “cultural heritage” by the legislation of the European States, because of their historical, cultural and artistic values. Up to now, the main solution to this phenomenon has consisted in the alienation of these properties. However, the selling and the disposal of these goods by ecclesiastical bodies cannot always be the only and preferable solution. Drawing from the analysis of some case studies in Italy, this paper aims to investigate the role of civil society participation in the regeneration process and the possibility of applying “collaboration pacts” for the management of “common goods”. In the light of the European scope of the phenomenon, a comparison is proposed in line with the legal instrument of “strategic plans”, drawn up by the diocesan bishop and local authorities in Flanders (Belgium).

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Gli enti sportivi di ispirazione religiosa. Il caso del ‘Centro Sportivo Italiano’ - ​ Maria Cristina Ivaldi

SOMMARIO: 1. Osservazioni introduttive circa la disciplina degli enti religiosi alla luce del codice del Terzo settore - 2. Cenni al binomio sport-religione - 3. Il caso del Centro Sportivo Italiano (CSI) - 4. Brevi considerazioni conclusive alla luce del documento “Dare il meglio di sé”.

Religious inspired sports bodies. The ‘Centro Sportivo Italiano’ case.

ABSTRACT: After an overview and highlighting of the most recent changes introduced to the Code of the Third Sector and of the wide range of interplay and frictions between religion and sport, from a legal perspective, the contribution focuses on the religious inspired sports bodies. Among these, the paper discusses the case of the Centro Sportivo Italiano and examines its statutes and association pact that outline the Catholic religious orientation. The essay ends by considering the 2018 document “Giving the best of yourself” of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life, which can be described as the first real Catholic manifesto on the Catholic perspective on sport and human person.

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Recenti controversie sulla giurisdizione territoriale nell’Ortodossia: l’esarcato moscovita per l’Africa - ​ Vittorio Parlato

SOMMARIO: 1. Il tema - 2. L’attività ecclesiale di Costantinopoli nella diaspora - 3. Azione pastorale nella diaspora rivendicata da alcune Chiese - 4. Controversie in materia di giurisdizione episcopale - 5. L’esarcato moscovita per l’Africa - 6. Il ruolo del patriarcato ecumenico e del patriarcato moscovita nell’odierna ortodossia - Appendice.

Recent disputes on territorial jurisdiction in Orthodoxy: the Exarchate Moscow for Africa

ABSTRACT: The pastoral activity of Constantinople and other autocephalous churches in the diaspora. The consequent controversies on the episcopal jurisdiction. The Moscovite Exarchate for Africa. The role of the Moscow patriarchate in today's Orthodoxy.

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Il Libro VI De sanctionibus poenalibus in Ecclesia: novità e qualche spigolatura critica - ​ Geraldina Boni

SOMMARIO: Sezione I - Dalla fine del Concilio Vaticano II alla codificazione giovanneo-paolina: premesse alla Costituzione Apostolica Pascite gregem Dei del 2021 - 1. Il diffuso antigiuridismo postconciliare e i caratteri del Libro VI del Codex Iuris Canonici promulgato nel 1983 - 2. Lo scarso ‘riscontro sperimentale’ e gli ostacoli attuativi incontrati. Il trauma della cosiddetta ‘pedofilia’, l’impulso di Joseph Ratzinger, poi Benedetto XVI, in particolare nella repressione dei delicta graviora, e il progressivo smantellamento delle garanzie codiciali - 3. I protratti lavori preparatori in una stagione di concitate riforme legislative: gli ultimi provvedimenti normativi di papa Francesco prima della promulgazione del Libro VI De sanctionibus poenalibus in Ecclesia - Sezione II - La Pars I, De delictis et poenis in genere. 1. ‘Munus pastorale’ e pena nel prisma di una triplice ma unitaria finalità - 2. Un indiscusso passo avanti nella definizione delle pene, con alcune criticità da dipanare nel tragitto verso il maggior rigore - 3. Titulus IV, De poenis aliisque punitionibus: le novità - 4. A cavallo tra diritto penale sostanziale e processuale. Annotazioni sparse: dal risarcimento del danno alla procedura giudiziale versus quella amministrativa, dalla presunzione di innocenza alla prescrizione - Sezione III - La Pars II, De singulis delictis deque poenis in eadem constitutis - 1. Pregi sistematici, new entries e alcune ombre residue cagionate da una tecnica redazionale talora claudicante - 2. Problematicità di alcune fattispecie - 3. Il clou della riforma: i delitti di abuso, volano della riforma del diritto penale della Chiesa. Le fattispecie previste nel Codex Iuris Canonici - 4. Una non semplice sovrapposizione normativa - Sezione IV - Pronostici e auspici, ancora, de iure condendo - 1. Riprendere in mano il Libro VII De processibus - 2. Adeguare il Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium - 3. Ripensare competenza e organizzazione giudiziaria.

The Book VI De sanctionibus poenalibus in Ecclesia: innovations and some critical gleanings

ABSTRACT: Following a description of the development of Penal Canon Law after the Second Vatican Council and the 1983 codification, the essay dwells on an analysis of the most relevant innovations that were introduced in the new Book VI of the Code of Canon Law, which entered into forces as of December 8, 2021. It consists in a depiction that underlines the qualities and the improvements that were produced by the amendment promulgated by Pope Francis: but it also highlights some flaws regarding the drafting and the overall coordination of the Penal Canon legislation, both within and outside the Code. The most problematic profile among those that are examined is the one concerning the prevention and the repression of sexual abuses, of conscience and of authority: which is the dramatic challenge that the ecclesial community has had to face in the last thirty years. Lastly, in a de iure condendo perspective, we present some other interventions that the supreme legislator should promptly adopt in order to finally provide the Church with a Penal system that - both on the substantial and on the procedural side - is balanced, efficient and, above all, responding to justice.

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Il passaggio dalla causa di nullità matrimoniale al procedimento di scioglimento del matrimonio non consumato secondo il can. 1678, § 4 - ​ Francesco Catozzella


SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La progressiva semplificazione normativa del passaggio alla via amministrativa - 3. La clausola “de consensu partium” del can. 1681 - 4. Interrelazioni tra processo di nullità e procedimento di scioglimento - 5. L’interpretazione del nuovo can. 1678, § 4 - 6. La decisione del tribunale in caso di disaccordo tra le parti circa il passaggio alla via amministrativa - 7. Una proposta de iure condendo.

The transition from the marriage nullity case to dissolution of non-consummated marriage procedure according to can. 1678, § 4 *

ABSTRACT: The Motu proprio Mitis Iudex Dominus Iesus has simplified the transition from a marriage nullity case in progress to that of dissolution of non-consummated procedure: it is no more required that the parties consent to but that they be heard. After a brief historical excursus on the subject, starting from the Pius-Benedictine Code, the study aims, first, at understanding the underlying rationale of the new provision of canon 1678 § 4, and then at exploring the concrete ways in which it is to be applied, especially in the event of disagreement between the parties on the transition. Finally, on the basis of the praxis of the Tribunal of the Roman Rota, de iure condendo a proposal is made.

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Diplomazia pontificia e Comunità internazionale nel contesto del contributo della Santa Sede al bene dell’umanità - ​ Enrico Giarnieri


SOMMARIO: 1. La funzione e il ruolo della diplomazia pontificia nella Comunità internazionale - 2. Le dimensioni dell’attività diplomatica della Santa Sede dal pontificato di Giovanni Paolo II a quello di Francesco - 3. Il riconoscimento dei diritti umani nella diplomazia di Papa Francesco - 4. A servizio della pace nel mondo - 5. Libertà religiosa, cooperazione per il bene comune e promozione della persona umana - 6. Annotazioni conclusive.

Diplomacy of the Holy See and the International Community In the context of the Holy See’s contribution to the good of mankind

ABSTRACT: The article takes into consideration the reasons and purposes for the presence of the ‘supreme governing body of the Catholic Church’ in the international Community. The author reflects on the relationship between the diplomatic activity of the Holy See and the delicate issues of peace and war. Therefore, attention is given to the methods of intervention put in place by Pope Francis with reference to the protection of fundamental human rights. In fact, from the pontificate of Paul VI, to those of John Paul II and Benedict XVI, to even the present pontificate of Francis, the juridical and geo-political questions concerning peace and terrorism, war and nuclear disarmament, the defense of religious freedom and the improvement of universal relations between states, the reform of international organizations and the promotion of human rights have strongly characterized the modus agendi of the two thousand year-old papal diplomacy. Faced with these questions, the Holy See seems to confirm both its own sui generis international juridical subjectivity and its own ‘positive neutrality’ by means of a significant work of mediation in offering universally shared solutions to protect the ontological, irrepressible dignity of the human person.

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Le antiche chiese orientali e la loro conformità alla fede calcedonese - ​ Vittorio Parlato


SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La realtà ecclesiale e i riti - 3. La Chiesa armena gregoriana - 4. la Chiesa copta d’Egitto - 5.La Chiesa etiope e la Chiesa eritrea - 6- La Chiesa siro-giacobita - 7. La Chiesa siriaca orientale o malankarese - 8. La Chiesa assiro-orientale o caldea.

The Ancient Oriental Churches and their conformity to the calcedonese faith

ABSTRACT: Historical and doctrinal genesis of the non-chalcedon Churches and their current consistency. The recent clarification about the Christology of many of these Churches, especially in documents common with the Catholic Church.

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Gesù davanti a Pilato. Rilievi procedurali su un caso di legalizzazione di linciaggio ecclesiastico - ​ Francesco Zanchini

SOMMARIO: 1. All’origine (antropologica) del problema: tra scandalo e linciaggio rituale - 2. Competenza confessionale (legalmente pacifica) sull’accusa - 3. (intermezzo) Parallelismi tra linciaggio e scomunica - 4. (segue) Natura giuridica dell’intervento di Pilato. Una lezione di laicità.

Jesus before Pilate. Procedural remarks on a case of legalisation of ecclesiastical lynching

ABSTRACT: The Author wants to reconsider the trial of Jesus through a double critical grid: that of elimination by lynching of those who, by causing scandals, have cracked, regardless of any guilt, the certainties of the group (model dating back to immemorial times, and expression of pagan myths), and that of the execution of the death sentence issued by the great Sanhedrin of Jerusalem against the Nazarene, subject to adequate control by the Roman praetor (limited, however, only to the conditions of its admissibility by the imperial system). The discussion proceeds by underlining the full autonomy in merit of the confessional verdict, which the execution power accessed as a mere formal verification of the existence of conditions of public order considered indispensable by the State system. On the side-lines, the Author takes the opportunity to highlight how these precautions have become less and less renounceable over time, in face of the recurrent ecclesiastical claim to re-propose in new forms the ancestral logic of the ritualized lynching of discuting members.

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L’immunità della Santa Sede dalla giurisdizione degli Stati nella crisi dei preti pedofili - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Cenni introduttivi sui termini della questione oggetto di analisi - 2. La vicenda da cui trae origine il ricorso presentato alla Corte europea dei diritti umani - 3. L’orientamento della giurisprudenza della Corte in materia di immunità degli Stati dalla giurisdizione - 4. Immunità dalla giurisdizione e “sovranità” degli organismi centrali della Chiesa - 5. La distinzione tra acta jure imperii e acta jure gestionis riferita alle competenze degli organismi centrali della Chiesa nella gestione della crisi dei preti pedofili - 6. La questione della riconducibilità delle presunte condotte colpevoli della Santa Sede nel quadro della materia riguardante i “trattamenti inumani” - 7. La questione degli obblighi derivanti dalla Convenzione sui diritti del fanciullo - 8. I requisiti per potere inquadrare le condotte della Santa Sede tra quelle per le quali opera una eccezione codificata all’immunità dalla giurisdizione - 9. In conclusione: l’immunità della Santa Sede tra sovranità “statale” e governo della Chiesa universale (con un cenno alle discussioni sul superamento del vecchio principio di sovranità).

The Immunity of the Holy See from State Jurisdiction in the Pedophile-Priest Crisis

ABSTRACT: The recognition of the Holy See as a foreign sovereign forms the basis for any grant of immunity from legal proceedings. The present article examines the question of the Holy See’s immunity as a sovereign state in handling sexual abuse cases. To do so, the paper takes its cue from European Court of Human Rights decision in the case of J.C. and Others v. Belgium (application no. 11625/17), which has ruled that the domestic courts have not jurisdiction to hear the tort case brought against the Holy See because it enjoys sovereign immunity.

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Fattore religioso e Costituzione economica. A proposito di enti ecclesiastici-religiosi e impresa sociale - ​ Giuseppe D'Angelo

SOMMARIO: 1. Le implicazioni dell’emergenza pandemica sulla Costituzione economica nell’ottica del diritto ecclesiastico - 2. Enti ecclesiastici-religiosi e impresa sociale. Una lettura in parallelo attraverso la lente (dell’art. 1 e) dell’art. 41 della Costituzione - 3. Libertà di iniziativa economica, socialità dell’impresa e impresa sociale normativizzata - 4. Libertà di iniziativa economica, socialità dell’impresa e perimetrazione materiale del fine di religione e di culto - 5. Istanze (disattese) di liberalizzazione. Le pressioni della nuova realtà socio-economica e la garanzia dell'art. 20 Cost. - 6. L'incontro/scontro normativo tra ente ecclesiastico-religioso e impresa sociale. In particolare, il fine religioso-cultuale quale grande assente del d.lgs. n. 112 del 2017. Ragioni e ricadute disciplinari - 7. Il ramo impresa sociale dell’ente ecclesiastico-religioso civilmente riconosciuto. La confermata esclusione delle attività secondarie e strumentali dall’ambito applicativo del decreto - 8. Il regolamento del ramo e il patrimonio destinato tra oneri di conformazione e preservazione dell’identità religioso-confessionale dell’ente - 9. L’ipotesi (non così scontata) della costituzione di una impresa sociale autonoma e il tema (sottovalutato) della collocazione dell’ente ecclesiastico-impresa sociale nel mercato dei beni e dei servizi (sociali) - 10. Riassumendo. Nodi da sciogliere e soluzioni da indagare.

Religion and Economic Constitution. On the relationship between religious bodies and social enterprise

ABSTRACT: The paper focuses on the relationship between religious bodies and social enterprise, considering it as an important verification ground of religion’s place in the legal dynamics of the so-called Economic Constitution. Lights and shadows in this relationship are closely linked to the difficulties of State-Church concerted legislation on ecclesiastical-religious bodies, especially when compared to the constitutional protection of purposes of religion and worship (art. 20 of Italian Constitution).
 

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Marriage and canonical process in the digital era - ​ Paolo Palumbo

SUMMARY: 1. The Church and the technological revolution - 2. Digital family and "liquid" relationships - 2.1 Internet and social networks: "knowledge" of young couples and marriage celebration - 3. Internet, new technologies and "digital" evidence in the process for matrimonial nullity - 4. Has the time come for the remote canonical process? - 5. Conclusions.

ABSTRACT: The article proposes to deepen the role of digital technologies' effects on religious culture and on canonical substantive and procedural matrimonial law. The family is confronted with the digital revolution and the cyberfamily represents a demanding challenge also for the Catholic Church, which has always been committed to fostering solid relationships that unfold along existential projects that allow the opening to generativity and oblativity. Starting from the profiles related to its genesis, passing through the celebration and up to the couple's crisis and the judicial intervention, the family - and the law - has to deal with the new technologies and with the "network". The article explores the relationship between marriage nullity and digital technology with regard to the evidence system of the canonical process and presents a proposal for a "protocol", also considering some experiences emerged in the pandemic period, for the remote execution of the sessions of a canonical process of marriage nullity.

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L’autonomia decisionale della persona nelle situazioni di vulnerabilità, di debolezza e di razionalità limitata: iniziali riflessioni a margine della sentenza n. 50 del 15 febbraio 2022 della Corte costituzionale - ​ Fabio Cembrani Mariano Cingolani Piergiorgio Fedeli

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. L’iter procedurale del giudizio di ammissibilità costituzionale dei referendum abrogativi - 3. La sentenza della Corte costituzionale che ha dichiarato non ammissibile il referendum abrogativo sull’art. 579 c.p. (‘Omicidio del consenziente’) - 4. Le buone ragioni della prudente decisione assunta dai Giudici costituzionali - 5. Conclusioni.

Decision-making autonomy of the person in situations of vulnerability, weakness and limited rationality: initial reflections on the sidelines of sentence no. 50 of 15 February 2022 of the Constitutional Court

ABSTRACT: The Authors, starting with the decision of the Italian Constitutional Court which found the referendum to abrogate art. 579 c.p. (Murder of the consenting party), address, in a practical perspective, the question of the decision-making autonomy of the person in situations of vulnerability, weakness and limited rationality. Of the referendum question, they underline its cloudiness and ambivalence before analyzing the strengths of the decision that has finally given prominence to the many situations of fragility and vulnerability of the person not always and only due to the existence of an infirmity of mind. With all the practical consequences that derive from it for the care professionals to whom these people ask not only respect but rigorous guarantees of public protection.

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Il presunto diritto alla mono-genitorialità e le scelte etiche di inizio-vita - ​ Fortunato Freni

SOMMARIO: 1. La legge n. 40 sulla procreazione medicalmente assistita (pma) dopo gli interventi giurisprudenziali - 2. La pma per i singles e il presunto diritto alla mono-genitorialità - 3. Le scelte etiche del procreare di fronte ai nuovi ritrovati tecnologici - 4. La mediazione del (bio-)diritto laico.

The alleged right to single parenthood and the ethical choices of beginning-life

ABSTRACT: This contribution, taking its cue from requests for jurisprudential recognition of an alleged right to single parenthood, analyzes the phenomenon of pma for singles in the light of the different ethical conceptions of procreation, reaching the conclusion that the law 40 on pma should be entirely rewritten through a normative intervention oriented in the sense of a secular mediation, within the framework of the pluralism of ethical-religious conceptions present in society, which knows how to combine the right of self-determination with the duty of solidarity.

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Tempo ed età nell’ufficio ecclesiastico. Il decreto del Dicastero per i Laici, la Famiglia e la Vita ( 3 giugno 2021) - ​ Antonio Viana

SOMMARIO: Introduzione - 1. Varietà di casi di titolarità dell’ufficio - 1.1. Casi di provvisione a vita dell’ufficio - 1.2. Casi di provvisione temporale dell’ufficio - 1.3. Uffici con limite massimo di età - 1.4. Motivi a favore della temporaneità delle nomine e della cessazione per età - 2. Novità del decreto del Dicastero per i Laici, la Famiglia e la Vita (3 giugno 2021) per quanto riguarda i limiti temporali del governo delle associazioni - 2.1 Aspetti generali della normativa - 2.2 Le motivazioni della norma - 2.3. Un profondo cambiamento nello spirito del diritto associativo ecclesiastico - 2.4. La necessaria sussidiarietà - 3. Conclusione.

Time and age in the ecclesiastical office. The Decree of the Dicastery for Laity, Family and Life (June 3rd 2021)

ABSTRACT: The article deals with the incidence of two factors in ecclesiastical offices: the passage of time and the fulfilment of certain age limits in the holder of the office. The first part of the study presents a systematic summary of the general legislation. The second part discusses the novelties and consequences of the treatment of the temporal factor of offices in the regulations published in 2021 by the Dicastery for Laity, Family and Life. The study concludes with an assessment of the norms of the Dicastery's decree with regard to the fundamental freedom of association in the Church.

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The omitted role of the Churches in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict - ​ Giovanni Cimbalo

SUMMARY: 1. Premise - 2. The recognition of the Autocephaly of the new Ukrainian Orthodox Church as a factor of crisis of relations between Ukraine and Russia - 3. The stages of the crisis - 4. The Kiev Metropolia of the Moscow Patriarchate and the War - 5. The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and the war.

ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the effects of the recognition of autocephaly by the new Ukrainian Orthodox Church. It constitutes one of the crisis factors in relations between Ukraine and Russia in the ongoing clash in the Orthodox Churches between the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Russian Orthodox Church. The article reconstructs the positions of the various religious denominations present in Ukraine in contending for the representation of the interests of the Ukrainian people. It explores how the war is undermining the relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church and its Metropolia of Kiev. It also analyzes the role played in the crisis by the Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Catholic Church, a sui juris Church that aspires to play a supranational role.

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(Non) è stata la mano di Dio. Il film “La Scuola Cattolica” vietato ai minorenni dalla Commissione di revisione cinematografica - ​ Matteo Corsalini

SOMMARIO: 1. Titoli di testa: introduzione e una premessa di metodo - 2. La vicenda: il caso de “La Scuola Cattolica” - 3. La questione aperta: un divieto amministrativo a tutela del sentimento religioso cattolico? - 4. La decisione: la sentenza del TAR Lazio n. 12795 del 2021 - 5. Titoli di coda: considerazioni conclusive.

It was (not) the hand of God. The movie “La Scuola Cattolica” prohibited to minors by the Film Review Commission

ABSTRACT: On 4 October 2021, the Italian movie "La Scuola Cattolica” (The Catholic School) got a ban on minors under 18 years of age. In this connection, the Italian Film Review Commission argued that the ban was necessary to prevent youth from consuming material deemed to be ‘harmful’ to their emotional and psychological sensibilities. This paper rejects the commissioners’ reasoning, to then introduce and defend the claim that the case of “La Scuola Cattolica” is instead about religiously-motivated movie censorship. Crossing borders between law and anthropology, here the goal is to demonstrate how the grievances behind the screening of “La Scuola Cattolica” concern ‘religious insult’ rather than advocacy of child protection.

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Reati culturalmente motivati e ignorantia legis: a margine della prima sentenza di legittimità sulle mutilazioni genitali femminili (nota a Cass. pen., sez. V, 2 luglio 2021, n. 37422) - ​ Dario Sciutteri


SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. Il caso oggetto delle sentenze in commento - 3. Le mutilazioni genitali femminili: notazioni socio-antropologiche - 4. Le mutilazioni genitali femminili come esempio paradigmatico di reato culturalmente motivato - 5. I riflessi sulla tipicità - 6. I riflessi sull’antigiuridicità: il consenso dell’avente diritto - 7. segue: l’esercizio di un diritto - 8. I riflessi sulla colpevolezza: l’oggetto del dolo - 9. segue: la conoscibilità del precetto - 10. La dosimetria sanzionatoria - 11. Considerazioni conclusive - Bibliografia - Appendice.

Cultural crimes and ignorantia legis: about the first judgment of Italian Corte di Cassazione as regards female genital mutilation

ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the first judgment of Italian Corte di Cassazione about female genital mutilation. After the sociological and anthropological analysis of the causes of female genital mutilation, deals with the evolution of Italian criminal law against this cultural crime. In particular, the essay underlines the relation between culture and the main elements of crimes, investigating necessary adaptments of theoretical reconstructions to female genital mutilation and others cultural crimes too.

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Simboli religiosi e accomodamento ragionevole ‘all’italiana’ nella recente giurisprudenza di legittimità - ​ Greta Pavesi

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. L'accomodamento ragionevole: cenni - 3. Dalla laicità come metodo alla reasonable accommodation - 4. (segue) Limiti e aporie - 5. Spunti conclusivi.

Religious symbols and reasonable accommodation ‘all’italiana’ in the recent jurisprudence of legitimacy

ABSTRACT: With the judgment no. 24414/2021, the United Sections of the Court of Cassation identified reasonable accommodation as a possible solution to the issue of religious symbols in public school classrooms. The application of the instrument (traditionally used to protect freedom of religion and belief in the workplace) to the case at hand is undoubtedly characterized by original features that this paper aims to analyze. After having reconstructed the model of reasonable accommodation proposed by the Court, this article tries to verify whether the use of this instrument can be effective and applicable, from a technical-legal point of view, even in the public-school context, which involves principles endowed with axiological primacy, such as that of ‘laicità’. Brief concluding remarks will be addressed to the possible effects of this ruling in those areas of Law and Religion which are characterized by regulatory gaps and/or a high degree of conflict.

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Trasformazione, fusione e scissione degli enti canonici nell’ordinamento della Chiesa e dello Stato - ​ Alessandro Perego

SOMMARIO: 1. Riorganizzazione ecclesiastica e operazioni straordinarie degli enti canonici - 2. Le operazioni straordinarie nel Codice di diritto canonico: i canoni 121 e 122 - 3. Competenza dell’autorità ecclesiastica e procedura canonica - 4. (segue) licenze e controlli canonici - 5. Disciplina civile delle operazioni straordinarie degli enti canonici - 6. Mutamenti sostanziali degli enti ecclesiastici civilmente riconosciuti - 7. Operazioni straordinarie degli enti di diritto comune: trasformazioni di associazioni di fedeli e pie fondazioni - 8. (segue) fusioni e scissioni - 9. Enti religiosi con ramo del Terzo settore o di impresa sociale - 10. Profili fiscali delle operazioni straordinarie e beni culturali.

Conversion, merger and acquisition as well as split-up of Catholic Church entities under Canon and Italian laws *

ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes conversion, merger and acquisition as well as split-up of Catholic Church entities by assessing canon law (can. 121 and 122 C.i.c.), treaties between Church and Italy (l. n. 222/1985) as well as the Italian law governing non profit organizations.

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Consideraciones sobre la protección del derecho a la buena fama en Derecho canónico - ​ Pedro Martín Rodríguez

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Reflexiones acerca de la buena fama y el honor - 3. Desenvolvimiento histórico - 4. La buena fama en el Derecho canónico - 5. Reconocimiento jurídico - 6. Atentados contra la fama - 7. Murmuración, un arma que mata - 8. Murmuración. Delimitación conceptual - 9. Breve referencia histórica - 10. Pecado que atenta contra el prójimo - 11. Características y causas - 12. Regulación jurídica - 13. Los delitos canónicos de falsedad - 14. La reparación del daño - 15 Reparación y resarcimiento - 16. Restitución - 17. Satisfacción - 18. Indemnización - 19. Rescisión y restitución “in Integrum” - 20. Conclusión.

Considerations on the protection of the right to good repute in canon law1

ABSTRACT: Gossip is a sin that threatens the good reputation of neighbours. It belongs to the field of the so-called falsehood sins or crimes. They are clearly opposite to charity, whose transgression implies an attack against honour, the reputation of the accused and comunion in the Church, causing in turn a rupture in the order of social justice and the common good. It is a violation of the eight commandment of the Law of God which may be censored and combatted with firmness by the authority, does not admit ambiguity and must be undone in order to restore in their integrity the good reputation of the defamed.

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I reati culturalmente motivati fra assimilazionismo e relativismo multiculturale - ​ Francesco Alicino

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Esperienze normative - 3. Nello spazio giuridico europeo e internazionale - 4. Valida e inefficace - 5. Una ragionevole normativa penale - 6. Rigidità e flessibilità - 7. Fondati timori - 8. Us and Them - 9. Le culture tra eguaglianza e differenze – 10. Conclusioni.

Cultural Defenses between Monoculturalism and Multiculturalism

ABSTRACT: In an increasingly globalized world, individuals and groups are seeking to have their own culture respected, maintaining their cultural diversity in the face of growing globalization. These claims are connected with the formal conceptions of the principle of equality, which often produces substantial and discriminatory inequalities. This situation becomes even more complicated when related to the specific field of criminal law concerning cultural defenses. The author analyses the different approaches to cultural defenses, those oscillating from multiculturalism to monoculturalism, taking into account the Italian and European-international legal context.

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Le nuove Norme sui delitti riservati alla Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede. Prime considerazioni - ​ Claudio Gentile

SOMMARIO: 1. Inquadramento giuridico - 2. La nuova edizione delle Norme - 3. Conclusioni.

The new Norms Regarding Delicts Reserved To The Congregation For The Doctrine Of The Faith. First considerations

ABSTRACT: On December 7, 2021, the “third edition” of the Norms Regarding Delicts Reserved To The Congregation For The Doctrine Of The Faith issued by Pope Francis with a rescript of the previous October 8 was published. The text updates the Norms currently in force, issued by John Paul II in 2001 and modified by Benedict XVI in 2010, adapting them to the reformed Book VI of the CIC. The revision made it possible to incorporate the laws enacted in recent years regarding the abuse of minors by clerics and to regulate what has been followed by the Congregation itself. This work, indicating the legislative changes, offers some initial considerations.

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L’assetto procedurale della recente modifica delle “Normae de delictis Congregationi pro Doctrina Fidei reservatis”: esegesi e suggestioni - ​ Marc Teixidor Viayna

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni preliminari - 2. Rimane ancora una preferenza (seppure sfumata) per il processo giudiziario? - 3. Imposizione di misure cautelari - 4. Requisiti per lo svolgimento di determinate mansioni - 5. Impugnabilità delle decisioni in materia di cause incidentali (scomparsa del vetus art. 25 NDR) - 6. Ancora una volta la questione della ‘calamita processuale’ - 7. Una ‘potestas sanandi’ ampliata a norma dell’art. 11 NDR? - 8. Il quadro dei mezzi d’impugnazione contro la sentenza - 9. Una questione particolare sull’appello: può sostenersi la legittimazione attiva del Promotore di Giustizia a quo per l’interposizione dell’appello? - 10. La regolamentazione del procedimento penale amministrativo - 11. Il regime di contestazione delle decisioni penali amministrative: alcuni guadagni e alcune incertezze - 12. Ampliamento della facoltà di deroga alla prescrizione? - 13. La previsione del deferimento al Romano Pontefice per la dimissione dello stato clericale assieme alla dispensa del celibato (art. 26 NDR) e il curioso diritto dell’imputato di richiedere la dispensa ab oneribus (art. 27 NDR) - 14. Conclusioni.

Procedural aspects of the recent reform of the “Normae de delictis Congregationi pro Doctrina Fidei reservatis”: an interpretation and some suggestions

ABSTRACT: On December 8, 2021, a new modification of the "Normae de delictis Congregationi pro Doctrina Fidei reservatis" came into force. The legal modification has affected both the substantive and the procedural part of these norms. This article examines some of the most significant aspects of this reform from a procedural-canonical perspective and suggests some possible adjustments and future lines of reflection.

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Lo status dei cattolici orientali in Germania. Una sfida attuale per il coordinamento tra i due Codici - ​ Burkhard J. Berkmann

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Lo status dei cattolici orientali in Germania - 2.1. I fedeli della Chiesa ucraina - 2.2. Gli altri cattolici orientali - 3. Facoltà dei parroci latini di sposare coppie orientali? - 4. Chiesa di appartenenza dei figli di matrimoni misti - 4.1. Efficacia anche nella sfera giuridica latina? - 4.2. La situazione prima del motu proprio De concordia inter Codices - 4.3. La situazione dopo il motu proprio De concordia inter Codices - 5. Conclusioni.

The Status of Oriental Catholics in Germany. A current challenge for the coordination of the two Codes

ABSTRACT: According to an estimate by the Secretariat of the German Bishops' Conference, about 200,000 members of fourteen different Eastern Catholic Churches currently live in Germany. A first large migratory wave with a lasting impact up to today emerged with members of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in the first decades of the 20th century. Lately, due to migration from Syria and Iraq starting in 2015, a larger number of Eastern Catholics - estimated by some in the five-digit range - have arrived in Germany. The change brought about by migration poses new challenges for pastoral care and canon law in Germany. The Ukrainians have their own jurisdiction in the form of an Apostolic Exarchy. All other Oriental Catholics have been entrusted to local Latin ordinaries by a decree of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches according to can. 916, § 5, CCEO. Therefore, the solution of many legal questions requires a synopsis of both codes. Do Latin parish priests have the authority to celebrate marriages for Oriental couples per se? To which church do children from a mixed marriage belong? The motu proprio De concordia inter Codices did not answer all questions and has also brought new ones.

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Prime annotazioni sull’Intesa tra Repubblica italiana e Santa Sede per l’assistenza spirituale ai militari cattolici: una riforma gattopardesca - ​ Luigi Mariano Guzzo

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La forma: la qualificazione dell’Intesa come accordo di natura internazionalistica - 3. La ratifica e l’esecuzione dell’Intesa nell’ordinamento dello Stato, con le relative norme di adeguamento: l’esito paradossale di una disciplina “duplicata” - 4. Le ondivaghe “vicissitudini” dell’art. 17 C.O.M.: un “termostato” delle tensioni sociali e giuridiche riguardanti la materia e l’esigenza di una riforma - 5. Politica concordataria della Santa Sede e attribuzioni alle Conferenze episcopali nazionali. Alcune considerazioni sulla polarizzazione del dibattito pubblico in Italia - 6. I contenuti dell’Intesa; 7. Le norme di adeguamento dell’ordinamento interno: novità e rilievi critici - 7.1. La direzione e il coordinamento del Servizio di assistenza spirituale: una titolarità giuridica diretta in capo all’Ordinario militare per l’Italia - 7.2. L’introduzione della figura dei Cappellani militari coordinatori, in luogo degli Ispettori: alcuni problemi di sicurezza per le istituzioni militari dello Stato- 7.3. Il concetto canonico di “sede vacante” entra nell’ordinamento militare - 7.4. La procedura di individuazione e di determinazione delle sedi per i cappellani militari - 7.5. L’art. 1533-bis C.O.M.: il divieto di corresponsione di emolumenti accessori e la materia “spirituale e pastorale” - 7.6. La nomina dell’Ordinario militare e del Vicario generale - 7.7. Il regime di assimilazione ai gradi gerarchici per i cappellani militari: nella sostanza non cambia nulla - 7.8. Altre novelle legislative: l’organico dei cappellani; la procedura di nomina; la dismissione dallo stato clericale - 8. Prime tensioni tra Ordinariato militare e amministrazione della Difesa sull’applicazione della legge - 9. Perché nell’Intesa non c’è alcun riferimento alle donne consacrate che operano negli stabilimenti militari? - 10. Conclusioni: il Capo I della legge n. 70 del 2021 come “caso-studio” del decadimento normativo e della crisi del Parlamento.

Some comments on the agreement between the Italian Republic and the Holy See for spiritual assistance to the Catholic members of the Armed Forces

ABSTRACT: Through the application of the Italian Law no. 70/2021, we see the long-awaited revision of the institute of religious assistance to Catholics within the Armed Forces, with the authorization of the ratification of the Exchange of Letters between the President of the Council of Ministers and the Secretary of the Vatican City State (on February 13, 2018) and the related rules for the adaptation of the internal legal system. The new aspects, however, are very limited in scope.

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Il rapporto di lavoro degli insegnanti di religione nelle scuole pubbliche italiane davanti alla Corte di giustizia dell’Unione europea - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. La direttiva 1999/70/CE del Consiglio del 28 giugno 1999 relativa all’accordo quadro CES, UNICE e CEEP sul lavoro a tempo determinato e i meccanismi di definizione della politica sociale europea - 2. Cenni sulla disciplina generale del rapporto di lavoro a tempo determinato risultante dal decreto legislativo 6 settembre 2001, n. 368, attuativo della direttiva 1999/70/CE, e dal decreto legislativo 15 giugno 2015, n. 81 - 3. La posizione ricoperta dall’insegnante di religione nell’ambito dell’ordinamento del personale docente della scuola - 4. La vertenza riguardante gli insegnanti di religione cattolica e le questioni pregiudiziali sottoposte alla Corte di giustizia - 5. L’eventuale incidenza dell’impegno dell’Unione a salvaguardare lo status previsto per le confessioni religiose dal diritto nazionale (art. 17 TFUE) - 6. La tutela antidiscriminatoria degli insegnanti di religione: a) l’assenza di una discriminazione per motivi di religione rispetto alla posizione degli altri supplenti della scuola pubblica - 7. (segue) b) L’inapplicabilità della clausola 4 dell’Accordo quadro - 8. La prevenzione degli abusi della successione dei contratti a tempo determinato per gli insegnanti di religione: in particolare le “ragioni obiettive” che possono giustificare il rinnovo - 9. Conclusioni.

The Employment Relationship of Religious Education Teachers in Italian State Schools before the Court of Justice of the European Union

ABSTRACT: The Italian legislation excludes the transformation of successive fixed-term contracts into contracts of indefinite duration in the teaching sector. This also applies to Catholic religious education teachers. The present paper analyses the decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union in case C-282/19, which dealt with the issue of the compatibility of such a rule with the framework agreement on fixed-term work concluded by ETUC, UNICE and CEEP (annexed to Council Directive 1999/70/EC of 28 June 1999) and with the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion (Article 21 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union; Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000). According to the Author, the Court’s final indication for the referring court, to verify whether an interpretation of the national provisions which is consistent with the framework agreement is possible, is not easily practicable, because the “obligation on a national court to refer to the content of a directive when interpreting and applying the relevant rules of domestic law […] cannot serve as the basis for an interpretation contra legem”, as noted by the Court.

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Corano e/o Sunna? Funzione narrativa e prescrittiva nelle ‘fonti’ dell’Islam - ​ Paolo Branca

SOMMARIO: 1. Prologo - 2. A mo’ d’introduzione - 3. Storia delle origini od origini di una storia? - 4. Fra' tacere' e 'dire', fra 'ordinare' e 'interdire' ... - 5. Rottura di un equilibrio - 6. Emanciparsi dalla Sharîʻa o applicarla? La disputa fra Corano e Sunna - 7. Solo il Corano basta - 8. La critica degli orientalisti - 9. Ulteriori studi: ICMA (isnad-cum-matn analysis)- 10. Maqâsid al-Sharîʻa (le finalità della legge islamica) - 11. Stimoli e riflessioni da un tentativo di approccio comparativo - 12. Una possibile ‘inversione’ di tendenza? - 13. Con il tempo e con la paglia …

Quran and/or Sunna? Narrative and prescriptive function in the 'sources' of Islam
 
ABSTRACT: Even if in different forms and according to historical and anthropological factors that have conditioned their development, religions have a doctrinal part and precepts that can have different weight and priorities in each of them. Islam, which like Judaism is centered more on orthopraxis than on orthodoxy, over time and especially in the modern era, also in relation to the phenomenon of huge migrations of its faithful to the West, is faced with new challenges affecting its regulatory side. In this regard, various orientations and studies have long confronted each other and still animate a little-known debate outside the circle of specialists.

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La Riforma protestante tra istanze di rinnovamento e movimenti ereticali - ​ Raffaele Granata

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Reformatio in capite et membris - 3. La riforma gregoriana - 4. Rinnovamento monastico e nuove forme di religiosità - 5. Erasmo da Rotterdam e l’Umanesimo cristiano - 6. Ecclesia semper reformanda - 7. Gli antecedenti della Riforma - 8. I poveri di Lione - 9. Il movimento dei Lollardi - 10. La rivoluzione boema - 11. Le guerre hussite.

The Protestant Reformation between requests for renewal and heretical movements

ABSTRACT: The Protestant Reformation represents an epochal event as it is widely considered the true moment of transition from the Middle Ages to the modern age. Without wishing in the least to diminish the innovative significance of the aforementioned phenomenon, it is however necessary to point out how the Catholic Church, during the course of its history, has been crossed by a yearning for regeneration that has involved both the constitutional and the devotional aspects of its being. To this end, it is enough to recall the reforming work of Gregory VII, the Cluniac monastic rigor, the contribution of some regular Orders (mendicants), as well as the spread of new forms of religiosity, from the modern Devotio to the Christian humanism of Desiderio Erasmus of Rotterdam. Similarly, the originality of the Reformation did not prevent modern Protestant historiography from considering it the natural result of an evangelical pluralism already present in the twelfth century. The direct reference is to the doctrines of Pietro Valdo, John Wycliff and Jan Hus, and in particular to their ecclesiology which in various ways will be proposed by Martin Luther, with his own peculiarity, and without ever reducing himself to it.

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Reati culturalmente motivati in Brasile: il caso di stupro-non stupro presso gli indios Guaranì (con riflessioni sui matrimoni precoci Rom) - ​ Ilenia Ruggiu


SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il caso - 3. L’iter processuale e gli argomenti. Materialità del fatto ed ermeneutica antropologica - 4. Un nuovo tassello nella cultural expertise: lo strumento della “audizione etnica” (escuta étnica) - 5. Il pluralismo giuridico dialogico e l’affidamento della sanzione alla comunità guaranì - 6. Il ruolo del giudice di fronte a pratiche culturali patriarcali - 7. Dal Brasile all’Europa: spunti di riflessione sui rapporti sessuali di infra-quattordicenni nel matrimonio rom e nella cultura italiana.

Culturally motivated crimes in Brazil: the case of rape/non-rape among the Guaranì Indians (with remarks on Roma early marriages) *

ABSTRACT: This article describes a culturally motivated crime that came to the attention of a Brazilian court: sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of fourteen in a Guaranì group, indios from the Mata Atlantica. The judge acquitted the accused taking into account the fact that in the Guaranì society a woman becomes an adult with menarche and that sexual initiation is widespread in this culture. The accused had violated the protocol of this initiation, for which he will be sanctioned according to the norms of Guaranì law. The Brazilian case allows for a series of observations on the debate on Roma early marriages that is taking place in Europe, and on the different treatment between sex acts in this context and sex acts between minors under fourteen years old and other teenagers in the majority cultures of Europe.

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I manuali dispersi di Antonio Traverso - ​ Giovanni B. Varnier


1 - Nel febbraio 2008 in questa Rivista telematica apparve un saggio di Antonio Fuccillo dal titolo Il valore della tradizione dottrinale: riappare dall’oblio il manuale di Antonio Traverso, contributo poi destinato a essere pubblicato anche in altra sede. Si tratta della dispensa delle Lezioni di Diritto Ecclesiastico del Prof. Antonio Traverso che contiene le lezioni dettate per l’anno accademico 1909-1910; un’opera composta da 493 pagine dattiloscritte, che indica come data di stesura il 28 maggio 1910 e che reca nel frontespizio la scritta “R. Università di Genova” (segue).

The rediscovered manuals of Antonio Traverso

ABSTRACT: The essay examines the manuals of the lessons of Ecclesiastical Law of Antonio Traverso who taught at the University of Genoa between the 19th and 20th Centuries. These completely forgotten works have recently been found and a short reading of them is presented here.

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Diritto processuale penale canonico e inveramento del principio fondamentale del diritto alla difesa - ​ Piero Amenta

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione: dichiarazione d’intenti, obiettivo e metodo - 2. L’assenza di una costituzione nella Chiesa e problematica connessa - 3. L’ordinamento canonico e i suoi limiti nella tutela dei diritti individuali - 4. Un esempio paradigmatico: il processo per l’imposizion

Canonical criminal procedural law related to the principle of self-defense: a comparative analysis
 
ABSTRACT: The article compiles an analysis of canonical criminal procedural law tracing it in the first place to the lack, in the canonical system, of a constitutional law, which Paul VI had deemed necessary to be adopted when, in the aftermath of Vatican Council II, he decided to promote that Lex Ecclesiae Fundamentalis, later abandoned under the pontificate of John Paul II. The work makes use of a comparative analysis with Italian criminal procedural law and compares the procedural institutes of one and the other legal system to help understand the breadth and consistency of the gaps and shortcomings of canonical procedural law.e di un decreto penale.

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Oltre il maschile e il femminile. La famiglia tra i colori del gender - ​ Tiziana Di Iorio

SOMMARIO: 1. Brevi considerazioni introduttive - 2. L’identità liquida del gender - 3. La famiglia nell’ottica del gender - 4. Gender inclusive language, genitorialità e modelli educativi - 5. La sfida antropologica del gender - 6. I riflessi sulla famiglia naturale - 7. In somma.

Beyond the male and female. The family among the colors of gender fluid

ABSTRACT: Gender ideology considers a person’s sexual identity, as male or female, according to personal sense. Thus, sexual identity is not linked to anatomical genitality and can be changed several times during the lifetime according to one’s own desires and choices. This ideology was considered as a cause of the weakening or breaking of the natural family. Notably, family is deprived of its anthropological, community, generative and pedagogical foundation. That is why gender ideology represents a challenge to the family. Nevertheless an appropriate solution must be fund to protect Lgbtq+ couples, regardless of sexual identity, individual tendencies and personal conditions and especially without ideological claims.

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Il caso dell’aborto: una buccia di banana per la SCOTUS? - ​ Elisabetta Grande

SOMMARIO: 1. La questione dell’aborto e la perdita di credibilità della Corte Suprema statunitense - 2. Una tempesta perfetta? - 3. La partita della fiducia.

The case of abortion: a slippery slope for SCOTUS?

ABSTRACT: The case of the right of abortion in the United States is going to represent much more than a mere legal question. The upcoming decision of the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) on the matter involves its own credibility as a third party institution in a check and balance system where the SCOTUS is increasingly perceived as a political player. In this paper the A. tries to explore why it is so.

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“A chiare lettere - Confronti” • A proposito di guerra o pace ai tribunali ecclesiastici esistenti in Italia. Quale cultura di riforme organiche sta dietro l’attuale pontificato? - ​ Francesco Zanchini

SOMMARIO. 1. Preambolo: perseverare diabolicum? - 2. (segue) I tribunali regionali nella attuazione del regime concordatario, in Italia - 3. Ancora in tema di competenza matrimoniale dell’ordinario diocesano. Intermezzo - 4. Corollari di principio in tema di giurisdizione penale e/o amministrativa - 5. Problematicità di una transizione contraddittoria, a ogni livello - 6. (segue) Dalla frammentazione feudale all’armonia di un moderno ordinamento giudiziario.

Regarding peace of war to the italian ecclesiastical courts. Which is the methodical reform background of pope Francis?

ABSTRACT: The accentuated tendency of the part of the Vatican (MP Mitis judex) to express a preference for the pastoral attributions of the diocesan bishop in terms of judgment of nullity of canonical marriage, in competition with those of the interdiocesan ecclesiastical tribunals created for the implementation of the concordat regime in Italy (MP Qua cura), could propose in this matter, after the Gospodinoff case (Constitutional Court, dec. N. 1/77) and the Pellegrini case (European Court of Human Rights, sentence 20 July 2001), the risk of a further vulnus to the principles of due process, on the other hand recently renforced in the Italian constitutional order. In dwelling on this inconvenience, the Author observes that the Catholic Church expresses with this, once again, its serious cultural and political delay in relation to the modern systems with which interacts ; and wonders why the Holy See has not decided by now to abandon the institutes and doctrines of ecclesiastical public law with which, starting from the 16th-17th centuries, with intransigence worthy of the better cause is has too often continued to feed the claim to keep on regulate relations with the political authorities on the models , now obsolete and perishable, of the Christian regime. The Author takes the opportunity to indicate how, conversely, the model of the interdiocesan tribunals, even if imperfect, can and should be generalized, in order to begin to solve the set of problems that the lack of modernization of the canonical system proposes, on the subject of the judicial system, in comparison with the level of refinement reached by legislative policy and the science of law (at the state and interstate level), in terms of protection of human rights, in the field of administrative and criminal procedural law.

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“A chiare lettere - Editoriale” • 15 anni - ​ Nicola Colaianni

A chiare lettere - Editorial” • 15 years

ABSTRACT: Stato, Chiese e pluralismo confessionale is 15 today. This paper analyses the development of the the goals indicated in its first editorial.

1 - Stato, Chiese e pluralismo confessionale compie oggi quindici anni. Non erano molte allora le riviste che si affidavano unicamente alla “rete”, almeno nel campo del diritto pubblico. Praticamente c’era solo Federalismi, messa on line quattro anni prima dal compianto Beniamino Caravita, prematuramente scomparso due mesi fa. Il Forum dei Quaderni costituzionali, in rete fin dal 2001, faceva capo, infatti, all’omonima rivista del Mulino. E bisognerà aspettare il 2010 per vedere l’avvio della Rivista Associazione italiana dei costituzionalisti (e, all’interno della stessa università milanese della Statale ma in altro settore, di Diritto penale contemporaneo). Se non proprio pionieristica, quindi, l’iniziativa editoriale di Giuseppe Casuscelli fu pronta e sollecita nell’intuire l’autosufficienza della Rete - pur senza le spalle coperte da una rivista su carta o da un’associazione di studiosi - nell’assicurare la circolazione non solo della documentazione e dell’informazione (cui si dedicavano già altri siti, come Olir, il cui campo, infatti, programmaticamente non fu invaso) ma anche dello stesso dibattito (segue).

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Il De civitate Dei di Agostino e la sua influenza sul processo di secolarizzazione dello Stato - ​ Abramo Dentilli

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il libro IV come introduzione al tema - 3. I magna latrocinia - 4. Lo svolgimento logico della tesi agostiniana sul rapporto tra Stato e giustizia - 5. Cristo come unico criterio per la giustizia/virtù/felicità - 6. Il libro XIX come allargamento dei confini della legittimità dello Stato - 7. Le due civitates - 8. L’assetto delle due città nel saeculum - 9. L’identificazione della CD con la Chiesa - 10. La predestinazione quale criterio di ascrizione alle due civitates - 11. Il DcD come strumento politico - 12. Una conseguenza imprevedibile (?): la secolarizzazione - 13. Conclusione.

Augustine’s De civitate Dei and its influence on the process of secularization of the State

ABSTRACT: Is justice essential to State? Augustine, in the fourth book of the City of God, starts with a strict idea of State, but then widens the definition: he grants that also an unjust - not based on the real God - State may be a real State. This option seems to be prominent in the process of secularization enacted in the last centuries, but it’s also connected to other matter: the predestination, the identification (or not) between the City of God and the Church, and so on. Methodologically, I tried to read what Augustine really wrote and not what others said about his works.

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Enti religiosi e lacune di normazione. Una proposta di disciplina - ​ Pierangela Floris

SOMMARIO: 1. Una proposta di disciplina sugli enti religiosi. Gli obiettivi - 2. Sulla qualificazione degli enti come religiosi. I problemi - 3. Verso la qualificazione degli enti religiosi. La proposta.

Religious bodies and regulatory gaps. A law proposal

ABSTRACT: The article is about the discipline of some figures of religious entities provided for in the law proposal on religious freedom in Italy drawn up by an Astrid study group. It considers the basic choices made by the proposal and why it focuses fundamentally on two figures - churches and associations with a main and prevalent purpose of religion or worship - developing definitions and distinctions to fill regulatory gaps, to overcome old norms, to integrate new norms.

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Gli enti religiosi tra diritto comune e diritto speciale - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Gli elementi costitutivi della nozione di “ente ecclesiastico” e la “specialità” della relativa figura - 2. La (relativa) rigidità della componente strutturale - 3. La debole capacità connotativa della componente teleologica - 4. Il superamento del carattere marginale e controllato dello svolgimento delle attività “diverse” - 5. Su alcune criticità nei rapporti tra diritto “comune” e diritto “speciale”: a) la questione dell’applicabilità agli enti ecclesiastici del decreto legislativo n. 231 del 2001 - 6. (segue) b) la questione dell’assoggettabilità degli enti ecclesiastici alle procedure concorsuali - 7. (segue) c) la questione delle divergenze risultanti dal Registro delle persone giuridiche e dal Registro delle imprese - 8. Il limitato carattere innovativo della locuzione “enti religiosi civilmente riconosciuti” presente nella normativa sul Terzo settore. Notazioni finali.

The Religious Bodies Between General Law and Special Legislation

ABSTRACT: The present paper analyses some problematic issues concerning the legal status of “Ecclesiastical” or “Religious” Bodies. The Author underlines the growing expansion of the “not-religious” activities - such as social services, education, health care - carried out by Church Bodies and its consequences for the special features shaping an “Ecclesiastical Body”.

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“A chiare lettere – Confronti” • Ancora sul legislatore paziente o impaziente - ​ Geraldina Boni

1 - Recentemente, prendendo spunto dalla mia ultima monografia in cui enumero ed esamino criticamente una significativa ‘campionatura’ tra i copiosissimi provvedimenti normativi di papa Francesco, è insorto - sulle pagine di una rinomata rivista - un garbato e acuto confronto dialettico tra due colleghi in ordine al tema se il romano pontefice regnante sia un legislatore ‘paziente’ o piuttosto alquanto ‘impaziente’. Proprio sulla base dei dati oggettivi relativi specie alla produzione legislativa e alle ‘modalità’ con cui sono concretamente perseguiti gli ‘intenti riformatori del pontificato’ descritti nella mia rassegna (corredata, d’altronde, della citazione di numerose e puntuali analisi dottrinali), si è sostenuto, infatti, come sia assai arduo perorare che l’immagine restituitaci del legislatore supremo risulti quella di “un saggio cunctator (temporeggiatore)”, artefice “del metodo del discernimento e della gradualità”, secondo quanto, con la consueta perspicuità, argomenta Salvatore Berlingò. (segue)

Still on the patient or impatient legislator

ABSTRACT: A brief comment on the recent Motu Proprio that was promulgated by Pope Francis - with which a Commission is established in order to verify the application in Italy of the reform of the canonical process regarding the nullity of marriage - offers the opportunity to express an opinion in the debate that has arisen between two illustrious colleagues about the figure of the reigning Roman Pontiff as supreme legislator.

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Diálogo interreligioso y gobernanza ciudadana - ​ Fernando Amérigo

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción- 2. La problemática de las identidades – 3. El diálogo interreligioso como instrumento para la consecución de la convivencia pacífica y su promoción por el Estado -4. Diálogo interreligioso y gobernanza ciudadana.

Interreligious dialogue and citizen governance

ABSTRACT: The 21st century has been characterized by the emergence of identity issues. The invocation of identity in a globalized world is on the agenda of all research centers and has generated a huge intellectual and political debate. Many of the conflicts that plague the contemporary world are based on identity. Exclusionary identitarianism, whether of a religious, ethnic or nationalist nature, has taken root in many societies. They are, as the writer Amin Maalouf called them, the "killer identities", exclusionary identities based on two fundamental concepts: the conception of an identity as unique, all-embracing of the individual, and the thesis of the scapegoat. The fight against these initiatives is complex and requires different instruments. One of these instruments, in the case of radicalized religious identities, could be the promotion by the public authorities of interreligious dialogue. These initiatives would be inserted in the new concept of governance and Open Government, which encourages citizen participation in the development of public policies. The current research formulates a proposal for the application of interreligious dialogue at the municipal level as a mechanism to combat religious radicalization and exclusionary identitarianism in the search for more plural and peaceful societies.

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“A chiare lettere - Confronti” • Ammissibile? Alcuni dubbi sul referendum fine vita - ​ Nicola Colaianni

SOMMARIO: 1. Sulla chiarezza del quesito - 2. sul valore costituzionalmente necessario del suo oggetto - 3. sulla complessità dei suoi effetti di sistema.

Admissible? A few doubts about the referendum end-of- life

ABSTRACT: Does the proposal of the referendum end-of-life in Italy infringe on the constitutionally protected right to the life?  In the affirmative case the referendum would be inadmissible according to  the constitutional jurisprudence. In this paper there are exposed a few  doubts in this regard and also about the clarity of the question and the indirect effects on other rules, that reveal the complexities of the matter.

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Finding the Origin of a modern, secular, and materialistic World - ​ Joseph P. Garske

SUMMARY: 1. The relevant Past - 2. Protest and Print - 3. The ramist Answer - 4. Modern Minds - Two Foundations.

ABSTRACT: In the global age the modern Western, secular, and material way of understanding human existence is generally accepted to provide the norm by which every alternative view is evaluated. It is the standard against which all other ways of thinking are judged. It is the accepted basis on which entire systems of law, forms of government, methods of education, and a modern way of life is extended across every region and people of the earth. Viewed historically, however, the fact that such a way of understanding should become the norm is quite ironic. Despite the predominance of this mode of thought in the present age, as far as can be determined, nearly all people who have ever lived on the earth, until very recent times, have lived according to principles and values that not only included the rational and material ways of understanding but combined them with a religious, sacred, or miraculous aspect as well. In fact, the peoples of the West were once uniformly of this mentality - and many remain so. Moreover, it was not until a great transformation began to take place, beginning around 1600 that the modern secular and materialistic way of understanding came to provide the basic premise for a Western way of life in which religious belief and spirituality survived, but mostly in an instrumental or subordinated role. The story of how this new Method of understanding - premised on Thought rather than Being, Fact rather than Truth, Empirical and Rational, rather than a fully human way of apprehending - involves three pivotal figures: Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, and especially, Peter Ramus (Pierre de La Ramee). Following on these men an architecture of the modern mind - what Foucault called an episteme - is coming to predominate among a global population. It is a way of thinking based on some combination of their teachings. To understand how and why this occurred is to understand how and why the sacred or miraculous dimension of human existence lay outside a paradigm that shapes the global age.

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Un’intesa particolare: elementi procedimentali non concordatari in vista del concorso per insegnanti di religione - ​ Pasquale Nascenti

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa generale: il quadro normativo di riferimento - 2. Un’intesa particolare - 3. La certificazione dell’idoneità diocesana - 4. La riserva dei posti messi a bando - 5. Il programma d’esame - 6. La composizione delle commissioni giudicatrici - 7. Conclusioni.

A particular agreement: procedural elements not agreed upon next contest for teachers of the Catholic religion

ABSTRACT: This paper aims to examine the agreement signed on December 14, 2020 between the Minister of Education and the President of the Italian Bishops’ as an act prior to a contest for teachers of the Catholic religion. In light of the previous agreements and some specific studies, the author attempts to highlight how some elements of State competence have merged into a procedural act, wondering if this represents an overrun of the respective prerogatives.

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La complessità dei diritti personali e il dibattito sul Codice civile uniforme in India - ​ Domenico Francavilla

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La logica dell’uniformazione - 3. Due significati di “complessità”.

The complexity of personal laws and the debate on the Uniform Civil Code in India

ABSTRACT: The promulgation of the Uniform Civil Code, envisaged in the Indian Constitution as a Directive Principle of State Policy, has been at the center of a debate on overcoming the application of personal laws in matters of family and succession that has always been present in the Indian context and has recently been revived. The contribution identifies as useful keys for analysis on the one hand the logic of uniformisation as choice and, on the other hand, complexity, understood both as the operational difficulty of managing a system of laws applied on a personal basis and as a basic feature of continuous interactions between different principles and rules in a highly pluralistic context.

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Crocifisso “per scelta”. Dall’obbligatorietà alla facoltatività dell’esposizione del crocifisso nelle aule scolastiche (in margine a Cass. civ., sez. un., ord. 9 settembre 2021, n. 24414) - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. La giusta presa di distanza da paradigmi di approccio dello Stato verso l’esperienza religiosa estranei al nostro modello costituzionale di diritto ecclesiastico - 2. L’esclusione del carattere discriminatorio del provvedimento adottato dal dirigente scolastico - 3. Il principio di laicità e l’interpretazione conforme a Costituzione dell’art. 118 del r.d. 30 aprile 1924, n. 965 - 4. L’ipotesi di una “incompletezza” della norma regolamentare in rapporto alle diverse esperienze e convinzioni di fede ridefinite in una dimensione prettamente storico-culturale - 5. I residui profili di peculiare rilevanza del crocifisso rispetto agli altri simboli religiosi - 6. Le competenze degli organi di autonomia scolastica in tema di esposizione dei simboli religiosi e la composizione dei conflitti affidata agli “accomodamenti ragionevoli” - 7. Brevi notazioni conclusive.

Crucifix “by Choice”. From Compulsory to Optional Display of Crucifixes in Italian Classrooms (Some Remarks on the Decision September 9th, 2021, no. 24414 of the United Sections of the Italian Supreme Court of Cassation)

ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the decision September 9th, 2021, no. 24414, of the United Sections of the Italian Supreme Court of Cassation, concerning the display of the crucifix in the classrooms. The Court has ruled that the presence of the crucifix on the wall does not discriminate against anyone. However, not the government authorities, but the students during an Assembly and the Class council must decide if display the crucifix and if eventually place other religious symbols next to it, seeking “reasonable accommodation” between the different positions of people in the school community.

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“A chiare lettere – Confronti” • Non c’è pace per i tribunali ecclesiastici regionali italiani - ​ Paolo Moneta

1 - Papa Francesco interviene ancora una volta sull'attuazione della riforma dei processi matrimoniali disposta con il motu proprio Mitis Iudex Dominus Iesus, a quasi sei anni dalla sua entrata in vigore. E lo fa, ancora una volta, con modalità inusuali e imprevedibili, tali da suscitare sorpresa e sconcerto nei più diretti destinatari di tale intervento. Ci troviamo infatti di fronte a un motu proprio, emanato il 17 novembre 2021, che istituisce una “Commissione Pontificia di verifica e applicazione del m. p. Mitis Iudex nelle Chiese d'Italia” (segue).

No peace for the Italian regional ecclesiastical courts

ABSTRACT: Some critical remarks about a recent Pope Francesco’s motu proprio are presented, in which he calls for a more complete implementation of the reform of the matrimonial process which he has ordered with the appointment of a special pontifical commission to verify the application of the new provisions in the Italian Churches.

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La laicità come apertura al dialogo critico nel rispetto delle identità culturali (riflessioni a partire da Corte di Cassazione, Sezioni Unite civili, n. 24414 del 2021) - ​ Salvatore Prisco

SOMMARIO: 1. Una vexata quaestio e l’andamento carsico del suo periodico riproporsi - 2. Premessa di metodo: guardare un paesaggio consueto con nuovi occhi per scoprire orizzonti prima inesplorati - 3. I meri fatti e il caso sub judice come modo di “leggerli” - 4. Le questioni di merito: a) del buon uso dei simboli pubblici, veicoli di messaggi “istituzionali” o espressione di sentimenti popolari condivisi - 5. b) L’antica saggezza del “ragionevole accomodamento” come bussola tratta dalle esperienze multiculturali per navigare oggi il mare tempestoso del mondo variegato - 6. Dal diario di bordo di un vecchio professore.

Secularism as a critical dialogue respecting cultural differences

ABSTRACT: The ruling decision pronounced by the United Sections of the Supreme Court of Cassation in Italy, which calls for a “reasonable accomodation” about the posting of the crucifix in the class-rooms, as a precious opportunity to promote at the public school - primary place of socialization beyond family - dialogical practices of intercultural and inter-religious encounter.

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Giudizio di appello nelle cause matrimoniali: “reiectio in limine” e limiti della prova - ​ Piero Amenta

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Introduzione - 3. Il processo ordinario di appello nel M.P. Mitis Iudex - 4. L’appello nel processo abbreviato - 5. I limiti della prova in fase di appello.

ABSTRACT: The article is the resumé of a speech originally delivered to the members of the Arcisodalizio della Curia Romana. It examines the canonical discipline in matrimonial case as it is contained in m.p. Mitis Iudex, by pope Francis, with whom the Pontiff has reformed the discipline of the canonical process in matrimonial cases. The author explaines the new discipline, compares it with the old one replaced, and discuss the points that seem to be problematic, proposing possible solutions in the light of the Roman Rota Jurisprudence of recent times.

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L’economia del Profeta: la finanza islamica e i fondamenti religiosi del diritto islamico dei contratti Shari’ah Compliant - ​ Alessandro Cupri

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: l’Islam tra religione ed economia - 2. Dalla finanza al contratto islamico, tra vincolo e libertà: alla ricerca di una teoria generale dei contratti - 3. L’etica islamica dei contratti: divieto di ribà e divieto di ghàrar - 4. Operatività delle attività della banca islamica e contrattualistica commerciale Shari’ah Compliant - 5. I contratti di tipo partecipativo: “mudàraba” e “mushàraka” - 6. (segue) Tipologie di mudàraba - 7. Cenni conclusivi e prospettive future.

The Prophet's Economy: Islamic Finance and the Religious Foundations of Islamic Law of Shari'ah Compliant Contracts

ABSTRACT: The growing presence of Muslim believers in Europe has increasingly led to heated debates also at the doctrinal level. Legal and economic literature, particularly, has recently emphasised the importance that inclusive, effective and efficient financial regulation can have on the degree of integration of the Islamic communities present in non-Muslim contexts. Since the Shari'ah dictates a series of behavioural rules in different sectors of the believer’s life, the Koran and the narratives of the Prophet (hadith) offer a series of prescriptions also in economic matters. With the aim of outlining the religious and juridical reasoning of the so-called halal economic dimension, this paper first examines the economic principles of Islamic finance: the prohibition of ribà (interest), the prohibition of ghàrar (uncertainty) and that of maysìr (speculation). It then provides a recognition aimed at finding a general theory of Islamic contracts. Finally, it reconstructs the discipline of the mudàraba and musharàka participatory contracts. These two forms of contracts represent a product of Islamic finance widely used in banking-financial practice and considered by Islamic legal schools to be totally in conformity with the Word of Allah. They are therefore instruments of comparison particularly interesting as well as useful for the Italian legal system. They can represent a flywheel for the integration of Muslims in the social fabric, and at the same time, an antidote to the unstable European economic panorama.

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Introduzione di un obbligo vaccinale contro il Covid-19: profili di criticità - ​ Arturo Maniaci

SOMMARIO: 1. L’epidemia nel Codice civile italiano - 2. “Una brutta notizia, avvolta in una proteina” - 3. Le misure di contenimento dell’epidemia da Covid-19 adottate e l’esordio di vaccini anti-Covid-19 - 4. La vaccinazione obbligatoria: precedenti storici italiani - 5. La vaccinazione obbligatoria contro il Covid-19, oggi: una mappa mondiale - 6. La vaccinazione contro il Covid-19 in Italia: obbligo, diritto od onere? 7. Il problema della compatibilità dell’obbligo vaccinale con il quadro normativo costituzionale ed europeo - 8. Conclusioni.

The introduction of a compulsory vaccination in Italy: critical profiles

ABSTRACT: The multiple Covid-19 vaccines developed until now are typically thought of as the only means to meet the challenges posed by the current pandemic. The Italian legal system offers a composite framework for the regulation of vaccinations against Covid-19 and more precisely provides for the burden of vaccination for many categories of people (including healthcare workers). The purpose of this paper is to verify the legitimacy of a compulsory vaccination in the light of Italian and European sources of law. In this perspective, the Author argues that a compulsory vaccination against Covid-19 could be considered not consistent with both the Italian Constitution and the European legislation. Furthermore, the Author focuses on the phenomenon of vaccine esitancy, questioning whether a policy of mandatory vaccination is the proper tool for supporting the effective implementation of vaccination strategies.

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Le Sezioni Unite della Cassazione sul crocifisso a scuola: alla ricerca di un difficile equilibrio tra pulsioni laiciste e giurisprudenza europea - ​ Paolo Cavana

SOMMARIO - 1. Il crocifisso in classe davanti alle Sezioni Unite - 2. Laicità dello Stato e autonomia scolastica - 3. Conflitto tra diritti e reasonable accommodation - 4. La regola della reasonable accommodation nella giurisprudenza straniera e italiana - 5. Il crocifisso come simbolo “essenzialmente passivo” nella giurisprudenza europea - 6. Reasonable accommodation in assenza di una lesione di diritti: rilievi critici - 7. Bilanciamento dei diritti e legislazione scolastica - 8. Il rapporto asimmetrico tra docente e alunni nella scuola: un dato del tutto omesso - 9. La rimozione del crocifisso da parte del docente: un atto lecito? Osservazioni conclusive.

The Supreme Court’s United Sections on the Crucifix controversy in schools: searching for a difficult balance between laicism and European case-law

ABSTRACT: This paper examines critically, in the light of the Italian and European case-law, the contents and the juridical arguments of a recent decision issued by the United Sections of the Italian Court of Cassation concerning the Crucifix controversy arisen in a State school. The judges established, on one hand, that the crucifix may be hung in a classroom upon demand of the students as it does not infringe the dissenting teacher’s freedom of conscience or of teaching, according to Lautsi ECHR decision (2011); on the other hand, the clash of values involved would need a reasonable accommodation which could require other religious symbols alongside the crucifix or its removal during the lessons of the dissenting teacher. Such a decision, according to the author, appears to be somewhat contradictory and ambiguous, and it does not resolve the case in a well-balanced way.

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L’emergenza e il diritto ecclesiastico: pregi (prospettici) e difetti (potenziali) della dimensione pubblica del fenomeno religioso - ​ Giuseppe D'Angelo Jlia Pasquali Cerioli

SOMMARIO: 1. Una collocazione non casuale - 2. Mutazioni, crisi, emergenze. Valori-fini dell’ordinamento e rilettura in continuità del “microsistema costituzionale” del diritto ecclesiastico - 3. Il duplice significato della dimensione pubblica del fenomeno religioso. Ambiguità e contraddizioni nel diritto ecclesiastico pre-pandemico - 4. Le conferme della pandemia. I limiti della libertà religiosa (e gli spunti per la valorizzazione del suo apporto costruttivo) - 5. Il rafforzamento e l’estensione del paradigma collaborativo - 6. La nuova fase della ripartenza e il binomio collaborazione-sussidiarietà - 7. Riepilogo e rilancio - 8. Note di discussione: i pregi (prospettici) - 9. (segue) i difetti (potenziali).

The pandemic emergency and the ecclesiastical law of the State: advantages (in perspective) and (potential) defects in considering the public dimension of religion.

ABSTRACT: Despite the pandemic emergency, religion is still placed among the elements that contribute to the material and spiritual progress of society. Particularly, the perception of the role of religion is assuming a greater consideration by State institutions and politics as well among the scholars. In this sense, the emergency law is an opportunity to reflect on the public dimension of the religious factor and a good chance to test its merits (in perspective) and (potential) defects.

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Lex orandi, lex credendi? Il Messale Romano e il suo valore simbolico tra Summorum Pontificum e Traditionis Custodes - ​ Francesco Ferrara

SOMMARIO: 1. Il “pomo della discordia”: Concilio Vaticano II - 2. L’ermeneutica della riforma nella continuità - 3. Unità nella unicità? - 4. Esempi di non trascurabile fedeltà.

Lex orandi, lex credendi? The Roman Missal and its symbolic value between Summorum Pontificum and Traditionis Custodes

ABSTRACT: This essay aims to examine the symbolic value acquired by the Roman Missal of 1962 by the Second Vatican Council today, especially through the comparison of two recent statutes, Summorum Pontificum and Traditionis Custodes. They can represent an effective synthesis of the approaches used by the Catholic Church to relate to a liturgical question that is still very controversial.

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“Droit européen“ à la liberté religieuse et paradigmes des relations État-religions dans l’Europe contemporaine: une cacophonie épineuse - ​ Alessandro Ferrari

SOMMAIRE: 1. Introduction: paradigmes de relations et droit à la liberté religieuse, de l’identité à la tension - 2. Des paradigmes des relations État-Églises au droit à la liberté religieuse - 3. La force attractive des paradigmes dans le scénario européen contemporain - 4. Les paradigmes des relations État-Églises dans la nouvelle arène internationale - 5. Conclusion: une citoyenneté inachevée.

The “European Right” to Religious Freedom and Paradigms of State-Religion Relations in Contemporary Europe: a thorny cacophony

ABSTRACT: The article examines the dialectic between European national models of religious freedom and the paradigm of religious freedom shaped in the international order and in particular by the human rights discourse. The analysis of the relationship between the modern - national-centered - and the contemporary - individual-centered - paradigm of religious freedom reveals, on the one hand, the difficult but inevitable osmosis between legal systems in a multilevel system of rights protection and, on the other hand, the deep transformation of religious freedom in contemporary Europe.

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La crisis de la separación institucional Iglesia-Estado en EUA y la emergencia religiosa del neo-evangelismo ultraconservador en el ámbito político - ​ Gloria M. Morán García

SUMARIO: - 1. Cuestión metodógica previa - 2. La crisis de los modelos tradicionales de comunidades religiosas a causa de los cambios en un mercado religioso cada vez más plural y competitivo - 3. La crisis de la edulcorada y estereotipada historia oficial de EUA y del americanismo como religión cívica - 4. El desarrollo de la religión cívica estadounidense y el papel político del evangelismo en ese proceso - 5. La evolución del evangelismo estadounidense y su influencia en los poderes Legislativo y Ejecutivo - 6. El papel del sionismo neo-evangelista en la política estadounidense - 7. Los lobbies religiosos indirectos en Estados Unidos y su papel en la política estadounidense mediante los religious advocacy groups y el National Prayer Breakfast - 8. Las contradicciones en los estándares elaborados por el USSC para una separación institucional Iglesia-Estado - 9. Conclusiones - Bibliografía.

Crisis of the Institutional Separation between Church and State in USA and the Emergence of Conservative Neo-evangelism in the Political Sphere

 ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the cumulative causes of the progressive decay in the institutional and jurisprudential separation between Church and State in the United States from an interdisciplinary methodological approach, including sociological, economic, historical, and political elements interacting with the American legal system. It reviews the changes in the American civic religion, the plural religious denominationalism facilitating a new religious market, the increasing entanglement between religion and politics, and the role of neo-evangelicalism in the elections and the US policies at domestic and international levels. It includes some changes in the US Supreme Court that facilitates increasing paradoxes in the First Amendment jurisprudence regarding the Free Exercise and Non-Establishment clauses.

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Il crocifisso ‘accomodato’. Considerazioni a prima lettura di Corte cass., Sezioni Unite civili, n. 24414 del 2021 - ​ Marcello Toscano

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La decisione (in sintesi): una soluzione subottimale - 3. Il ruolo determinante del principio supremo di laicità - 4. Laicità sostanziale, laicità procedurale, accomodamento ragionevole - 5. Discriminazione diretta e indiretta. - 6. Conclusioni.

The crucifix ‘accommodated’. Considerations at first reading of the judgment no. 24414/2021 by the United Sections of the Italian Supreme Court of cassation

ABSTRACT: With decision no. 24414/2021 the United Sections of the Italian Supreme Court of cassation have provided an unprecedented solution to the issue of religious symbols in the classrooms of public schools. In this essay the author analyses the judgment, focusing in particular on three aspects: the relationship between the so-called ‘Italian principle of secularism’ and the reasonable accommodation; the existence or not of discrimination against the teacher who has been obliged to teach under the crucifix; the practical ways in which this ruling can become 'living law' in the Italian legal system.

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L’omofonia ecumenica patriarcale - ​ Giorgio Barone Adesi

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. L’odierno dibattito sulle prerogative patriarcali costantinopolitane e il gathering di Amman - 3. La ratio attributiva delle prerogative ecclesiastiche romane al vescovo di Costantinopoli-ΝέαςῬώμης - 4. Le prerogative ecclesiastiche costantinopolitane - 5. Il conferimento imperiale del titolo patriarcale al vescovo di Roma e di patriarca ecumenico al vescovo di Costantinopoli-Νέας Ῥώμης - 6. L’ecumenicità dell’omofonia patriarcale - 7. Osservazioni finali.

Patriarchal ecumenical homophony

ABSTRACT: The establishment in 2019 of a new Ukrainian autocephaly raises the question of the legal basis of exclusive Constantinopolitan canonical prerogatives. As is known, after the Edict of Thessalonica of 380, can. cost. 3 of 381 attributes the Roman prerogatives to the bishop of Constantinople-Νεα Ρωμη.The ethnarchical religious role, assumed by the Roman bishop, guardian of the Romanitas, (conceived as the apostolic heritage of the Roman church), determines the Eastern emperors to confer the patriarchal title (previously reserved for the Jewish etnarch of Palestine), to Roman pope and ecumenical patriarch, to the bishop of Constantinople, which became the only seat of the imperium.The Justinian articulation of the ecclesiastical order comes to highlight in the homophony of patriarchs the attestation of the unity, doctrinal and disciplinary, in the Church of the ecumenical empire. Therefore, today's panorthodox reception of Ukrainian autocephaly cannot be considered an ecclesial burden due to the universal canonical authority of the patriarchate of Constantinople. Consequently, the primates cannot accept it in the name of the respective autocephalous Church, in contrast with canon 34. In respect of the nomocanonical tradition, today's Ukrainian controversy must therefore be submitted to the assembly of patriarchs in order to reach a canonical unanimous (homophone) solution to the controversy.

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Dal “crocifisso di Stato” al “crocifisso di classe” (nota a margine di Cass., SS. UU., 9 settembre 2021, n. 24414) - ​ Nicola Colaianni

SOMMARIO: 1. Quadro normativo - 2. Ragionevole accomodamento - 3. Procedimento e soluzioni - 4. Inconvenienti di fatto e prospettive - Appendice.

From the “crucifix of State” to the “crucifix of class” (note in margin of Cassation 2021 sept. 9, n. 24414).

ABSTRACT: The display of a crucifix in the classrooms is a request furniture by students. In case of dissent by other students or by teachers the headteacher has to search for a mediation, namely a reasonable accomodation, among the conflicting opinions.

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L’evoluzione storica del divorzio in Italia dall’età delle codificazioni al 1970 - ​ Arturo Maniaci

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Una causa naturale e universale di estinzione del vincolo matrimoniale: la morte di uno dei coniugi - 3. Il Codice civile del Regno d’Italia del 1806. - 4. Il Codice civile austriaco esteso ai territori italiani nord-orientali - 5. L’esperienza giuridica dei c.d. divorzi “fiumani” nell’immediato (primo) dopoguerra - 6. Il divorzio nei territori dell’Africa orientale italiana ai tempi del fascismo - 7. L’ingresso in Italia, prima del 1970, di divorzi pronunciati all’estero - 8. Conclusioni.

The historical evolution of the divorce in Italy from the Ages of Codifications to 1970

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to examine the Italian regulations that already provided for divorce from the Ages of Codifications to 1970. In this perspective, the Author argues that the Italian legislator, although in a fragmentary and discontinuous manner, already provided for divorce since 1806. Furthermore, the Author focuses on cases in which foreign divorce judgments have gained the civil recognition (“delibazione”) before the Italian divorce legislation came into force.

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Digital religious celebrations during and after the Covid-19. Limits and opportunities for regulation - ​ Paolo Palumbo

SOMMARIO: 1. The pandemic and the damage occurred to the right of community religious freedom - 2. A survey on the exercise of the worship during lockdown - 3. Digital celebrations: is there a legal regulation?

ABSTRACT: During the first phases of the pandemic until today, many religious activities, especially liturgical celebrations, have been suspended and reorganised. Drastic measures and choices were necessary, always in balance with constitutional principles. In this social and historical context, digital platforms seem to have turned into liturgical spaces. The contribution aims to highlight the problems and opportunities that have arisen and to present the practices used within confessional systems, particularly the Catholic one. Also in relation to a research on the subject, promoted by the Giustino Fortunato University, reflections are offered that may favour a better relationship between the needs of worship and liturgical and confessional law in the field of sacraments and celebrations.

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Conoscere per deliberare. Riflessioni sulla formazione giuridica - ​ Pierluigi Consorti

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Breve storia delle riforme universitarie a) fino al 2000 - 3. b) dal 2000 a oggi - 4. Il piano degli studi giuridici e l’accesso alle “professioni classiche” - 5. Proposte di revisione della tabella attuale. a) il contesto generale e particolare - 6. b) i punti salienti.

Knowing to deliberate. Reflections on legal education.

ABSTRACT: The debate on legal education in Italy appears to be an always open question. The synthesis is complicated by the coexistence of multiple factors that increase its complexity. However, the gradual and stable decrease in enrollments and the simultaneous lack of employment prospects for graduates require it to be revised, also favored by the opportunities opened by the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (PNRR). In this essay I proceed to a preliminary historical reconstruction of the debate still in progress and I present reflections which, hopefully, will be useful for its operational conclusion.

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Contemporary Turkish Mevlevi Mysticism. Organisation, spirituality and relations with secular sphere - ​ Martina Crescenti

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction - 2. The organisational structure of Mevlevi Islamic mysticism - 3. Mevlevi spirituality and religiosity - 4. The secular sphere and the laws of the market - 5. Conclusions.

Abstract: This article aims to provide as comprehensive a reading as possible of the organisation of socio-religious aggregation of contemporary Islamic mevlevism in Turkey. Starting from some classical notions of religion and spirituality (Simmel, Weber, Troeltsch) we examine the type of organisational structure of the Mevlevi order, the modus operandi, the internal relations between the followers, the role of the master taking into consideration the criterion of compromise, inclusiveness/exclusiveness and the transmission of charisma. Furthermore, the nature of Mevlevi spirituality, its organisational and moral principles, and the ecstatic practice of the sema is analysed. Finally, we analyse the relations of the Mevlevi orders with the population, some kinds of financing mechanisms, some forms of mediatisation and the marketing of some Mevlevi products. Finally, the order's interest and need to become part of religious tourism is analysed, encountering, however, conflicts, internal divisions and the non-legitimation needs of specific groups of believers.

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La remissione delle censure canoniche. Sviluppo storico e normativa vigente - ​ Costantino-M. Fabris

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. L’assoluzione dalle censure nella disciplina pre-codiciale - 3. (segue) nei trattati canonistici precedenti la codificazione del 1917 - 4. La competenza a concedere l’assoluzione dalle censure nella disciplina pre-codiciale - 5. La remissione delle censure nel Codex iuris canonici del 1917 - 6. La revisione del Codex del 1917 in tema di remissione delle censure - 7. L’istituto della remissione delle censure nel Codex iuris canonici del 1983 - 8. (segue) la remissione delle censure in foro interno - 9. Le modifiche introdotte dalla costituzione Pascite gregem Dei - 10. Brevi considerazioni conclusive.

The remission of canonical censures. Historical development and current legislation

ABSTRACT: The article analyzes the historical-juridical evolution of the remission of censures in the canonical order from the first indications contained in the main medieval and modern sources, passing then to the discipline of the institution contained in the code of 1917 and in the code of 1983 to arrive, at the end, to the changes made by the recent constitution Pascite gregem Dei promulgated by pope Francis in may 2021.

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La legge francese n. 1109 del 24 agosto 2021 sul “rafforzamento del rispetto dei principi della Repubblica” - ​ Alessandro Tira

SOMMARIO: 1. Gli interventi del presidente Macron del 2018 e la battaglia contro il “separatismo islamista” - 2. Il percorso del progetto di legge “confortant le respect des principes de la République” - 3. Struttura e principali contenuti della legge - 3.1. “Garantir le respect des principes de la République et des exigences minimales de la vie en société” - 3.2. “Garantir le libre exercice du culte” - 4. “Qualcosa di nuovo, anzi di antico”.

The French law 24th August 2021, no. 1109, “consolidating respect for the principles of the Republic”

ABSTRACT: In October 2020, President Emmanuel Macron announced his intention to sponsor a law opposing “Islamic separatism” in French society. Introduced in December 2020 by the Interior Minister Gérald Darmanin, the bill contains measures on neutrality of the public service, fight against online hatred, protection of civil servants (e.g. teachers) and several criminal provisions, which aim at repressing conducts denoting radicalism. The French Parliament passed the controversial law - it is sometimes described as going contrary to the liberal values of the Republic that it seeks to protect - on 23rd July 2021 and President Macron promulgated it on 24th August. The contribution provides an overview of the new law.

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Tradizione, identità nazionale, etnosimbolismo e discriminazione in Ungheria: sfidare i diritti fondamentali con le loro stesse “armi” - ​ Lucia Bellucci

SOMMARIO. 1. Introduzione - 2. Sfera privata, narrative politiche e diritto: famiglia e nazione nel Programma di cooperazione nazionale e nella nuova Costituzione ungherese - 3. La discriminazione delle minoranze: il divieto di registrazione del cambiamento di genere adottato durante la pandemia da COVID-19 - 4. Spazio pubblico, tradizione, identità nazionale e radici cristiane - 5. Etnosimbolismo e malessere sociale tra rifiuto del linguaggio politico centrato sui diritti fondamentali e sfruttamento delle aspettative che questi ingenerano - 6. Conclusioni.

Tradition, National Identity, Ethnosymbolism and Discrimination in Hungary: Challenging Fundamental Rights with their Own Weapons

Abstract: The ruling coalition in Hungary values tradition, retrieving it in areas that affect both the private sphere of citizens and the public sphere of institutions through political narratives that are implemented by law. Although the "recovered" and interpreted tradition shapes a collective imagination and a normative framework that, according to current language, could be described as extremely conservative, political narratives and normative interventions contribute to social change in an illiberal sense. They intercept widespread malaise and increase discrimination against minorities already at risk. Moving from a unique model of social regulation based on the family, the ruling coalition establishes a link between the latter and the nation, introduces bans on the registration of gender change and the promotion of LGBT contents. Within migration policy, it also constructs the target of migrants and uses Christianity as an ethno-identity component, meanwhile adopting measures that prevent the implementation of Christian values. Moreover, Hungarian narratives, while rejecting the fundamental rights-centered narrative of the liberal tradition, are able to politically "exploit" the expectations it creates among citizens. Following a populist logic, the ruling coalition openly rejects the liberal fundamental rights narrative, but at the same time fully utilizes it.

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Ortodossia, pandemia e legislazione degli Stati dell’Est Europa a tutela della salute - ​ Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La Chiesa Ortodossa del Patriarcato di Mosca come confessione multinazionale - 3. Le disposizioni rituali di contrasto alla pandemia da parte delle Chiese auto amministrate appartenenti al Patriarcato di Mosca - 4. La Chiesa Ortodossa Rumena di fronte alla pandemia - 5. Il Patriarcato Ecumenico e l’orientamento delle Chiese Autocefale.

Orthodoxy, Pandemic, and Legislation of Eastern European Countries for the Safeguard of Health

ABSTRACT: The article examines the attitude and the regulations adopted by the clergy and believers of the major Orthodox Churches in relation to the pandemic. In this perspective, the modifications requested by States in the field of public religious functions and ritual celebrations are the object of the current analysis. Furthermore, the modalities of the administration of the sacraments and the carrying out of religious functions in relation to the protection of religious freedom are critically assessed and commented.

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Leggi ecclesiastiche e pubblicazione digitale. Le nuove frontiere della promulgazione nel diritto canonico - ​ Federico Gravino

SOMMARIO: 1. Chiesa cattolica e new media: dalla stampa alla tecnologia online - 2. L’istituto della promulgazione nel diritto canonico: dalla promulgatio legis di tradizione romanistica al Codex Juris Canonici del 1917 - 3. La promulgazione delle leggi nel vigente Codex Juris Canonici - 4. La pubblicazione online delle leggi canoniche e le iniziative delle Conferenze Episcopali - 5. Le nuove frontiere digitali della promulgazione tra potenzialità e zone grigie.

Ecclesiastical laws and digital publication. The new frontiers of promulgation in Canon Law

ABSTRACT: Technological evolution has redefined spaces and methods of communication also within the Catholic Church. The speed of information exchange, the possibility of reaching a large number of recipients and the absence of costs represent the advanteges of online communication. In addition to encouraging the use of “instruments of social communication” (can. 822 § 1), the Magisterium creates a close connection between these instruments and the mission of proclaiming the Gospel to all peoples. The diffusion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) involved also the publication of canon laws and it asks about the possibility of using the Internet as a way of promulgating the law. In fact, it can offer potential solutions to the problems raised by the application of can. 8 CIC. The restrictions imposed by the Covid 19 pandemic have further favored the spread of instruments of digital communication. In this perspective, online promulgation could constitute a solution to the limits of canonical legislative governance, allowing the diffusion of legal texts, the relative knowledge and obligation. An intervention by the universal legislator on the matter could offer guarantees about the authenticity of the published document, its unchangeability and the certainty of publication time.

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Una proposta di legge, frutto della collaborazione della scienza canonistica, sulla sede romana totalmente impedita e la rinuncia del papa - ​ Geraldina Boni

SOMMARIO: 1. La necessità e l’impellenza di una legislazione - 2. Due lacune da colmare - 3. Un primo draft per un appello alla scienza canonistica - 4. L’intervento del legislatore supremo - 5. La sede apostolica totalmente impedita. Impedimento temporaneo - 5.1. Cause fisiche di ordine esterno - 5.2. Cause di ordine personale: inabilità fisica o psichica provvisoria - 6. Inhabilitas totale, certa e perpetua - 7. Brevissima appendice sulla crux teologica e giuridica sottostante - 8. La rinuncia predisposta dal papa per il caso di sua inhabilitas - 9. Il papa che ha rinunciato - 10. Norme conclusive e postfazione sull’impedimento per ‘causa giuridica’.

A proposal for a law on the entirely impeded Roman See and the Pope’s resignation as a result of the collaboration of canon law scholarship

In the first place, the contribution highlights the reasons for the need and urgency of an intervention from the supreme legislator of the Church in order to fill two legal gaps. One of them concerns the regulation of the impeded Apostolic See, both temporarily and - notably - because of a permanent and irreversible impediment of the Roman Pontiff. The second one regards the legal status of a Roman Pontiff who resigned from his office. The potentially problematic matters that would have to be faced and the aspects about which a law should be issued are therefore presented. The ultimate purpose is that of urging and involving the universal canon law scholarship towards an open and constructive discussion in order to develop a carefully examined and considered legislative proposal to be offered to the ecclesiastical authority.

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Il crocifisso davanti alle Sezioni Unite della Cassazione: difesa di diritti o accanimento iconoclasta? - ​ Paolo Cavana

1 - Con ordinanza n. 19618 del 18 settembre 2020 una sezione della Cassazione ha rimesso alle Sezioni Unite la decisione di un ricorso contro la sentenza della Corte d’appello di Perugia, che ha respinto l’appello proposto da un docente contro la sentenza del Tribunale della stessa sede che aveva ritenuto legittima la sanzione disciplinare della temporanea sospensione dall’insegnamento comminatagli dall’Ufficio Scolastico Provinciale. Alla base di tale provvedimento vi era stato il comportamento del docente, il quale - secondo quanto esposto nell’ordinanza in oggetto - (segue)

The Crucifix controversy before the Supreme Court’s United Sections: protection of rights or iconoclast fury?

ABSTRACT: This short paper critically examines, in the light of Italian and European case-law, the contents and juridical arguments of an order issued by a Section of the Italian Court of Cassation, which remits to the United Sections – the highest level of the Court – the decision on the Crucifix controversy arisen in a State school. Differently from previuos cases, in the presento one the teacher, and not the students or their families, removed the crucifix, hanging on the wall of the classroom as required by an old regulation, against student’s will. This repeated behaviour stirred a controversy between the teacher and the school director, which is now under judgment. Under the Italian law, secularism is not in contrast with the display of religious symbols in a State school, whose mission is that of fostering and promoting the development of children’s and student’s personality also through the free exchange of different ideas and points of view.

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Un sogno che affonda le radici nel mito: l’immortalità. Nota a RE JS (Disposal of Body) [2016] EWHC 2859 (FAM), [10] - ​ Camilla Della Giustina

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La decisione dell’High Court of Family Division - 3. La crioconservazione: una nuova sfida per il diritto? - 4. Aspetti bioetici della crionica - 5. La soluzione si trova dove il sogno trova la propria origine: conclusioni.

A Dream rooted in Myth: Immortality. Note a RE JS (Disposal of Body) [2016] EWHC 2859 (FAM), [10]

ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the problem of cryonics through the analysis of a pronunciation of the High Court of Family Division. A first part is dedicated to the examination of the decision taken and then proceed to the analysis of the bioethical and biolaw issues that cryopreservation and neuropreservation pose. The aim is to introduce the biolaw debate in relation to the emergence of this new practice by highlighting the criticality of the same, such as, for example, that of not having adequate scientific basis. Given that the pursuit of immortality has its roots in Greek mythology, a possible solution could be to recall the warning that the same mythological narratives handed down.

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L’andamento statistico del ‘processus matrimonialis brevior’: motivi di soddisfazione e di qualche preoccupazione - ​ Massimo del Pozzo

SOMMARIO: 1. Il rilievo “esemplare” (ma contenuto) di un istituto nuovo e peculiare - 2. Un bilancio ancora parziale e limitato - 3. Uno sguardo generale sulla situazione mondiale: motivi di soddisfazione - 4. Un uso ragionevole del rito breviore - 5. La “non scontata” soluzione del giudizio episcopale - 6. La “relativa” controtendenza statunitense - 7. La focalizzazione su alcune situazioni particolari: motivi di preoccupazione - 8. Un’adozione territorialmente molto sbilanciata - 9. La renitenza di alcuni episcopati - 10. L’anomalia sudamericana e africana - 11. L’impressione di un’applicazione troppo diversificata e disomogenea - 12. Il riscontro estensivo o applicativo - 13. Il riscontro intensivo o procedimentale - 14. Trend e prospettive di sviluppo.

The Course of the Statistical Data regarding the ‘Processus Matrimonialis Brevior coram Episcopo’: Motives for Contentment and Some Preoccupations

ABSTRACT: The article analyzes the course of the statistical data on the abbreviated matrimonial process before the bishop. Although the data is still uncertain and limited (since it covers the period 2016-2019 and only certain targeted statistical points), it is possible to generally acknowledge that the practice is fairly restrained and reasonable. Regardless of the fact that the appeals were very rare, the admission to the processus brevior does not seem to denote a definitive institutional solution (the emergence of a number of cases in which the matter was referred to the ordinary method). Even in the United States, a representative country regarding the ecclesiastic judicial activity and problems with regard to said activity, the number of the briefer processes seems to be fairly moderate. Since the briefer process represents a special type of process, the cautious and thought-out reception of this institute points to a certain maturity of the system. The data show some reserves regarding the adoption of this institute in some territories, as well as the resistance of certain bishops, together with certain anomalies in its development in South America and Africa. The impression upon analyzing the data is that the enforcement of the institute is still too diversified and that it lacks homogeneity, either in its territorial extension or with regard to the intensity of the enforcement of the institute. The author then perceives the need for a greater extent of directive interventions and authoritative instructions, while he outlines certain trends and prospects for development.

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Ordine pubblico “internazionale” e ordine pubblico così detto “concordatario”: il contenuto del limite alla luce della recente giurisprudenza di legittimità - ​ Natascia Marchei

SOMMARIO: 1. La clausola generale di ordine pubblico nei rapporti con l’ordinamento matrimoniale canonico: luci e ombre di un percorso tortuoso e accidentato - 2. Il contenuto del limite nella recente giurisprudenza di legittimità in materia di riconoscimento di sentenze e provvedimenti stranieri - 3. Brevi considerazioni conclusive: ordine pubblico e principi confessionali.

‘International’ public order and so-called ‘concordatarian’ public order: the content of the limit in the light of the recent jurisprudence of legitimacy

ABSTRACT: The limit of public order at the entry of judgments and provisions of external legal orders is interpreted by the jurisprudence of legitimacy with an increasingly attentive meaning to the subjective interests of the people involved. Thus, the clause is regressively oriented towards the protection of the internal harmony of the legal order, whilst it is progressively oriented towards guaranteeing the rights of individuals, recognized by the Constitutional Charter and the European Charters. This orientation leads to a subjectivized public order, the operation of which is often left to the availability of the parties.

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Diversità e diritto internazionale privato: il ripudio islamico e la sua rilevanza nell’ordinamento giuridico italiano alla luce di due recenti pronunce della Corte di Cassazione - ​ Daniela Milani

SOMMARIO: 1. Dal riconoscimento degli effetti civili delle sentenze ecclesiastiche di nullità matrimoniale alla trascrizione del ripudio islamico - 2. Le specificità dell’istituto del ripudio - 3. I dubbi di compatibilità sollevati dal ripudio alla prova della recente giurisprudenza di legittimità - 4. La sentenza n. 16804 del 7 agosto 2020 e l’intrascrivibilità di un ripudio sciaraitico pronunciato in Palestina - 5. L’ordinanza n. 17170 del 14 agosto 2020 sulla trascrivibilità di un divorzio unilaterale pronunciato in Iran - 6. Annotazioni conclusive: ordine pubblico e diversità religiosa alla prova degli effetti generati dalla trascrizione.

Diversity and Private International Law: Islamic repudiation and its relevance into the Italian legal system in the light of two recent judgments of the Court of Cassation

ABSTRACT: Two recent judgments of the Court of Cassation lead to the center of attention the issue of recognition in Italy of repudiation orders issued abroad by Sharia courts. The general clause of international public order becomes thus the filter to measure the degree of openness of our legal system to other values, clearly foreign to the Italian and European legal horizon.

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La dimensione giuridico-ecclesiologica degli altari delle chiese dismesse: questioni divise tra diritto canonico, diritto liturgico e diritto dello Stato - ​ Francesco Passaseo

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni preliminari - 2. La speciale natura rei sacrae degli altari - 3. Gli altari secondari - 4. La celebrazione eucaristica e la deposizione delle sacre reliquie nel rito della dedicazione o della benedizione dell'altare - 5. Il rapporto tra norme canoniche e norme liturgiche nella regolamentazione degli altari - 6. L'applicabilità agli altari delle norme canoniche che regolano i luoghi sacri - 7. Il rapporto tra le Linee guida emanate dalla Congregazione per il Clero e le norme codiciali - 8. Cenni alla disciplina prevista dal Codice del 1917 per la riduzione a uso profano degli altari - 9. Ulteriori e precedenti tipologie di altare - 10. La conservazione delle sacre reliquie - 11. La distinzione tra altari fissi e altari mobili - 12. La destinazione degli altari mobili delle chiese dismesse - 13. La destinazione degli altari fissi delle chiese dismesse - 14. L'altare della Vergine nella chiesa di Santa Maria di Cerrate - 15. L'altare bene comune.

The juridical-ecclesiological dimension of the altars of decommissioned churches: questions divided between canon law, liturgical law and civil law

ABSTRACT: The article analyzes the condition and the destination of the altars of the churches that have lost their dedication or blessing due to the decommissioning processes regulated by the canon law. The main purposes of this analysis are to understand whether it is possible to reduce altars to profane uses and to identify a new proper use for them. In order to achieve these objectives, it is essential to consider the special sacred nature of the altars, but also their cultural value.

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“A chiare lettere - Editoriali” • La Santa Sede e il d.d.l. Zan sulla tutela di LGBTQ - ​ Nicola Colaianni

SOMMARIO: 1. Una “nota verbale” non senza precedenti - 2. Le garanzie offerte dal diritto interno - 3. La preferenza ecclesiastica per la via diplomatica - 4. L’ingerenza secondo il trattato lateranense - 5. L’art. 4 del d.d.l. - 6. L’art. 7 del d.d.l. - 7. Il self-restraint sulle criticità della tutela dell’identità di genere - 8. Cause ed effetti della “nota verbale” - Appendice.

The Holy See and the Zan Bill on the subject of LGBTQ Defence

ABSTRACT: The diplomatic “parol note” by which the Holy See participated on the Zan bill is a formally incorrect deed but substantially reduced the protest only to the freedom interests of the Church, without interfering more in the full legislative power of the State in order to give also penal importance to the LGBTQ antidiscriminatory defence.

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Le minoranze religiose escluse. Il pluralismo religioso in Italia tra politica e diritto - ​ Cristiana Cianitto Silvio Ferrari

Il convegno, di cui la Rivista Stato, Chiese e pluralismo confessionale oggi pubblica le relazioni, prende le mosse da una riflessione nata all’interno dei contesti di ricerca specifici dei curatori. A vario titolo, abbiamo da anni seguito con attenzione il tema delle minoranze sotto molteplici aspetti: minoranze e diritti religiosi, conflitti tra libertà di espressione e libertà di religione, la tutela delle minoranze in Italia e negli ordinamenti giuridici degli stati europei. A partire da queste premesse, ci è parso opportuno organizzare un incontro che fosse dedicato a esaminare la situazione di alcuni gruppi religiosi di minoranza che sono giuridicamente e socialmente emarginati nella società italiana. Lo scopo del convegno è stato quello di valutare –attraverso un’analisi che prendesse in considerazione anche i profili storici, politici e sociologici del problema - la capacità del sistema giuridico italiano di includere i gruppi religiosi minoritari più piccoli e controversi e di discutere quali possano essere le migliori strategie per raggiungere questo obiettivo.

Religious minorities in Italy at the margins. Religious diversity in Italy between Law and Politics

ABSTRACT: The meeting aims at examining the situation of belief and religious minorities, which are at the margins of the Italian society and its legal system. Through an analysis, that also covers the historical, political and sociological profiles of the issue, speakers and participants will discuss how well the Italian legal system is able to respect and promote the rights of religious and belief organizations, including the smallest and newest ones. The debate will also put under scrutiny the capacity of the Italian legal system to include the smallest and most controversial religious minorities and the best strategies to achieve this goal.

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Le minoranze religiose escluse. Introduzione al tema - ​ Silvio Ferrari

Questo incontro nasce da un dato di fatto che è sotto i nostri occhi: in Italia non tutte le minoranze religiose sono uguali o, meglio, sono trattate nello stesso modo dall’ordinamento giuridico. Nel 1978 Giorgio Peyrot poteva definire le minoranze religiose in Italia un “coacervo anonimo degli indistinti”. Aveva ragione perché allora vi era una divisione netta tra la Chiesa cattolica da un lato, i cui rapporti con lo Stato italiano erano regolati dai Patti lateranensi, e tutte le altre comunità religiose dall’altro, che ricadevano sotto la disciplina della legge sui culti ammessi del 1929. Ora non è più così e continuare a parlare di maggioranza e minoranze religiose, come se esse fossero due blocchi monolitici, sarebbe fuorviante. All’interno di quello che era “il coacervo anonimo degli indistinti”, è necessario distinguere almeno due grandi gruppi di minoranze religiose, quelle incluse nel sistema giuridico italiano e quelle che invece ne restano ai margini e che nel titolo di questo incontro sono definite “le minoranze religiose escluse”.

Religious minorities escluded. A thematic introduction

ABSTRACT: In the contest of a wider pluralism of the Italian and of the European society at large, it is more and more necessary to try to guarantee an equal treatment to all religious minorities. But how to identify what a religious minority is? This paper points three possible ways and finally proposes a new possible tool to analyse the legal status of religious minorities in Europe.

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Le minoranze religiose in Italia. Una prospettiva storico-religiosa - ​ Giovanni Filoramo

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. Minoranze religiose e costruzione della nazione - 3. Per una storia delle minoranze religiose.

Religious minorities in Italy: a historical-religious perspective

ABSTRACT: The history of religious minorities in unitary Italy has been deeply linked to the construction of the national state both in its formative phase (the Risorgimento) and in the period of liberal Italy. The responses ranged between a desire for integration, as in the Jewish case, and an occasional and missionary presence, as in the case of certain Evangelical communities. The Great War, first, the twenty years of Fascism, then, profoundly changed this situation, further marginalizing the religious minorities also as a consequence of the 1929 Concordat.

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La disciplina giuridica delle minoranze religiose (escluse).Le diseconomie esterne del favor religionis - ​ Francesco Alicino

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Alle radici del pluralismo della disparità - 3. Le definizioni a contrario - 4. Le minoranze nel sentiero del principio di laicità - 5. Le minoranze religiose alle prese con il genus e la species della laicità - 6. La rilevanza legale delle minoranze religiose - 7. L’autonomia delle confessioni diverse - 8. Le diseconomie esterne del diritto comune delle intese - 9. Come ridurre le diseconomie esterne negative - 10. Conclusioni e prospettive.

The Legal Discipline of Minority Religions. The External Diseconomy of Italy’s Favor Religionis

ABSTRACT: This article analyses the State’s legal discipline regulating minority religions, which are part of the current religious pluralism in Italy. Pluralism is not new in the Italian context. Various minority religions have long been part of the national scene and often enjoyed a level of public consideration far superior compared to their numerical consistency. However, today in Italy there are religious organizations that, in the light of the traditional ex parte Ecclesiæ favor religionis and the method of state-church(es) relations, stress some difficulties of constitutional relevance. In particular, these difficulties have increasingly come to be seen in terms of “negative externalities”: while creating privileges for the Catholic Church and few minority denominations, it produces unreasonable discriminations against all other religions. That is particularly the case of legal status of “new” minority religious, made up mainly of immigrants.

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Le minoranze religiose in Italia. Nuovi problemi (?) - ​ Cristiana Cianitto

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La libertà di espressione e la libertà di coscienza - 3. Le tematiche bioetiche - 4. I simboli e l’identità - 5. Considerazioni conclusive.

Religious minorities in Italy. New problems (?)

ABSTRACT: In the contest of a wider pluralism of the Italian society, legislation still struggles to guarantee an real equal treatment to all religious minorities. Religious denominations - who ratified an intesa with the Government - are for sure in a privileged position compared to those who are still regulated by the general law. Among the last ones, the Italian jurisprudence is playing an important role to find a balance especially on those issues that ask for a more decise government of religious diversity.

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Gli atei sono una minoranza religiosa? La condizione giuridica dell’ateismo in Italia e in alcuni Paesi dell’Unione europea - ​ Silvia Baldassarre

SOMMARIO: 1. Teismo/ateismo: l’eredità storica di una presunta dicotomia - 2. La polifonia “in crescendo” del nuovo panorama religioso - 3. Confessione religiosa, esser(lo) o non esser(lo): questo è il dilemma - 4. Associazioni ateiste: minoranze religiose escluse? Osservazioni conclusive.

Are atheists a religious minority? The legal status of atheism in Italy and in some countries of the European Union.

ABSTRACT: “Religion” and “confession” are terms without an established definition in sociology and the legal sciences. The absence of a definition allows us to consider the religious phenomenon in its complexity, including both belief and unbelief. The analysis tries to understand if a common legal discipline is possible for theistic and non-theistic phenomenon. The analysis focuses on the legal status of non-believers minority in Italy and in some countries of the European Union.

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La Chiesa di Scientology. Narrazione religiosa e configurazione giuridica - ​ Germana Carobene

SOMMARIO: 1. Sulla nozione di religione, confessione, setta - 2. La Chiesa di Scientology e il suo inquadramento - 3. Problematiche giurisprudenziali nel riconoscimento di Scientology - 4. La configurazione del reati di associazione per delinquere - 5. Il plagio e l’abus de faiblesse - 6. I movimenti “anti-sette”. Considerazioni conclusive.

Scientology. Religious narrative and legal rules

ABSTRACT: Scientology is an exemplary case, in the definition of "religious confession", both because it is a movement of rupture with respect to the common religious feeling, and because its recognition as confession has taken place, in Italy, following a process that developed, with alternating events, for twenty years, until the final judgment of 2000. It is particularly interesting to reflect on the alleged crimes, which are anomalous if they relate to a religious context, but also on similar trials that have taken place in France and, more recently, in Belgium. In addition, it is important to stress that the three judicial procedures examined were also influenced by two important factors, which were not always explicitly stated in the course of the proceedings: the subject of mental manipulation and the action of anti-cult movements in public debate. If in Italy, plagiarism has been decriminalized by a ruling of the Constitutional Court, in France and Belgium laws have recently been introduced against the abuse of weakness in sectarian movements which, however, have not been recalled in the Scientology trials. Very dangerous is, moreover, the public action of the anti cult movements that can act as a sounding board of news not always reliable and that, often, are financed with public money. All these considerations offer interesting insights into the level of democratic secularism and the protection of religious freedom.

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Intorno all’intesa con i Testimoni di Geova - ​ Pierangela Floris

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La confessione dei Testimoni di Geova e il nodo dei principi religiosi tra politica e diritto - 3. Il nodo dell’intesa. Le tappe del negoziato - 4. L’impasse e le difficili vie d’uscita.

On the State-Christian Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses agreement

ABSTRACT: To date, the State-Christian Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses agreement is waiting to complete the procedure within the meaning of article 8, paragraph 3, of the Italian Constitution. The latest statements by the government refer to the need for further information on health matters, evoking the issue of refusal of blood transfusion treatments. On a legal level, there are difficulties in overcoming the impasse in which the agreement is, also because there isn't a legislative discipline of the procedure prefigured in the article 8 of the Constitution; furthermore the statements made in 2016 by the Constitutional Court on the political nature of the government's choices regarding the agreements can be an obstacle. The paper deals with these points, also taking into account the application to the ECHR presented by the Christian Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses against the Italian Republic.

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I sikh, ‘calvinisti’ in Val Padana - ​ Paolo Naso

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. L’etica del lavoro - 3. I simboli identitari - 4. Il gurdwara come risorsa sociale - 5. Il kirpan - 6. Il valore di un riconoscimento.

Sikhs, Calvinists in the Po Valley

ABSTRACT: Sikhs are an important component of the New Religious Pluralism (NRP) that, especially due to the migratory flows of last decades, we record in Italy today. Many Sikh workers are employed in the dairy farming sector and, at least in the North of the country, they appear to be well integrated. This process has been facilitated by strict work ethics grounded in their theology. Nevertheless, to date the Sikh community has not been legally recognized as a religious body. Efforts by Sikh representatives to adopt a kirpan (ritual dagger) compatible with Italian law have not produced the desired results. However, there is still an urgent need for legal recognition of a faith community that has achieved important and successful integration processes in just a few decades.

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Le nuove Chiese evangeliche e pentecostali in Italia, senza fissa dimora, esposte a ragionevoli discriminazioni - ​ Enzo Pace

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il complesso mondo protestante in Italia - 3. Come pensano le istituzioni - 4. Conclusione.

The new Evangelical and Pentecostal Churches in Italy, homeless, exposed to reasonable discrimination

ABSTRACT: The religious geography in Italy is changing. It is not only Islam, and the growth of the parishes of the various Orthodox Churches, that makes the religious panorama more lively. The spread of many and different Evangelical and Pentecostal Churches represent a sign of renewed vitality for the historical minority Churches that refer to the Reformation present for a long time. These new Churches have been able to rely on the hospitality offered by the various Protestant Churches. Another part, perhaps the most substantial, had to wander from one place to another, more or less precarious or resulting, to be able to offer their faithful a religious service worthy of the name. The article focuses on these homeless Churches exposed to the double contingency of being, on the one hand, more easily the target of reasonable discrimination by Regions and local authorities and, for another, without sufficient voice of the many small communities of believers. The public institutions continue to represent the socio-religious reality following the Ptolemaic scheme that considers the existence of a majority religion, Catholicism, versus small religious minorities, without asking whether this perspective can manage the diversity of increasing religious diversities.

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(Non)conclusioni: tre questioni su minoranze e laicità positiva negli attuali anni Venti - ​ Jlia Pasquali Cerioli

Gli interventi degli autorevoli relatori al convegno odierno mi suggeriscono di disattendere il compito che gli organizzatori della giornata mi hanno benevolmente affidato. Non credo infatti sia possibile azzardare alcuna conclusione, oggi, al nostro dibattito su Le minoranze religiose escluse. Il pluralismo religioso in Italia tra politica e diritto; con un'eccezione che credo sia difficilmente discutibile: il mutamento della geografia delle fedi nel nostro Paese necessita di un'analisi degli strumenti, anche giuridici, di inclusione aggiornata alle caratteristiche, del tutto peculiari, di una società ormai modellata sull'iperrealtà.

(Not a) Conclusion: three issues regarding minorities and positive '"laicità" in the current Twenties

ABSTRACT: Closing a debate on religious minorities, the Author poses three central issues for further investigation: the notion of minority itself, the politicisation of relations between the State and religious denominations and the contemporary evolution of positive "laicità".

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Il crocifisso di nuovo in Cassazione. Note da amicus curiae - ​ Nicola Colaianni

SOMMARIO: 1. Un simbolo religioso - 2. Una laicità pluralista - 3. Modelli di laicità e simboli religiosi - 4. Il crocifisso - 5. … e la sua “democratizzazione” - 6. Bilanciamento e non discriminazione - 7. Tutela e autotutela.

The Crucifix back to Supreme Court of Cassation. Notes by amicus curiae.

ABSTRACT: The display of a crucifix in the classrooms breaks the separatism principle and, although voted by the majority of the class, is discriminatory versus the unfavorable pupils and teacher. The protection of the freedom of consciency permits the teacher himself in case to displace  the icon throughout his lesson.
 

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Identity, Technology, and Religion: Sources of a legal culture for the global age - ​ Joseph P. Garske

SUMMARY: 1. The Medieval Age - 2. Becoming Modern - 3. Anglophone and Civilian - 4. Empire and Nation - 5. Global and Postmodern.

ABSTRACT: There are many ways to understand the project of globalization as it unfolds in the twenty-first century. It is often viewed in terms of technological advance, finance and trade, or travel and communication. Each of these describe aspects of the project, yet none of its parts is more important than the legal basis upon which a regimen of global governance is being constructed. It is a legal regime of two parts, the coercive, or adjudicative and the persuasive, or educative. It involves the ordering of persons and things on a global scale as well as shaping the mind and thought of a global public. But the sources of this expansive framework of authority are neither recent nor modern. Instead, they are derived from two historic legal traditions, Anglophone and Civilian, as those traditions carry forward many accoutrements of the legal past. Among these are techniques and instruments for shaping human identity and human understanding in ways that fulfill the requirements of legal rule. In fact, the global project follows on a long tradition of employing religion as the educative instrument of governance. However, the new project of global rule is unprecedented in that it is intended to include all peoples in all regions of the earth. The project is also taking on a unique character, becoming Anglicized as the adaptability of Anglophone law subsumes many features of Civilian practice. But the great challenge is not only to impose judicial authority, it is also to instill attitudes of acceptance and habits of compliance among a global public. The purpose of what follows is to provide perspective on the project of globalization in both its adjudicative and educative aspects, with a special emphasis both on the use of technology to shape human understanding, and the use of religion as an instrument of legal rule. To do so this paper will focus on a broad historical context and on continuing historical themes in the development of a twenty-first century global law.

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Enseñanza religiosa, identidad y ciudadanía. A propósito de la reforma de la Ley de Educación española - ​ Silvia Meseguer Velasco Belén Rodrigo Lara

SUMARIO: 1. Enseñanza religiosa, identidad y ciudadanía - 2.- La nueva Ley de Educación - 2.1. Un cambio normativo con escasa participación ciudadana y durante una pandemia - 2.2. Los enfoques adoptados en la nueva Ley de Educación - 2.3.- El nuevo currículo basado en competencias - 3. Algunas cuestiones controvertidas sobre la enseñanza de la religión - 3.1. La ausencia de asignatura alternativa - 3.2. El valor de la asignatura de Religión en el expediente académico - 3.3. Enseñanza no confesional de Cultura de las Religiones - 3.4. Calendario de implantación de la LOMLOE y cuestiones pendientes de desarrollo reglamentario - 4. Consideraciones finales: Una reforma operada de espaldas a la sociedad civil.

Religious Education, Identity and Citizenship. Regarding the Reform of the Spanish Education Law

ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to analyze some issues raised by the teaching of religion in the Spanish legal system in the light of the current legislation in which some aspects of special relevance are modified. Specifically, it analyses the rejection generated by the absence of a mesured debate in which the most controversial aspects could have been discussed and a consensus reached, which would have required giving a more active role to the educational community and citizens. A proper approach requires, on the contrary, bringing together positions that truly balance the differents rights and guarantees at stake.

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Riflessioni sull’ignorantia in re matrimoniali: un canone ancora attuale? - ​ Ilaria Zuanazzi

SOMMARIO: 1. La centralità del consenso nel matrimonio canonico – 2. I presupposti cognitivi dell’electio matrimonii nella dottrina tomistica – 3. Il defectus debitae cognitionis nella tradizione classica: la diversa rilevanza dell’error substantialis e dell’error contra substantiam matrimonii - 4. I defectus consensus ex parte intellectus come defectus discretionis iudicii - 5. La duplicazione delle figure del defectus debitae cognitionis nel codice piano-benedettino – 6. Problemi di compatibilità tra l’ignorantia in re matrimoniali e altre fattispecie giuridiche – 7. L’ampiezza della scientia minima - 8. Le modifiche della legislazione giovanneo-paolina: la debita cognitio - 9. L’error determinans voluntatem - 10. Verso una nuova comprensione del defectus debitae cognitionis: questioni aperte sulla scientia minima - 11. Defectus cognitionis o defectus discretionis iudicii?

Reflections on ignorantia in re matrimoniali: a canon still relevant?

ABSTRACT: The paper examines the origin of the canon on ignorantia in re matrimoniali, introduced by the 1917 Code of Canon Law, comparing it with the psychological presuppositions of scholastic doctrine that inspire the canonical discipline on matrimonial consent and with the consolidated principles in the canonical tradition about the relevance of the lack of debita cognitio in the spouses. Given that the canon has been preserved in the current legislation, critical remarks are raised regarding the consistency with the conception of matrimonial consent as an act of the person, and it is proposed to change the approach of the case of invalidity, from defectus cognitionis to defectus discretionis iudicii.

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Libertà e responsabilità nella convivenza coniugale: la stabilità dell’assegno divorzile a seguito di ‘delibazione’ della nullità canonica - ​ Andrea Cesarini

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa. La solidarietà tra i coniugi nello svolgersi ‘effettivo’ della loro convivenza: traiettorie convergenti nella recente giurisprudenza di legittimità - 2. Il ‘conflitto’ tra i giudicati di divorzio e di ‘delibazione’ e la progressiva emersione della loro alterità - 3. Diritto all’assegno divorzile, (in)validità del matrimonio-atto e loro reciproca indifferenza nelle motivazioni delle Sezioni unite - 4. L’assegno come specificazione del dovere di solidarietà post-coniugale. La ratio ‘assistenzialistica’ dell’istituto secondo la giurisprudenza più risalente - 5. (segue) e la sua successiva rilettura in chiave di ‘autoresponsabilità’- 6. Libertà e reciproca responsabilità nella cornice solidaristica della convivenza - 7. La tutela del coniuge ‘debole’ come interesse irrinunciabile dell'ordinamento secolare - 8. Conclusioni.

Freedom and responsibility in the conjugal cohabitation: the stability of the divorce allowance after the exequatur of canonical nullity

ABSTRACT: In the recent ruling no. 9004 of 2021, the United Sections affirmed that the exequatur of the ecclesiastical judgment of nullity does not paralyze the trial on the economic effects of divorce, if the latter has already become unappealable. The ruling reveals a close link with the precedents of the Court no. 16379 of 2014 and no. 18287 of 2018, with a view to enhancing the effectiveness of conjugal cohabitation and the mutual responsibilities that are connected to it.

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Ritual Circumcisions of Minors: Civil and Criminal Perspectives - ​ Agustìn Motilla

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Parental authority and the inherent rights of the minor. The best interests of the minor - 2.1. Conflicting rights. The current understanding of parental authority - 2.2. Limits to parental authority. Personality rights - 2.3. The minor’s consent in surgical procedures - 2.4. Circumcision and the best interests of the minor. An act which falls within parental authority? - 3. Criminal responsibility in acts of circumcision for religious motives - 3.1. The criminal approximation to female genital mutilation - 3.2. Circumcision in criminal jurisprudence - 4. Concluding remarks. De iure condendo contributions.

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Diritto canonico e formazione giuridica. L’eredità di un Maestro: Arturo Carlo Jemolo (1891-1981) - ​ Beatrice Serra

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa. L’insegnamento di un Maestro per un problema del presente: la ridefinizione della formazione universitaria del giurista - 2. Sull’attribuzione al diritto canonico dello statuto di materia facoltativa. Jemolo e le funzioni della presenza del diritto della Chiesa nelle Università statali: a) la funzione didattica: rendere possibile la comprensione della disciplina statale sul fenomeno religioso; b) la funzione scientifica: costituire un campo di indagine vasto e fecondo, capace di condurre a risultati di ricerca innovativi - 3. La prolusione bolognese del 1923 e quella romana del 1933: il problema della natura del diritto canonico e della posizione della Chiesa e delle sue norme nell’ordinamento statale. La giuridicità originaria dell’ordinamento canonico e il dato, peculiare e oggettivo, della comunanza di soggetti e territorio tra Stato e Chiesa. La terza funzione dello studio del diritto canonico nelle Università statali: essere un momento privilegiato di verifica della tenuta e della validità teorica delle categorie generali sulle quali si fonda la preparazione del giurista - 4. La questione metodologica. Direttive sul diritto canonico quale oggetto di insegnamento e ricerca: a) l’attenzione privilegiata per i temi congruenti con la formazione del giurista statale; b) l’indirizzo storico-dogmatico - 5. Un esito concreto: l’istituzione di una cattedra autonoma di diritto canonico nella Facoltà di Giurisprudenza dell’Università degli Studi di Roma Sapienza. Le linee di indirizzo per lo studio del diritto della Chiesa proposte da Jemolo quali parti integranti del progetto culturale e scientifico della scuola laica italiana del diritto canonico - 6. I profili che contraddistinguono la figura di Jemolo all’interno della scuola laica italiana del diritto canonico: a) l’esposizione del diritto canonico quale frutto dell’equilibrio tra la necessità di non alterare la natura del diritto della Chiesa e il bisogno di tradurre tale diritto in un linguaggio comprensibile al giurista statale: b) il distacco da ogni fattore ideologico o confessionale. Jemolo cristiano esigente e profeta ascoltato dai laici - 7. L’eredità di Jemolo canonista: il paradigma epistemologico da lui elaborato per il diritto della Chiesa e l’atteggiamento spirituale e intellettuale con il quale si è accostato a una realtà giuridica che nasce da un vissuto di fede. La persistente attualità di tale lascito.

Canon law and legal education. The legacy of a Master: Arturo Carlo Jemolo (1891-1981)

ABSTRACT: Forty years after Arturo Carlo Jemolo passed away, this paper reconstructs the Master's thought on the function of canon law studies in state Universities in order to respond to a need of our present: the need to rethink the university education of the jurists.

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Il Regno dell’Imperatore: tipicità e contraddizioni del modello istituzionale giapponese di regolazione dei culti - ​ Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. Le ragioni di rinnovata attualità di una ricerca storica, religiosa e normativa sulla spiritualità giapponese - 2. Riflessi di natura costituzionale: la costruzione giuridica di un ordinamento nuovo, tra vestigia imperiali e modernità internazionale - 3. Le religioni tradizionali, tra continuità ed elaborazione progressiva - 4. Uno sguardo alle condizioni materiali dei culti di minoranza: problemi e prospettive per un nuovo sincretismo diffuso - 5. I segni di una precisa spiritualità collettiva nel disposto costituzionale e nella legislazione recente: possibili aperture per nuovi studi - 6. Conclusioni in progress: il paradigma nipponico come modello extra-regionale.

The Kingdom of the Emperor. Typicality and contradictions in the Japanese institutional paradigm of religious regulation

ABSTRACT: The history of Japanese legal institutions has probably known in recent years a lack of attention due to the affirmation of other legal paradigms in the same Asian continent. It could seem a plausible underestimation because Japan has usually reached a leading role in the constant evolution of constitutional rules and concrete everyday praxes. An important aspect of this tradition certainly consists in the peculiar Japanese religious approach: a form of customary culture and not only a specific regulation, crossing many spiritual teachings and belongings (Confucianism, Buddhism and Shintoism, with a more recent but truly significant monotheistic nationwide proselytism). The main purpose of this analysis is to notice how this objectively composite religious framework has surprisingly influenced the shape and the implementation of constitutional principles, still offering an interesting overview able to clear up misunderstandings in the intercultural debate between the Western constitutionalism and the Eastern mentality.

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