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L’immunità della Santa Sede dalla giurisdizione degli Stati nella crisi dei preti pedofili - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Cenni introduttivi sui termini della questione oggetto di analisi - 2. La vicenda da cui trae origine il ricorso presentato alla Corte europea dei diritti umani - 3. L’orientamento della giurisprudenza della Corte in materia di immunità degli Stati dalla giurisdizione - 4. Immunità dalla giurisdizione e “sovranità” degli organismi centrali della Chiesa - 5. La distinzione tra acta jure imperii e acta jure gestionis riferita alle competenze degli organismi centrali della Chiesa nella gestione della crisi dei preti pedofili - 6. La questione della riconducibilità delle presunte condotte colpevoli della Santa Sede nel quadro della materia riguardante i “trattamenti inumani” - 7. La questione degli obblighi derivanti dalla Convenzione sui diritti del fanciullo - 8. I requisiti per potere inquadrare le condotte della Santa Sede tra quelle per le quali opera una eccezione codificata all’immunità dalla giurisdizione - 9. In conclusione: l’immunità della Santa Sede tra sovranità “statale” e governo della Chiesa universale (con un cenno alle discussioni sul superamento del vecchio principio di sovranità).

The Immunity of the Holy See from State Jurisdiction in the Pedophile-Priest Crisis

ABSTRACT: The recognition of the Holy See as a foreign sovereign forms the basis for any grant of immunity from legal proceedings. The present article examines the question of the Holy See’s immunity as a sovereign state in handling sexual abuse cases. To do so, the paper takes its cue from European Court of Human Rights decision in the case of J.C. and Others v. Belgium (application no. 11625/17), which has ruled that the domestic courts have not jurisdiction to hear the tort case brought against the Holy See because it enjoys sovereign immunity.

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Fattore religioso e Costituzione economica. A proposito di enti ecclesiastici-religiosi e impresa sociale - ​ Giuseppe D'Angelo

SOMMARIO: 1. Le implicazioni dell’emergenza pandemica sulla Costituzione economica nell’ottica del diritto ecclesiastico - 2. Enti ecclesiastici-religiosi e impresa sociale. Una lettura in parallelo attraverso la lente (dell’art. 1 e) dell’art. 41 della Costituzione - 3. Libertà di iniziativa economica, socialità dell’impresa e impresa sociale normativizzata - 4. Libertà di iniziativa economica, socialità dell’impresa e perimetrazione materiale del fine di religione e di culto - 5. Istanze (disattese) di liberalizzazione. Le pressioni della nuova realtà socio-economica e la garanzia dell'art. 20 Cost. - 6. L'incontro/scontro normativo tra ente ecclesiastico-religioso e impresa sociale. In particolare, il fine religioso-cultuale quale grande assente del d.lgs. n. 112 del 2017. Ragioni e ricadute disciplinari - 7. Il ramo impresa sociale dell’ente ecclesiastico-religioso civilmente riconosciuto. La confermata esclusione delle attività secondarie e strumentali dall’ambito applicativo del decreto - 8. Il regolamento del ramo e il patrimonio destinato tra oneri di conformazione e preservazione dell’identità religioso-confessionale dell’ente - 9. L’ipotesi (non così scontata) della costituzione di una impresa sociale autonoma e il tema (sottovalutato) della collocazione dell’ente ecclesiastico-impresa sociale nel mercato dei beni e dei servizi (sociali) - 10. Riassumendo. Nodi da sciogliere e soluzioni da indagare.

Religion and Economic Constitution. On the relationship between religious bodies and social enterprise

ABSTRACT: The paper focuses on the relationship between religious bodies and social enterprise, considering it as an important verification ground of religion’s place in the legal dynamics of the so-called Economic Constitution. Lights and shadows in this relationship are closely linked to the difficulties of State-Church concerted legislation on ecclesiastical-religious bodies, especially when compared to the constitutional protection of purposes of religion and worship (art. 20 of Italian Constitution).
 

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Marriage and canonical process in the digital era - ​ Paolo Palumbo

SUMMARY: 1. The Church and the technological revolution - 2. Digital family and "liquid" relationships - 2.1 Internet and social networks: "knowledge" of young couples and marriage celebration - 3. Internet, new technologies and "digital" evidence in the process for matrimonial nullity - 4. Has the time come for the remote canonical process? - 5. Conclusions.

ABSTRACT: The article proposes to deepen the role of digital technologies' effects on religious culture and on canonical substantive and procedural matrimonial law. The family is confronted with the digital revolution and the cyberfamily represents a demanding challenge also for the Catholic Church, which has always been committed to fostering solid relationships that unfold along existential projects that allow the opening to generativity and oblativity. Starting from the profiles related to its genesis, passing through the celebration and up to the couple's crisis and the judicial intervention, the family - and the law - has to deal with the new technologies and with the "network". The article explores the relationship between marriage nullity and digital technology with regard to the evidence system of the canonical process and presents a proposal for a "protocol", also considering some experiences emerged in the pandemic period, for the remote execution of the sessions of a canonical process of marriage nullity.

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L’autonomia decisionale della persona nelle situazioni di vulnerabilità, di debolezza e di razionalità limitata: iniziali riflessioni a margine della sentenza n. 50 del 15 febbraio 2022 della Corte costituzionale - ​ Fabio Cembrani, Mariano Cingolani, Piergiorgio Fedeli

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. L’iter procedurale del giudizio di ammissibilità costituzionale dei referendum abrogativi - 3. La sentenza della Corte costituzionale che ha dichiarato non ammissibile il referendum abrogativo sull’art. 579 c.p. (‘Omicidio del consenziente’) - 4. Le buone ragioni della prudente decisione assunta dai Giudici costituzionali - 5. Conclusioni.

Decision-making autonomy of the person in situations of vulnerability, weakness and limited rationality: initial reflections on the sidelines of sentence no. 50 of 15 February 2022 of the Constitutional Court

ABSTRACT: The Authors, starting with the decision of the Italian Constitutional Court which found the referendum to abrogate art. 579 c.p. (Murder of the consenting party), address, in a practical perspective, the question of the decision-making autonomy of the person in situations of vulnerability, weakness and limited rationality. Of the referendum question, they underline its cloudiness and ambivalence before analyzing the strengths of the decision that has finally given prominence to the many situations of fragility and vulnerability of the person not always and only due to the existence of an infirmity of mind. With all the practical consequences that derive from it for the care professionals to whom these people ask not only respect but rigorous guarantees of public protection.

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Il presunto diritto alla mono-genitorialità e le scelte etiche di inizio-vita - ​ Fortunato Freni

SOMMARIO: 1. La legge n. 40 sulla procreazione medicalmente assistita (pma) dopo gli interventi giurisprudenziali - 2. La pma per i singles e il presunto diritto alla mono-genitorialità - 3. Le scelte etiche del procreare di fronte ai nuovi ritrovati tecnologici - 4. La mediazione del (bio-)diritto laico.

The alleged right to single parenthood and the ethical choices of beginning-life

ABSTRACT: This contribution, taking its cue from requests for jurisprudential recognition of an alleged right to single parenthood, analyzes the phenomenon of pma for singles in the light of the different ethical conceptions of procreation, reaching the conclusion that the law 40 on pma should be entirely rewritten through a normative intervention oriented in the sense of a secular mediation, within the framework of the pluralism of ethical-religious conceptions present in society, which knows how to combine the right of self-determination with the duty of solidarity.

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Tempo ed età nell’ufficio ecclesiastico. Il decreto del Dicastero per i Laici, la Famiglia e la Vita ( 3 giugno 2021) - ​ Antonio Viana

SOMMARIO: Introduzione - 1. Varietà di casi di titolarità dell’ufficio - 1.1. Casi di provvisione a vita dell’ufficio - 1.2. Casi di provvisione temporale dell’ufficio - 1.3. Uffici con limite massimo di età - 1.4. Motivi a favore della temporaneità delle nomine e della cessazione per età - 2. Novità del decreto del Dicastero per i Laici, la Famiglia e la Vita (3 giugno 2021) per quanto riguarda i limiti temporali del governo delle associazioni - 2.1 Aspetti generali della normativa - 2.2 Le motivazioni della norma - 2.3. Un profondo cambiamento nello spirito del diritto associativo ecclesiastico - 2.4. La necessaria sussidiarietà - 3. Conclusione.

Time and age in the ecclesiastical office. The Decree of the Dicastery for Laity, Family and Life (June 3rd 2021)

ABSTRACT: The article deals with the incidence of two factors in ecclesiastical offices: the passage of time and the fulfilment of certain age limits in the holder of the office. The first part of the study presents a systematic summary of the general legislation. The second part discusses the novelties and consequences of the treatment of the temporal factor of offices in the regulations published in 2021 by the Dicastery for Laity, Family and Life. The study concludes with an assessment of the norms of the Dicastery's decree with regard to the fundamental freedom of association in the Church.

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The omitted role of the Churches in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict - ​ Giovanni Cimbalo

SUMMARY: 1. Premise - 2. The recognition of the Autocephaly of the new Ukrainian Orthodox Church as a factor of crisis of relations between Ukraine and Russia - 3. The stages of the crisis - 4. The Kiev Metropolia of the Moscow Patriarchate and the War - 5. The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and the war.

ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the effects of the recognition of autocephaly by the new Ukrainian Orthodox Church. It constitutes one of the crisis factors in relations between Ukraine and Russia in the ongoing clash in the Orthodox Churches between the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Russian Orthodox Church. The article reconstructs the positions of the various religious denominations present in Ukraine in contending for the representation of the interests of the Ukrainian people. It explores how the war is undermining the relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church and its Metropolia of Kiev. It also analyzes the role played in the crisis by the Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Catholic Church, a sui juris Church that aspires to play a supranational role.

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(Non) è stata la mano di Dio. Il film “La Scuola Cattolica” vietato ai minorenni dalla Commissione di revisione cinematografica - ​ Matteo Corsalini

SOMMARIO: 1. Titoli di testa: introduzione e una premessa di metodo - 2. La vicenda: il caso de “La Scuola Cattolica” - 3. La questione aperta: un divieto amministrativo a tutela del sentimento religioso cattolico? - 4. La decisione: la sentenza del TAR Lazio n. 12795 del 2021 - 5. Titoli di coda: considerazioni conclusive.

It was (not) the hand of God. The movie “La Scuola Cattolica” prohibited to minors by the Film Review Commission

ABSTRACT: On 4 October 2021, the Italian movie "La Scuola Cattolica” (The Catholic School) got a ban on minors under 18 years of age. In this connection, the Italian Film Review Commission argued that the ban was necessary to prevent youth from consuming material deemed to be ‘harmful’ to their emotional and psychological sensibilities. This paper rejects the commissioners’ reasoning, to then introduce and defend the claim that the case of “La Scuola Cattolica” is instead about religiously-motivated movie censorship. Crossing borders between law and anthropology, here the goal is to demonstrate how the grievances behind the screening of “La Scuola Cattolica” concern ‘religious insult’ rather than advocacy of child protection.

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Reati culturalmente motivati e ignorantia legis: a margine della prima sentenza di legittimità sulle mutilazioni genitali femminili (nota a Cass. pen., sez. V, 2 luglio 2021, n. 37422) - ​ Dario Sciutteri


SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. Il caso oggetto delle sentenze in commento - 3. Le mutilazioni genitali femminili: notazioni socio-antropologiche - 4. Le mutilazioni genitali femminili come esempio paradigmatico di reato culturalmente motivato - 5. I riflessi sulla tipicità - 6. I riflessi sull’antigiuridicità: il consenso dell’avente diritto - 7. segue: l’esercizio di un diritto - 8. I riflessi sulla colpevolezza: l’oggetto del dolo - 9. segue: la conoscibilità del precetto - 10. La dosimetria sanzionatoria - 11. Considerazioni conclusive - Bibliografia - Appendice.

Cultural crimes and ignorantia legis: about the first judgment of Italian Corte di Cassazione as regards female genital mutilation

ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the first judgment of Italian Corte di Cassazione about female genital mutilation. After the sociological and anthropological analysis of the causes of female genital mutilation, deals with the evolution of Italian criminal law against this cultural crime. In particular, the essay underlines the relation between culture and the main elements of crimes, investigating necessary adaptments of theoretical reconstructions to female genital mutilation and others cultural crimes too.

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Simboli religiosi e accomodamento ragionevole ‘all’italiana’ nella recente giurisprudenza di legittimità - ​ Greta Pavesi

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. L'accomodamento ragionevole: cenni - 3. Dalla laicità come metodo alla reasonable accommodation - 4. (segue) Limiti e aporie - 5. Spunti conclusivi.

Religious symbols and reasonable accommodation ‘all’italiana’ in the recent jurisprudence of legitimacy

ABSTRACT: With the judgment no. 24414/2021, the United Sections of the Court of Cassation identified reasonable accommodation as a possible solution to the issue of religious symbols in public school classrooms. The application of the instrument (traditionally used to protect freedom of religion and belief in the workplace) to the case at hand is undoubtedly characterized by original features that this paper aims to analyze. After having reconstructed the model of reasonable accommodation proposed by the Court, this article tries to verify whether the use of this instrument can be effective and applicable, from a technical-legal point of view, even in the public-school context, which involves principles endowed with axiological primacy, such as that of ‘laicità’. Brief concluding remarks will be addressed to the possible effects of this ruling in those areas of Law and Religion which are characterized by regulatory gaps and/or a high degree of conflict.

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