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Articoli in Religione e diritto

“More sinned against than sinning”: la Corte Suprema pakistana e il caso Asia Bibi - ​ Deborah Scolart

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La blasphemy law - 3. Un campo di falsa, un sorso d’acqua e il “peccato” contro Asia Bibi - 4. La sentenza della Corte Suprema - 5. Leading case o moral suasion?

“More sinned against than sinning”:  the Pakistan Supreme Court and Asia Bibi case

ABSTRACT:  Asia Bibi case, a Christian woman falsely accused of being a blasphemer, finds her ‘judge in Berlin’ in the Supreme Court of Pakistan. The Court does not address the ratio legis of blasphemy law but points out how contrary to the spirit of Islam is the misuse of law for political purposes. The wide international echo of the case makes this SC verdict a possible leading case in theme of presumption of innocence.

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La Chiesa Ortodossa Russa e le riforme dell’inizio del XX secolo - ​ Giovanni Codevilla

SOMMARIO: 1. La riforma di Pietro il Grande e la paralisi della Chiesa - 2. La diffusa aspirazione a ridefinire i rapporti tra Stato e Chiesa - 3. Verso il superamento dell’intolleranza religiosa - 4. Le prese di posizione di Antonij (Vadkovskij) e di Sergej Witte - 5. La reazione del Pobedonoscev – 6. Il Memorandum dei 32 - 7. Il riconoscimento della tolleranza religiosa - 8. I vescovi e la riforma ecclesiastica - 9. Il Manifesto del 17 ottobre e i ritardi nella convocazione del Concilio.

The Russian Orthodox Church at the Beginning of the 20th Century

ABSTRACT: Peter the Great abolished the Patriarchate and entrusted the direction of the Church to a Holy Synod led by a laymen (Ober-prokuror). This reform had the consequence to paralyze the Church, as pointed out by F.M. Dostoevskij and by several outstanding Russian scholars. At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century the necessity to overcome the relationship of subjection of the Church to the State was clearly perceived both by the intellectuals and inside the Church. The Tsar himself realized that there was a need of a change: the Fundamental laws were consequently modified and religious tolerance was acknowledged on April 17th 1905. Of paramount importance was the role played by the Prime-minister Sergej Witte and by the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg Antonij (Vadkovskij) to overcome the conservative ecclesiastical policy carried out by the Ober-prokuror Konstantin Pobedonoscev. The answers given by the bishops to a questionnaire issued by the Holy Synod on July 27th, 1905, confirmed that the problem was clearly felt also inside the Church. The Council of the Russian Church, which was supposed to be gathered at the beginning of the century, was summoned several years later, at the eve of the bolshevik coup d’état.

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La questione della liceità della circoncisione “rituale” tra tutela dell’identità religiosa del gruppo e salvaguardia del diritto individuale alla integrità fisica - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Notazioni introduttive - 2. La circoncisione “terapeutica” e quella “profilattica” - 3. La circoncisione “tradizionale” e quella (propriamente) “rituale” - 4. L’orientamento che giudica la pratica contraria ai diritti fondamentali del minore - 5. La circoncisione rituale ebraica e la legge 8 marzo 1989, n. 101 - 6. La circoncisione rituale tra libertà religiosa, diritto alla salute e diritto all’integrità fisica - 7. Osservazioni conclusive.

The issue of lawfulness of “ritual” circumcision: protection of collective religious identity versus violation of individual’s right to physical integrity

ABSTRACT: The present essay deals with the issue regarding the lawfulness of male “ritual” circumcision, that is performed for non-therapeutic reasons. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered as a violation of human rights in the Western world; on the contrary, male circumcision for non-therapeutic reasons is currently tolerated. However, in many Countries experts hightlighted the permanent effect of circumcision on bodily integrity and the special importance of the right to self-determination. The Author stresses problems that the circumcision poses in the Italian legal system, considering special legislation related to Jewis (law No. 101/1989) and case law that assesses the practice lawful in case it is performed with the parents’ consent and according to the rules of medical art.

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Etica e pastorale in Attilio Nicora - ​ Carlo Cardia

SOMMARIO: 1. La personalità di Attilio Nicora, negoziatore, diplomatico, uomo di fede - 2. La formazione culturale, il rigore del metodo, la matrice montiniana - 3. Le lezioni della storia, la laicità, i rapporti tra Stato e Chiesa - 4. Volontà riformatrice, il coraggio dell’innovazione - 5. Le qualità del diplomatico, le sofferenze del Pastore - 6. Le virtù di Attilio Nicora, la sua eredità spirituale e culturale.

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Educación, proselitismo y adoctrinamiento: perfil y repercusiones jurídicas - ​ José Mª Martí Sánchez

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. El concepto de educación-enseñanza, vinculado a la libertad religiosa y el pluralismo - 3. El proselitismo o incitación articulada para compartir una opción de vida - 4. El concepto de adoctrinamiento, como conducta lícita e ilícita - 5. Consecuencias jurídicas: la educación y sus parámetros - 6. Consecuencias jurídicas: El proselitismo legítimo y el abusivo o ilícito - 7. Los conflictos del proselitismo en el seno de la familia, según el TEDH - 8. Consecuencias jurídicas: el “adoctrinamiento” en la educación familiar y reglada - 9. El adoctrinamiento en los tipos penales - 10. Conclusiones.

Education, proselytism and indoctrination: profile and legal treatment

ABSTRACT: Nowadays the identity is a big question, and his preservation depends by a great deal on the education, the proselytism and the indoctrination. These three concepts, close and complex, demand a juridical explanation. This study looks for to light up them, in the European and Spanish context, through the legislation and the case-law.

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Vulnerabilità, morte e pietas. L’atto della sepoltura e le sue implicazioni giuridiche - ​ Serena Vantin

SOMMARIO: 1. Una chiarificazione concettuale - 2. Vulnerabilità e diritto - 3. L’atto della sepoltura - 4. Il diritto alla sepoltura - 5. Conclusioni.

Vulnerability, Death and Pietas. The Act of Burial and its Legal Implications

ABSTRACT: This paper offers a conceptual clarification of the concept “vulnerability”, focusing in particular on the legal meanings it has recently assumed. Considering the cultural legacy relative to the act of burial, the reflection will also lead to put at stake, through the vulnerability’s perspective, the need for a harmonization and an updating of the legislation referred to cemeteries and sepulchres.

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Sur le film “Matilda“ dans le contexte de la protection de la dignité des croyants - ​ Igor V. Ponkin Victor I. Slobodtchikov Vsevolode Yu. Troytskiy Alexandre Yu. Evdokimov

SOMMAIRE: 1. Introduction - 2. Méthodes appliquées dans la recherche et le domaine de la réalité objective et analytique; objet de la recherche - 3. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 1 - 4. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 2 - 4.1. Recherche et l’appréciation de l’image formée et retransmise par le film “Matilda“ de l’Empereur de Russie Nicolas II (Romanov) canonisé par l’Eglise Orthodoxe Russe - 4.2. Recherche et l’appréciation de l’image formée et retransmise par le film “Matilda“ de l’épouse de l’Empereur Nicolas II, Alexandre Féodorovna, canonisée par l’Eglise Orthodoxe Russe - 5. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la question № 3 - 6. Recherche dans le cadre de la réponse à la Question № 4.

About the film “Matilda” in the context of protecting the dignity of believers

ABSTRACT: In 2017, the film «Matilda» caused a strong controversy in Russia. This article is devoted to the study of this film. The authors explore the film in the context of protecting the human dignity and the rights of believers, protecting their religious feelings. Critics of the film "Matilda" indicated that this film represents mockingly offensive images of those persons who are religiously revered by Orthodox Christian believers. The authors of the article check the validity of such critical assessments.

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Il delicato bilanciamento costituzionale fra libertà di parola e tutela del sentimento religioso: profili comparati - ​ Stefano Testa Bappenheim

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il quadro costituzionale in Pakistan - 3. La tutela del sentimento religioso nel codice penale pakistano - 4. Il quadro costituzionale tedesco - 5. La tutela del sentimento religioso nel codice penale tedesco - 6. Conclusioni.

The delicate constitutional Balance between Freedom of Speech and the Protection of religious Sentiment: comparative Profiles

ABSTRACT: The article focuses on the issue of freedom of speech and freedom of religion from the point of view of two countries with specific legislation in place (Pakistan and Germany). In particular, we will examine the two Constitutions and the two Criminal Law, which proved to have very different ways of expressing their sensitivity and a great attention to the religious sentiment of the population.

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Religione e guarigione: libertà religiosa e principio di autodeterminazione in materia di salute mentale (salus aegroti suprema lex o voluntas aegroti suprema lex) - ​ Cristiana Maria Pettinato

SOMMARIO: 1. Linee di lettura - 2. La guarigione forzata: i fatti di Vilnius - 3. Il percorso giudiziario che conduce alla decisione di Strasburgo - 4. La dissenting opinion: brevi appunti sul metodo -5. Il sofferto cammino della libertà religiosa tra fede, stregoneria e follia - 6. La forza terapeutica della libertà religiosa: “capacità-libertà” di credere e diritto di guarire - 7. La funzione politica della religione in terra lituana: semi di neo-confessionismo - 8. La sfida dell’inclusione dell’altro da sé: scelte etero-spirituali e prudentia iuris.

Religion and healing: religious freedom and the principle of self-determination in matters of mental health (Salus aegroti suprema lex o voluntas aegroti suprema

ABSTRACT: The case before the Court of Strasbourg, projects us into the most sacred and private dimension of the life of the human being: that of religious options. In the present case, a young woman with behavioral disorders, manifested even before joining the group close to the Movement founded by the Indian Master Osho, following undergoes a series of medical treatments obligatory that force her to the suspension of the religious practices to which she usually devotes for her own psychophysical well-being. But according to the opinion of the doctors these practices compromised the applicant's mental health status, representing a serious and ascertained danger. The doctor becoming the promoter of his patient's health, ends up interfering in the personal sphere of the girl's religious sentiment, trying to modify the choices deemed to be non-conforming to tradition and prejudicial to health, without scientific evidence and, exclusively, on basis of presumptions and religious prejudices. The facts give rise to some considerations on the methods and criteria for balancing the protection of the right to health, and self-determination in therapeutic choices, and the exercise of religious freedom in conditions of compromised mental health, and the risk of a reviving confessional in Lithuania.

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Le libre exercice du culte dans la République populaire de Chine - ​ Andrea Tigrino

SOMMAIRE: 1. Une prémisse historique sur la Chine en tant que société multi-religieuse - 2. Les dispositions constitutionnelles relatives à la liberté de croyance avant 1982 - 3. La liberté religieuse dans l'actuelle Constitution de 1982 et la législation suivant en la matière - 4. Liberté religieuse et protection des droits de l'homme dans la Chine actuelle.

The free exercise of Religion in People’s Republic of China

ABSTRACT: After some historical reflections on the spread of multiple religious doctrines on the Chinese territory between the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, the Author considers the attitude of the central government with respect to the right of religious freedom from the time of the Cultural Revolution to today, paying particular attention to the constitutional and criminal law provisions attached to this issue. It seems clear how the Chinese legal tradition is not based on a balance of interest theory as known in the Western legal systems, given the prevalence of the higher communist principles rooted in time. Last pages are reserved for the systematic violations of human rights reported by numerous international observatories, as well as the ancient grudge between China and the Holy See caused by the question of the appointment and formal recognition of new bishops. The provisional agreement signed on 22 September 2018, while marking a step towards finding a solution to this tensions, doesn’t offer a definitive solution to the problem.

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Religious hate speech, libertà di religione e libertà di espressione. Intersezioni tra forma e sostanza dei diritti nella società multiculturale - ​ Cristiana Cianitto

SOMMARIO: 1. Premesse - 2. Un possibile modello alternativo di tutela: la forma della tutela - 3. Un possibile modello alternativo di tutela: la sostanza della tutela - 4. Alcuni casi pratici - 4.1. Il leader politico - 4.2. Il leader religioso - 5. Conclusioni.

Religious hate speech, freedom of religion and freedom of expression. Reshaping the rights in the multicultural societies

ABSTRACT: In the multicultural societies, lawyers are more and more often engaged in identifing useful tools to solve the rising conflicts between fundamental rights. The exercise of freedom of religion and freedom of expression can led into this kind of phenomena that could be taken into consideration by law, like hate speech and religious hate speech. The paper tries to approach two particular form of hate speech, the political and the religious one, to check if some alternative models of protection could be implemented to assure an effective protection of minorities without any sacrifice of individual fundamental rights.

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Quo vadis. Narrazione del tempo di Nerone. Ovvero la potenza delle parole - ​ Francesco Alicino

SOMMARIO: 1. Preambolo - 2. La potenza delle parole - 3. La forza di un sentimento - 4. Inventarsi la verità - 5. La desacralizzazione di Dio - 6. La sacralizzazione dell’uomo - 7. Epilogo.

Quo Vadis: A Narrative of the Time of Nero. The Power of the Words

ABSTRACT: Set during the reign of the emperor Nero, Quo Vadis tells the story of the love that develops between a young Christian woman and a Roman officer who, after meeting her fellow Christians, converts to her religion. Underlying their relationship, the novel becomes a good stratagem to emphasize the contrast between the worldly opulence of the Roman Empire and the poverty and spiritual power of the Christians, whose concepts would play a crucial role during the long history of the Western Legal System. With this paper the Author tries to explain how important a novel like Quo Vadis could be in order to better understand the strong impact of the Christian tradition on the history of Western constitutionalism.

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Trattamenti sanitari, diritto all’autodeterminazione ed etiche di fine vita dopo l’ordinanza n. 207 del 2018 della Corte costituzionale - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. L’ordinanza n. 207 del 2018 della Consulta e la rilevanza costituzionale del “bene vita” - 3. L’„assolutezza” del diritto all’autodeterminazione terapeutica e la sua prevalenza sulla “indisponibilità” del diritto alla vita - 4. Il necessario riconoscimento del diritto all’aiuto al suicidio a tutela della visione personale della “dignità” nel morire ... - 5. ... e del divieto di discriminazioni nel darsi la morte attraverso il distacco delle macchine di sostegno vitale - 6. La “laicità” del biodiritto e il governo delle questioni “eticamente sensibili” - 7. L’apparente “neutralità” dell’opzione pro choice e la disciplina giuridica delle scelte di fine vita.

Health Treatments, Right to Self-determination and End-of-life Choices after Constitutional Court Ordinance No. 207/2018

ABSTRACT: The present essay deals with the issue regarding end-of-life choices after Italian Constitutional Court ruling No. 207/2018, which has prefigured, in certain exceptional situations, the partial unconstitutionality of the provision prohibiting aid to suicide (Article 580 of the Italian Criminal Code). The Author stresses that the patient’s right to refuse or interrupt life-saving treatment can be deemed to be protected by the Constitution, while the enactment of a right to assisted suicide into Italian law would require an ethical choice, which should instead be left to the discretionary assessment of the lawmakers.

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Νόμοσ e συνεἱδησiς: dall’Antigone di Sofocle all’ordinamento canonico - ​ Beatrice Serra

SOMMARIO: 1. Perché Antigone: la tragedia di Sofocle come paradigma per ricostruire il rapporto tra legge e coscienza nel diritto canonico - 2. La dinamica degli opposti tra dimensione giuridica e dimensione politica. Perenne attualità di tale dinamica. In particolare: a) Il contrasto tra lex e ius. Il legame tra l’Antigone e le vicende della legge positiva come fonte del diritto -3. (segue) b) Il contrasto tra ragion di Stato e affetti privati - 4. Il lutto quale esito dell’antinomia tra legge e coscienza nell’Atene del V secolo. Ragioni di tale esito: a) assenza di efficaci elementi di ricomposizione del contrasto tra valori assoluti rappresentati da Antigone e Creonte. Assenza di ogni forma di mediazione del contrasto giuridico tra lex e ius - 5. (segue) b) L’intrinseca fragilità della scelta di Antigone: il richiamo al dato divino in funzione delle proprie istanze affettive. L’assenza di una concezione della coscienza quale autonoma dimensione interiore del singolo capace di fondare la violazione delle leggi della polis - 6. (segue) c) L’ineludibile esecuzione delle norme in contrasto. Antigone e Creonte privi di libertà di scelta davanti alla legge - 7. Dalle “assenze” nel rapporto tra legge e coscienza dell’Antigone alle “presenze” che connotano tale rapporto nell’assetto giuridico canonico. In particolare: a) La mediazione tra ius e lex come dimensione costitutiva della giuridicità ecclesiale - 8. (segue) b) La Sapienza divina quale oggettivo elemento di sintesi del contrasto tra legge e coscienza nella Chiesa - 9. (segue) c) La coscienza cristiana come struttura morale originaria che rispecchia la volontà divina dalla quale trae la forza di resistere alla norma - 10. (segue) d) La libertà umana quale presupposto irrinunciabile del rapporto tra legge e coscienza. Il giudizio della coscienza cristiana come testimone interiore che rende l’uomo responsabile dell’adempimento o inadempimento della norma.

Νόμοσ and συνεἱδησiς: from Sophocles' Antigone to the canonical order

ABSTRACT: The contribution reconstructs the essential lines of the relationship between law and conscience in Canon law starting from a re-reading of Sophocles's Antigone.

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Identità negate. Mutilazioni genitali femminili: la lotta dell’Europa contro una silenziosa violenza - ​ Tiziana Di Iorio

SOMMARIO: 1. Le pratiche di manipolazioni degli organi genitali femminili - 2. Procedura esercutiva e conseguenze degli atti di alterazione dei caratteri sessuali delle donne - 3. Radici socio-culturali delle pratiche di MGF - 4. Fattore religioso e atti modificativi dei genitali femminili - 5. Le strategie di prevenzione e di contrasto delle MGF nell’Unione europea - 6. Politiche legislative nella lotta contro le MGF - 7. Conclusioni.

Denied identities. Female genital mutilation: the fight of Europe against a silent violence

ABSTRACT: FGM refers to rituals of manipulation female genitalia and other procedures against female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Usually the practice is carried out on young girls, from childhood to teenagers. These rituals are carried out for cultural, religious and social reasons in the mistaken belief that they will produce a benefit to the girl (to safeguard her virginity, to prepare for marriage, etc.). No religious text prescribes the practice, but is rooted in the culture and beliefs of the communities that practice it. However some religious communities practice the FGM. Rituals do not help the health of the girl subjected, but they can lead to serious health complications or even to death of victim. So FGM is recognised a form of child abuse and a violation of women’s human rights. The EU is committed to eliminating FGM through strategic actions and legislative measures, but mainly changes in attitudes and beliefs among relevant communities are important to ensure FGM is abandoned. It is also important to fight FGM with direct involvement of the religious and political leaders of the communities where the rituals are diffuse. European States are called to cooperate with each other with strategic internal and external actions.

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Appunti sulla circoncisione rituale nel diritto ecclesiastico e delle religioni - ​ Alex Borghi

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. La giurisprudenza della Suprema Corte - 3. L’introduzione del § 1631, lett. d, nel BGB tedesco e la giurisprudenza di Colonia - 4. Risoluzioni e raccomandazioni del Consiglio d’Europa - 5. Il recente dibattito islandese - 6. Prospettive per l’Italia: necessità o ultroneità di una legge ad hoc? - 7. Osservazioni conclusive.

Notes on ritual circumcision in Ecclesiastical and Religious Law.

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the delicate issue of ritual circumcision in Ecclesiastical and Religious Law. After having investigated the etymological origin of the word and reconstructed the history of the practice in question – distinguishing between circumcisions: a) therapeutic or prophylactic, b) ritual, c) cultural or ethnic – the focus is on the jurisprudential orientations of the Italian Court of Cassation. The solution proposed by the judgment of 24 November 2011, n. 43646, is carefully read and compared with the EU's law, the German legislation and the results of the recent Icelandic debate. Nevertheless, the absence of an ad hoc law on circumcision does not represent a vulnus in the Italian legal system, since the discipline can be found in the positive law in force, and even before in constitutional principles, as interpreted by the jurisprudence of merit and legitimacy. On the contrary, the essay raises the question that the introduction of a law on circumcision would not only be superfluous (for ethical and cultural reasons, even before legal ones), but also late".

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Principio di legalità e ordinamento canonico e suoi riflessi nel diritto penale - ​ Giuseppe Sciacca

1 - Se taluni istituti giuridici, quali l’aequitas e l’epicheia, son peculiarissimi del diritto canonico sino a indurre qualche studioso a escluderne ogni derivazione concettuale e financo ogni tangenza - per quanto ai più manifesta e acclarata - con gli analoghi istituti rinvenibili in ambito civilistico, viceversa il principio di legalità, “suapte natura”, appare essenziale a ogni ordinamento giuridico civile proprio di uno stato democratico o, meglio, proprio di ogni tipo di stato di diritto, principalmente quello di origine democratica. (segue)

The Principle of Legality in the Canonical System and the Approach to Penal Law

In this article, the Author examines the principle of legality and its expression in the canonical system and in canonical penal law in particular. Opening with a reflection on the origins of the principle of legality in its ecclesiological context of the Church as a community of the faithful, the article then treats the principle of legality in its relation to the three powers of governance - administrative, legislative, judicial - and an essential aspect inherent to the exercise of each, namely discretionality, rationality, and moral certitude, in light of canonical penal law. The article closes with a brief mention of the principle of episcopal collegiality in light of the principle of legality.

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Considerazioni sul genocidio: ipotesi di comparazione e conseguenze nella tutela del diritto di libertà religiosa - ​ Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa: le origini del dibattito sul genocidio e la difficile genesi della sua giuridificazione - 2. Processi ermeneutici e tentativi espansivi in merito alla nozione di genocidio: rischi e problematiche. Il ruolo dei profili religiosi - 3. Qualificazioni tipologico-effettuali del genocidio. Percorsi e prospettive - 4. Appunti per una casistica giurisdizionale internazionale del genocidio: riscontri formali e casi controversi - 5. Disagevoli profili conclusivi: l’attualità del genocidio e delle sue conseguenze istituzionali nel cuore dell’Europa.

Observations about the genocide: hypotheses of comparison and consequences on the legal protection of religious freedom

ABSTRACT: Talking about the genocide implies to recall a wide doctrinal processing, including refined strategies to put into effects the legal definition of genocide itself. This conceptual effort should combine the historical reconstruction with a dramatic but intransigent analysis of the most recent massacres. The constant presence of religious conflicts in concrete representations of genocide undoubtedly shows how the stance for religious freedom shall be definitely urgent and participated, because genocides are a maybe surprising but anyway unquestionable part of our most recent legal history and systems, including the institutional development of the European Union.

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Confessioni e comunità religiose nell’Europa dell’Est, pluralismo religioso e politiche legislative degli Stati - ​ Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: Sistemi di classificazione dei rapporti e individuazione degli interlocutori istituzionali delle confessioni religiose - 2. Il “laboratorio” dell’Europa dell’Est come luogo di sperimentazione del pluralismo intra confessionale - 3. La gestione delle relazioni tra Stato e confessioni religiose attraverso gli uffici - 4. I problemi nuovi posti dal moltiplicarsi delle confessioni nei diversi paesi europei - 4.1. L’area baltica - 4.2. (segue) Le Repubbliche russofone - 4.3. (segue) Le Repubbliche dell’Europa Centrale - 4.4. (segue) I Balcani Orientali - 4.5. (segue) I territori della ex Repubblica Jugoslava - 4.6. (segue) Le scelte differenziate delle Repubbliche ex jugoslave in materia di Rapporti tra Stato e confessioni religiose - 5. La felice anomalia albanese - 6. Un contributo all’elaborazione di linee guida ai rapporti tra Stato e confessioni religiose in Europa.

Confessions and religious communities in Eastern Europe, religious pluralism and legislative policies of the States

ABSTRACT: The intervention reconstructs the supporting lines of the activity of the national office of each legal system in charge with the maintenance of the relations between the State and the confessions and religious communities in the Eastern European countries. Through this perspective, the ecclesiastical politics of 19 countries is reconstructed, highlighting the genesis and the peculiar characteristics of their legislations and highlighting the underlying lines that are at the root of the choices of their systems. Particular attention is dedicated to the definition of the different models to which the States refer in relation to their effectiveness in maintaining religious peace while respecting the principle of equality and freedom among the various religious confessions. The article aims to be a contribution to the development of guidelines for relations between the state and religious confessions in Europe.
 

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Radicalizzati jihadisti: profilazione e deradicalizzazione Constitution-compliant - ​ Laura Sabrina Martucci

SOMMARIO: 1. Gli scenari preventivi: il terrorismo a chiamata individuale - 2. Le prevent strategies. I livelli di intervento - 3. L’islamista, ovvero il type consumer del messaggio radicalizzante - 4. La pericolosità sociale indicatore laico-giudiziario di radicalizzazione - 5. Schedatura, provvedimenti di deradicalizzazione e laicità della “reazione” dello Stato - 6. I radicalizzati: indexing risk factors Constitution-compliant.

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Le istituzioni educative nella Costituzione italiana - ​ Pasquale Lillo

SOMMARIO: 1. Ricognizione costituzionale del fenomeno educativo - 2. L’educazione familiare - 3. L’educazione scolastica - 4. L’educazione religiosa.

Educational Institutions in the Italian Constitution

ABSTRACT: According to the current Constitution, Italy presents itself as a pluralist and participatory democracy, in which certain functions aimed at enhancing the human person are not taken directly by the State – except in exceptional cases in which the public authorities intervene, for reasons of necessity, in a subsidiary or supplementary way – but they are normally assigned to specific social subjects (or formations), among which the educational institutions have a special and qualified position. The present contribution intends to highlight that the Italian “social State” does not present itself as a “educating State” in its own educational models that the public structures impose in an authoritarian way on the single components of the national collectivity. On the other hand, the Italian Constitution, in recognizing social relevance to the educational function, assigns its concrete management to certain “"pedagogical agencies” or “educational institutions” operating autonomously within the civil society: among which the qualified family holds a qualified position. School and religious confessions. They do not operate in the name or on behalf of the State, but operate within a framework of legal, cultural and institutional guarantees and pluralism, within a normative framework dictated in this regard by the constitutional text and by ordinary legislation. By carrying out the special role assigned to them by the Italian legal system, educational institutions participate in the democratic dynamics of the country, contributing with their work to the construction and evolution of the civil and national community.

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Diritto, religione e letteratura. Alcune suggestioni su Chiesa e ministero petrino a partire da The Young Pope di Paolo Sorrentino - ​ Luigi Mariano Guzzo

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa epistemologica: “Diritto e letteratura” vs. “Diritto, religione e letteratura” - 2. The Young Pope, ovvero l’ordinamento ecclesiale tra dimensione narrativa e dimensione normativa - 3. La Chiesa come teatro: il vescovo di Stendhal e il Papa di Sorrentino - 4. Chiesa e potere, tra concezione giuspositivistica ed etica utilitaristica - 5. Prime conclusioni: la tensione tra ortodossia e ortoprassi nell’istituzione ecclesiale.

Law, Religion and Literature. Some notes on Ecclesial legal order and Petrine ministry from The Young Pope by Paolo Sorrentino

ABSTRACT: This paper is divided in two main parts. In the first part, I propose an epistemological analysis on the features of the field of “Law and Literature”, in which we can construct the specific category of “Law, Religion and Literature”. In the second part, I do a “Law, Religion and Literature” analysis about Ecclesial legal order and Petrine ministry starting from The Young Pope, the movie created and directed by Paolo Sorrentino.

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La laicità come esigenza della ragione: rileggendo Dietrich Bonhoeffer - ​ Paola Chiarella

SOMMARIO: 1. Laicità necessaria - 2. Il Cristianesimo: una fede scandalosa - 3. La maggiore età del mondo - 4. Ritrovare Dio da adulti - 5. Provvisorietà dell’etica cristiana - 6. Führer e Verführer: lo scambio delle vesti e la fragilità del male.

Secularism as requirement of reason: the actuality of Dietrich Bonhoeffer

ABSTRACT: Dietrich Bonhoeffer is a very significant figure of the Protestant theology. Having experienced the most dramatic period of the German history he is well remembered as “resistant” to the National Socialism, but he deserves also to be reconsidered because of his defense, as believer, of the value of “secularism”, necessary to safeguard an authentic profession of faith.

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Opinion on act (decision), adopted by the Holy Synod of the Patriarchate of Constantinople on 11 October 2018 - ​ Igor V. Ponkin

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. Main Part. An Examination - 3. Complete exhaustion of the subject of the executive act adopted by the Patriarchate of Constantinople in 1686 - 4. Assessment of the actions from the perspective of the legislation of the Republic of Turkey - 5. Conclusions.

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Le regole alimentari religiose e i menù delle mense scolastiche: una sfida per la laicità? - ​ Corrado Del Bò

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La libertà religiosa e le regole alimentari religiose - 3. Le regole alimentari religiose e la laicità dello Stato - 4. Il menù quaresimale - 5. L’immunità dall’esposizione - 6. Conclusioni.

Religious dietary rules and school lunch menus: a challenge for secularism?

ABSTRACT: The paper starts from a case of dietary pluralism to discuss the possibility to justify menus sensitive to different religious dietary rules in schools’ canteens. Building on an analysis of the idea of secularism, both in its legal interpretation and in its philosophical understanding in terms of neutrality, I try to show that providing for menus sensitive to different religious dietary rules does not amount to a breach of secularism; it is, rather, a legitimate consequence of the protection of individuals’ rights to freedom of conscience and religion. Moreover, whenever institutions take action to devise and implement such menus they can be taken to act on a commitment to respecting the beliefs of minority groups in society without expecting that these groups, which are often migrant communities suffering of well-known problems of social integration, take on the burden to put forward public claims.

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Pluralismo religioso e integrazione europea: le nuove sfide - ​ AA. VV. (Angelucci e altri) Antonio Angelucci Maria Ilia Bianco Wojciech Brozowski Marco Croce Lucia Giannuzzo Sina Haydn-Quindeau Corinne Maioni Francesca Mauri Joshua Moir Stefano Montesano Costanza Nardocci Alessandro Negri Marcello Toscano Alessia Tranfo Julia Wagner Giovanni Zaccaroni Marco Parisi Filippo Croci Rosa Geraci

Il 28 settembre 2018, presso l’Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, si è tenuto un convegno internazionale co-finanziato dall’Unione Europea, che ha visto la partecipazione di giovani studiosi delle più diverse discipline giuridiche, italiani e stranieri. I relatori, selezionati in seguito ad una “call for papers”, cui è stata data ampia pubblicità in Italia e all’estero, si sono confrontati sul tema del pluralismo religioso nel sistema europeo e, soprattutto, nella recente giurisprudenza delle Corti sovranazionali. (continua)

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Le origini del fondamentalismo cristiano: profili comparatistici e prospettive di ricerca - ​ Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. Considerazioni introduttive sul fondamentalismo odierno: alcune differenze rispetto ai movimenti omologhi dei decenni precedenti - 2. L’influenza del fondamentalismo sulla demografia religiosa e sul contenzioso giurisdizionale negli Stati Uniti d’America - 3. Il fondamentalismo americano protestante e le omologhe istanze etiche e giuridiche di gruppi religiosi contemporanei - 4. La Chiesa di Gesù Cristo dei Santi degli Ultimi Giorni: le origini di una protesta contro la teologia ottocentesca - 5. L’escatologia teocratica dei Testimoni di Geova e le conseguenze ordinamentali - 6. Possibili conclusioni: il ruolo del fondamentalismo cristiano nella conformazione attuale delle istituzioni statunitensi.

The origins of the Christian fundamentalism: comparative approaches and research perspectives

ABSTRACT: The aim of this essay is to demonstrate the Christian roots of the public discourse concerning fundamentalism, its disciplines, groups and legal consequences. This issue implies to go back to the first Christian fundamentalist experiences born and raised during last two centuries in America (with a peculiar focus on the United States). By reconsidering a wide historical period and a not simple variety of local religious communities, it will be possible to underline a substantial and concurrent beginning for similar movements in the progressive development of Jehovah’s Witnesses, new wave Lutheran and Baptist Churches, Church of Latter Day Saints: some of the same faiths and cults still effecting the American recent ecclesiastical controversies.

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L’alimentazione halal e le sfide alla laïcité francese: il caso dei menù alternativi nelle mense scolastiche - ​ Ugo Gaudino

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa metodologica - 2. Cenni storici sulle comunità musulmane francesi - 3. La re-invenzione di una tradizione? - 4. Mangiare halal a scuola: l’affaire di Chalon-sur-Saône - 5. Conclusioni.

Halal alimentation and the challenges against french laïcité: the request of alternative menu in the school canteens

ABSTRACT: The article will concern the debate about the balance between secularism and religious-driven prerogatives through a narrow focus on the diffusion of halal food in France. In particular, I will shed light on the increasing request of shari'a-compliant food by Muslims in some social spaces, for instance in the school canteens. My research will unfold its arguments in two sections. In the first one, I will address the recent development of halal market in France and try to frame the reasons of such burgeoning activities - revival of Islam or neoliberal marketing strategy? In the second part, I will consider the sentence of Dijon Administrative Tribunal, which in 2017 abolished the decision of the mayor of Chalon-sur-Saône of suppressing halal menu in the school canteens. The verdict might be read as an opinion favourable to Muslim’s prerogatives. Nonetheless, the rationale of the judgement does lie indeed in the defence of the “best interest of the child”, whereas the basic principles of French laicité were not put into discussion.

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La Bielorussia alla ricerca della propria identità e il processo di confessionalizzazione dello Stato - ​ Giovanni Cimbalo

SOMMARIO: 1. Dal socialismo di Stato allo Stato confessionale - 2. L’Accordo di collaborazione con l’Esarcato della Chiesa ortodossa Russa in Bielorussia - 3. Le materie oggetto di accordo e la confessionalizzazione delle istituzioni e dello Stato - 4. Gli accordi con gli altri culti tradizionali - 5. Il prezzo dell’alleanza: la lotta alle nuove confessioni religiose attraverso la legge sulla libertà religiosa - 6. Alcune considerazioni finali.

Belarus in search of its identity and the process of confessionalisation of the State

ABSTRACT: The current piece analyzes the stages characterizing the transition from State socialism to State Confessionalism through the Collaboration Agreement between the Belorussian Government and the Exarcate of the Russian Orthodox Church in Belarus. The main subjects of the agreement and the confessionalisation process of the institutions are taken into account. The essay deals with the alteration of the basic functions of the Belorussian State, namely education, health services and assistancy to the segregating foundations, etc. Furthermore, the agreements with other traditional religious groups are relevant. In this regard, the law on religious freedom is mainly used to resist the spread of such new cults. The study is then finalized to highlight the existing link between the Russian Orthodox Church traditions and cultural heritage with the estabilishment of a national identity. This symbolic bond is then used to build the basis of a new State with strong religious features in sensitive matters such as the control over births, bridal affairs, cultural and social valuesin a nationalist and sovereignist key.

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I rapporti con l’Islam italiano: dalle proposte d’intesa al Patto nazionale - ​ Claudia Morucci

SOMMARIO: 1. Breve premessa - 2. L’ininterrotto dialogo tra il Governo e le comunità islamiche italiane - 3. Il “Patto di condivisione” della Città di Torino e il “Patto nazionale per un Islam italiano” - 4. L’Italia e le misure di contrasto al terrorismo - 5. Conclusione.

The relationship with Italian Islam: from the proposals of ‘Intesa’ to the ‘Patto nazionale

ABSTRACT: According to statistics, Muslims living in Italy are currently just over 1.6 million. However, despite this significant presence of Muslims on the national territory, the vast world of Islamic associations has not yet managed to sign an Intesa, an agreement that religious minorities can establish to regulate their relations with the Italian state. The reasons why Islam does not have an agreement are mainly two: the absence of an authoritative subject, representative of Italian Islam, able to act as an interlocutor with state institutions and the incompatibility between Islamic cultural values and those of a secular state. Nevertheless, covering all the stages of dialogue between the Italian government and the Islamic associations from the nineties until the conclusion of the Patto nazionale (2017), this work aims to show that the condition of legal vacuum depends on unfounded prejudices towards Islamic culture and on the lack of political will to come to terms with Islam.

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UNESCO, Religious Freedoms and World Cultural Heritage in the Old City of Jerusalem: the line of fire between challenges, comparisons and new perspectives - ​ Clizia Franceschini

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction to the role of UNESCO in defining, respecting and implementing Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: a general analysis - 2. The right to participate freely in cultural life: the specific UNESCO's involvement in the field of religious rights - 3. IHL Dimension linked to UNESCO's Legislative Powers to Protect the Cultural Heritage in the Event of Armed Conflict or Occupation - 4. UNESCO's Actions to Preserve the Cultural Heritage in Syria and Iraq: A comparative framework - 5. The Legal Status of Jerusalem and the management of the Holy Places: Jerusalem in a Nutshell - 6. UNESCO's past interventions in Jerusalem: a legal basis for future interventions - 7. The Mughrabi Gate Ascent - 8. The 2008 Action Plan for the Safeguarding of the Cultural Heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem - 9. UNESCO, Resolution 200 EX/PX/DR.25.2:“Occupied Palestine” - 10. Conclusions.

ABSTRACT: The current dissertation is mainly going to analyse the original contribution of UNESCO to the development of the concept of cultural rights through the proclamation and elaboration of normative instruments and strategies concerning the right to the protection of and access to the cultural (religious) heritage in contested areas. Since 1967, UNESCO has increasingly played a dominant role in the Old city of Jerusalem: it exercised its power in the field of the preservation of cultural heritage in a contested area, not only through practical plans, but also through legislative instruments and Resolutions. A peculiar political contest is still challenging the full exercise of its powers and the applicability of the main human rights treaty dealing with the preservation of cultural heritage in a contest of competing sovereignty. The essay, drawing on UNESCO's past restoration experiences in ancient (Aleppo, 1992) and post-conflict (Iraq, 2003) areas, focuses on the conciliation role that the Agency may potentially play in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

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Toccare con mano i nodi dell’integrazione (a proposito di saluti “proibiti” e divieto di discriminazione) - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Le possibili implicazioni religiose di una “stretta di mano” - 2. Il caso sottoposto all’esame dei giudici svedesi - 3. La pronunzia del 15 agosto 2018, n. 51, del Tribunale del lavoro svedese e la questione della ricorrenza di una “pratica religiosa” meritevole di tutela - 4. (segue) La verifica dei presupposti di una “discriminazione indiretta” - 5. L’esperienza d’Oltreoceano - 6. Identità religiosa e (dis)uguaglianza di genere - 7. La diversa incidenza, nella fattispecie esaminata, del divieto di discriminazione per motivi religiosi e del principio della parità di genere - 8. Conclusioni: la libertà religiosa della lavoratrice e i margini lasciati alle scelte di politica aziendale della società.

Dealing with the contentious points of the integration (about “forbidden” greetings and principle of non-discrimination)

ABSTRACT: Some Islamic believers adhere to a rule of behavior coming from a particular reading of the traditions concerning the life of Muhammad, so they do not shake hands with people of the other sex outside their own restricted family circle. The present paper analyzes the potential impact of such a choice, if it is carried out in the work context and it infringes specific internal company rules, which require employees to not discriminate against customers on the basis of sex. The Author, in accordance with a recent decision of the Swedish Labor Court, affirms that the limitation of the freedom of the worker can be considered a case of indirect discrimination for religious reasons. However, demanding that the woman abstains from shaking hands with persons of her own sex, as suggested by the Court, is not required by the principle of gender equality, and is not coherent with the very personal nature of the act, according to the Author.

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Modes of neutrality in the ECtHR jurisprudence related to religious matters: some critical remarks - ​ Alice Ollino

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. The meaning of State neutrality: some conceptual clarifications - 3. State’s neutrality vis-à-vis religious organizations: neutrality as absence of interference - 4. State’s neutrality vis-à-vis public education: neutrality as objectivity - 5. State neutrality vis-à-vis religious symbols in the public sphere: neutrality as exclusion of religion - 6. ‘Reversed’ patters of neutrality: the disruptive effect of Lautsi v. Italy - 7. Concluding remarks: decoding the patterns of State neutrality in the jurisprudence of the ECtHR.

ABSTRACT: This contribution discusses the notion of State neutrality in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. State neutrality has become increasingly relevant in the rulings of the ECtHR concerning religious freedom, with the Court explicitly resorting to the idea that States should act as neutral and impartial organizers of religious life within their community. Yet, the conception of State neutrality developed by the Court is inconsistent and often gives rise to criticism. By exploring the Court’s main jurisprudence in the context of religious disputes, religious education in public education, and the display of religious symbols in public spaces, this contribution seeks to disentangle the different understandings of neutrality employed by the Court and to critically engage with them.

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Ultimissime dalla giurisprudenza in materia di reati culturalmente motivati - ​ Fabio Basile

SOMMARIO 1. Considerazioni introduttive - 2. La definizione dottrinale di “reato culturalmente motivato”, e le sue “sotto-categorie” prasseologiche - 3. La giurisprudenza relativa a reati a elevata offensività - 4. La giurisprudenza relativa a reati a bassa offensività - 5. La sentenza Cass. n. 29613 del 2018. - 6. Verso un test culturale come architrave motivazionale? - 7. Considerazioni finali.

Latest News from Jurisprudence on Culturally Motivated Crimes

ABSTRACT:  The author, after having clarified the notion of culturally motivated crime consolidated in doctrine, analyzes the recent Italian jurisprudence on the topic, representing the general coordinates provided by the Court of Cassation to the interpreter in the presence of this type of crimes.

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“It is (not) a piece of cake”: libertà di espressione e politiche antidiscriminatorie in America. Note a margine del caso Masterpiece Cakeshop, Ltd. v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission - ​ Luca P. Vanoni

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Tra free speech e free exercise clauses: la libertà di coscienza nella giurisprudenza della Corte suprema (cenni) - 3. Una discriminazione nella discriminazione? Una decisione che non risolve il dilemma - 4. Kicking the can down the road: l’arte di non decidere e le dissenting/concurring opinions del caso Masterpiece Cakeshop - 5. (segue) a) l’opinion del giudice Thomas - 6. (segue) b) uno sguardo sul futuro: due (ipotetici) orientamenti prevalenti - 7. Dal saluto alla bandiera alle torte nuziali: libertà e tolleranza nella società plurale contemporanea.

ABSTRACT: The paper examines the clash between public accommodations laws and freedoms of speech and religion in America at the light of the recent decision of the U.S. Supreme Court Masterpiece Cakeshop Ltd., v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission. The case deals with the refusal of a Colorado’s bakery to provide a wedding cake to a gay couple based on the owner's religious beliefs. After explaining the decision of the Court and the position of the U.S. Supreme Court Justices in their dissenting and concurring opinions, the paper addresses the claim of freedom of speech and of the tolerance principle in the pluralistic age.

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Le mutilazioni genitali femminili come reato di genere? Un’analisi delle norme europee alla luce del concetto di violenza - ​ Lucia Bellucci

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione – 2. Le mutilazioni genitali femminili come atto di violenza nelle norme e nei documenti europei degli anni 2000 – 3. Escissione e abuso/brutalità/violenza: binomi appropriati e inevitabili? – 4. L’escissione, il dolore e la sua reinterpretazione – 5. Il rapporto dell’escissione con la comunità, la famiglia e il matrimonio – 6. La Convenzione di Istanbul, le norme francesi e i rischi per la libertà religiosa – 7. Considerazioni conclusive.

Female Genital Mutilation as a Gender-Based Crime? (An Analysis of the European Norms in Light of the Concepts of Violence and Religious Freedom)

ABSTRACT: Female genital mutilations (FGM) are ancient practices, which are widespread in several geographical areas, and particularly in Africa. The conflict between customary norms and state legal systems, which arises because FGM violate fundamental rights like the right to physical integrity, health, and non-discrimination based on gender/ethnicity/culture, discloses the dialectic between two normative universes; these universes are conceptually distant with regard to the priority given to the individual and the group. Focusing on the reasons related to female genital cutting (FGC), which consists of the ablation, to differing degrees, of female genital organs, this article, argues that the link that European norms establish between FGM and violence, abuse or brutality comes into conflict with the reasons why migrants perpetuate FGC. Therefore, the way gender is mainstreamed into European norms on FGM can have negative effects, which concern courts’ implementation of these norms and migrants’ social inclusion. Furthermore, this article claims that focusing on health instead of gender equality may prove more effective for the eradication of FGM. Through an analysis of French law, it also suggests that the way the national law is adapted to conform to the Istanbul Convention, may represent a danger to religious freedom.

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Luci e ombre di un documento controverso: la Correctio Filialis de Haeresibus Propagatis. Alcuni profili di diritto pubblico della Chiesa - ​ Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. Una premessa circa il contesto e le motivazioni della lettera al Pontefice - 2. La Correctio Filialis de Haeresibus Propagatis: punto di arrivo o di inizio di un dibattito? Antecedenti storici e parallelismi da precisare nelle argomentazioni degli estensori - 3. Un bersaglio polemico non sorprendente: l’Esortazione Amoris Laetitia. Questioni pastorali e contrapposizioni tra visioni diverse sul diritto della Chiesa - 4. Lo stylus del Pontificato. Temi giuridici e prospettive future per lo studio dell’ordo iuris ecclesiae: prime conclusioni.

Lights and shadows of a controversial document: the "Correctio filialis de haeresibus propagatis". Some outlines in Public Canon Law

ABSTRACT: The aim of this essay is to study and to analyze the current debate about recent Pope Francis’s propositions and affirmations regarding the Roman catholic doctrine and the concrete development of religious marriages in secular societies. One of the most important documents disputing the latest reforms and measures could be considered the so called “Correctio Filialis de Haeresibus Propagatis” that is intended to be a sort of manifesto of dissatisfaction and disappointment against the renewal of a comprehensive and tolerant approach in Canon Law’s rules concerning the status of divorced people and the assumed “irregular” civil unions. In spite of underlining some important aspects, probably not completely deepened by the Pope, that document at the same time undervalues the conceptual efforts to make the doctrine adequate to answer to a typical sense of restlessness in our time, even from a legal point of view.

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L’accesso dei ministri di culto islamici negli istituti di detenzione, tra antichi problemi e prospettive di riforma. L’esperienza del Protocollo tra Dipartimento dell’Amministrazione penitenziaria e UCOII - ​ Silvia Angeletti

SOMMARIO: 1. L’Islam tra le mura del carcere: le ragioni di un intervento, gli obiettivi del Protocollo - 2. Uno spiraglio di libertà: la fede in regime di detenzione, le garanzie normative e le risposte alla diversità religiosa - 3. Mediatori o ministri di culto? Un ruolo ‘sospeso’ tra definizioni giuridiche e prassi - 4. Visitate i detenuti: La questione dell’ingresso negli istituti detentivi, criticità applicative e novità del Protocollo - 5. Conclusioni.

Granting Islamic religious ministers admission to prisons, amid long-lasting issues and reformation perspectives. The Agreement between the Prison Administration Department and the Islamic Communities Union.

ABSTRACT: As religious diversity in Italian prisons grows, accommodating prisoners’ religious needs tries legal paradigms and instruments out. In 2015 the Prison Administration Department signed an agreement with UCOII, one of the largest Islamic associations in Italy, in order to grant admission in prisons to intercultural mediators and religious ministers. This article seeks to situate the covenant in the wider context of the Italian legal protection of religious freedom in prison, highlighting three main purposes of the agreement: providing Islamic prisoners with religious assistance, enforcing rehabilitative programs and combating violent radicalization in jail. After two years the experience has shown good evidences. Nonetheless, contended issues still remain unsettled. While evaluating feasible solutions, the article advocates a legislative intervention that could assess criteria and procedures for religious ministers’ access to prisons fulfilling the principle of equality and non-discrimination.

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Mediazione e Religioni: la sfida in una società complessa - ​ Salvatore Berlingò

SOMMARIO: 1. Annotazioni preliminari - 2. Complessità sociale e complessità giuridica - 3. Modalità alternative di composizione delle controversie - 4. Dal diritto imposto (Ge-setz) al diritto mediato e/o partecipativo - 5. Complementarità fra sostegno politico dei diritti e mediazione dialogica delle fedi - 6. Le (non facili) condizioni di praticabilità del modello di complementarità/distinzione - 7. L’irriducibilità della sfera religioso-fideistica alla sfera politica - 8. Alcune clausole di salvaguardia per le prospettive avvenire.

Mediation and Religions: the challenge in a complex society

ABSTRACT: Globalization makes social relations increasingly complex, because it favors the introduction and the spread in the same sphere of a plurality of cultures that are often difficult to combine. The proper task of law, that is the one of regulating the cohabitation of people in an equitable manner, is harder in this context, but it can be enhanced with the help of the mediation carried out by religious communities, though the criterion of complementarity/distinction between the order of political conventions and the order of religious convictions is respected.

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I delitti contro il sentimento religioso: tra incriminazione dell’opinione e tutela della libertà di manifestazione del pensiero - ​ Fabio Basile

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: il vilipendio quale “reato d’opinione” - 2. L’evoluzione dei delitti contro il sentimento religioso - 3. (segue): la riforma del 2006 - 4. La sentenza della Corte costituzionale n. 188 del 1975 - 5. L’esercizio del diritto di libera manifestazione del pensiero quale causa di giustificazione (art. 51 c.p.) - 6. Le più recenti applicazioni della giurisprudenza di legittimità - 7. Chiusa.

Are the crimes against religious sentiment compatible with the exercise of freedom of expression?

ABSTRACT: The crimes against religious sentiment, provided by the Italian Criminal Code, are mainly framed as “crimes of opinion”. Therefore, it should be ascertained whether and how those crimes are compatible with the exercise of freedom of expression, guaranteed as a fundamental right by Art. 21 of the Italian Constitution. The paper provides an overview of the jurisprudence – of ordinary courts and the Constitutional Court – and of the legislative evolution since 1930s about the crimes against religious sentiment.

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Uguaglianza nella diversità. Identità religiose e democrazia costituzionale - ​ Marco Parisi

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Disegno costituzionale e rigidità politico-normative: quale strada per una equilibrata disciplina del fenomeno religioso? - 3. Conclusioni.

Equality in diversity. Religious identities and constitutional democracy

ABSTRACT: The entry into force of the new system after the fall of fascism did not constitute the resolutive element to mark a decisive turning point in the Italian ecclesiastical politics, with the implementation of a system of reforms in religious matters consistent with the innovative will of the institutional change that occurred in the Country. The consequence is that, seventy years after the adoption of the Republican Constitutional Charter, many normative provisions still conform to the inspiring principles of the fascist system, and there are many impediments to the concrete realization of the principles of freedom and democracy, with serious damage for the enjoyment of constitutional guarantees by spiritual minorities. With the approval of a general legislation on religious interests, the equal enjoyment of the fundamental rights could be achieved, both for individuals and for groups, within a framework of definitive overcoming of the fascist penalizing legislation and of fixation of the regulatory law criteria of the various treatments to protect spiritual specificities.

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Enti ecclesiastici e Terzo settore. Annotazioni prospettiche - ​ Giuseppe Dalla Torre

SOMMARIO: 1. 1. Nuovi orizzonti - 2. Un caso positivo di secolarizzazione - 3. Codice del Terzo settore e iniziative caritative della comunità ecclesiale - 4. Opportunità aperte da un’alternativa - 5. L’azione caritativa tra diritto speciale e diritto comune.

ABSTRACT: Except for the matter of the clergy sustenance, the current discipline of the Concordat on ecclesiastical institutions is still affected, in spite of everything, by the conditioning deriving from juridical schemes dating back in time, which sacrifice and make precarious their solidarity activities. The fall of the diffidence of the Italian legal system towards the initiatives between the State and the Market, and therefore the recent reform of the Third sector with the enhancement of the non-profit organization’s activities, represent a precious opportunity for the charitable initiatives of the ecclesial communities.

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Libertà di coscienza e religione alla prova della post-modernità: la prospettiva giusfilosofica di Martha C. Nussbaum - ​ Andrea Romeo

SOMMARIO: 1. “A tradition under threat”. Antropologia della paura e tendenze esclusiviste delle comunità dominanti - 2. La tradizione filosofica del pensiero costituzionale: Williams, Madison e i princìpi cardine della tradizione di “religious fairnes” - 3. Forme di Benign Establishment: critica alla tesi della “presunta innocuità” e interpretazione autentica del principio di separazione - 4. Neutralità statale e speciale considerazione del fenomeno religioso: un rapporto problematico.

Liberty of conscience and liberty of religion on the challenge of the post-modernity: the Martha C. Nussbaum's philosophical jurisprudence

ABSTRACT: Nussbaum is one of the prominent defenders of the North American liberal tradition, threatened by the post-modern tendency to the exaltation of elements from the mainstream religion and the creation of in-groups between citizens. In his writings, the philosopher reproposes the value of liberal tradition by trying to show the impossibility to justify even the most venial forms of the benign establishment, as in the case of state-sponsored-religious-displays. The article focuses on Nussbaum'arguments, in a critical perspective.

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Quando la religione si interseca con la tutela di genere: quale impatto sulle dinamiche dell’accoglienza? (prime osservazioni a margine di Cass., sez. I, 24 novembre 2017, n. 28152) - ​ Adelaide Madera

SOMMARIO: 1. Fenomeno migratorio, istanze di protezione internazionale e risposte degli ordinamenti europei - 2. Riconoscimento dello status di rifugiato e fattore religioso - 3. La recente pronunzia n. 28152 del 2017 della Corte di Cassazione - 4. La valorizzazione della prospettiva di genere nel sistema di protezione internazionale - 5. L’intersezione religione/genere quale pivot di una protezione rafforzata di soggetti particolarmente deboli.

The Intersection between Religion and Gender Protection: Which Impact on the Dynamics of Hospitality? (Preliminary Remarks to Court of Cassation, Section I, 24 November 2017, No. 28152)

ABSTRACT: The intersection between immigration, citizenship, integration in the EU countries is a challenging topic for scholars and religion is becoming a crucial factor. Transnational space allows the development of new meanings, negotiation of identities, interaction of religious actors and practices and integration/participation has an impact on the identity of migrants. The increase of migrations from non-European countries, and the impact of new religious needs underlines the question of whether religious belonging is a factor of either empowerment or disempowerment in the host society. At the same time, migrations in an era of economic crisis emphasize skepticism and hostility towards Islamic groups; refugees and asylum seekers, and the questions connected with international protection have become other controversial issues, contributing to the development of a growing anti-immigrant attitude. Modern democracies are expected to offer answers to increasing demands of international protection; at the same time international protection is becoming a strategic tool to obtain hospitality in European countries, and to avoid the limits connected  to access for economic reasons. Recent Italian case law witnesses the development of a gender-sensitive perspective and focuses on the increasing link between religion, gender and international protection.

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Lavoro, retribuzione e diritti nell’opera di Charles Péguy: suggestioni e riflessioni per il canonista - ​ Vincenzo Pacillo

SOMMARIO: 1. Mistica dell’uguaglianza e mistica del lavoro - 2. La città armoniosa - 3. Il denaro - 4. Anticapitalismo mistico e tradimento della fraternità.

Labor, remuneration and rights in the writings of Charles Péguy: suggestions and reflections for the canonist

ABSTRACT: Both in "Marcel: premier dialogue de la cité harmonieuse" and in "L'argent", Charles Péguy creates an aesthetic of work that emphasizes the fundamental relationship between the creative activity of man, spirituality and fraternity. Manual labor is at the same time an instrument of creation of the social bond and the fulcrum of the connection between the temporal element and the spiritual one. At the same time, Péguy appears very critical of the commodification of labor in capitalist society, where money is not a mere tool for exchange but an economic goal in itself. The dignity of work and respect for the principle of fraternity are today in question following the recent reforms of the Italian labor legislation; reforms that seem far removed from the perspective outlined in the writings of Charles Péguy.

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Riflessioni su diritto e religione a margine del Martin Luther King Day - ​ Giancarlo Anello

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Advocate of the social Gospel: Martin Luther King e il percorso americano di riforma della legislazione sui diritti civili - 3. Post-colonialismo e terzomondismo: Martin Luther King e i percorsi di liberazione su scala globale - 4. Martin Luther King e Gandhi, Cesar Chavez e Sayyed Qutb - 5. Conclusioni: diritti religiosi, giustizia globale e stato di diritto.

Remarks about Law & Religion for the Martin Luther King Day

ABSTRACT: April 4, 2018 commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the death of Martin Luther King jr., in Memphis-Tennessee. The importance of Martin Luther King’s personality goes far beyond the borders of United States and spreads on the global scale. The present paper concerns the universality and the present impact of Martin Luther King’s legacy, considering also the European context. The paper analyses in brief the history of Martin Luther King, taking into account both his activism in the US and his international criticism against global issues such as post-colonialism and third-worldism; a second part is dedicated to the so called religious “global left” of the 50s and 70s. Conclusions show how and why the global religions have still to be considered a critical background for the rule of law, its inequalities and its injustices.

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La questione della riconoscibilità civile del divorzio islamico al vaglio della Corte di giustizia dell’Unione europea (a margine della pronunzia del 20 dicembre 2017, C-372/16) - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Notazioni introduttive - 2. I termini della vicenda da cui origina il rinvio pregiudiziale e la competenza della Corte di giustizia a pronunziarsi sulla questione controversa - 3. La portata applicativa del regolamento n. 1259 del 2010 e le sentenze dei tribunali religiosi - 4. Le implicazioni di carattere sistematico della pronunzia in rapporto al principio di incompetenza dell’Unione nella materia ecclesiastica o religiosa - 5. I dubbi sostanziali circa la riconoscibilità in Europa del ripudio islamico - 6. Conclusioni.

The issue of the civil recognizability of the Islamic divorce by the EU Court of Justice (considerations on the ruling of December 20th 2017, C-372/16)

ABSTRACT: The present paper takes as a starting point a recent ruling by the EU Court of Justice concerning the issue of recognizability of Islamic repudiation under the EU Regulation No. 1259/2010. After assessing the conditions underlying the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice to rule on such a controversial matter, the Author excludes that the religious judgments fall within the scope of the aforementioned regulation (and within the purpose of Regulation No. 2201/2013), also in light of the so-called principle of the Union’s incompetence in ecclesiastical or religious matters. Moreover, although the unilateral repudiation is to be considered contrary to the principle of public order of the moral and legal equality of the spouses, the Author concludes that, consistently with the current trend of many legal systems to give increasing broader space to the “negotiating” management of the marriage bond, effective protection of the principle of equality should involve letting women, in some particular situations, have the choice of concretely enforcing that principle.

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Note su religione e Gestalt politica nel primo Hegel - ​ Carlo Sabbatini

SOMMARIO: 1. “La grande tragedia del popolo ebraico” - 2. Il superamento della scissione tra religione, filosofia e politica - 3. La “terza forma di religione” e la ricostruzione dell’ethos pubblico.

Notes on religion and political Gestalt in the young Hegel

ABSTRACT: The young Hegel identifies in the Jewish theocracy a model based on the split between divine and human, finite and infinite which confines man in an irrecoverable subordination and separation from nature and the rest of mankind. Hegel contrasts it with the idea of the Greek polis and its religion as a strengthening of ethical and political unity. Christ hasn’t succeeded in bridging the rift which marks not only the Jewish culture but also reproduces itself in modern intellectualism, which proceeds by separations and oppositions and culminates in the abstractness of modern law. Christ founded a community of love, renouncing the confrontation with reality, supinely accepted; nevertheless, the Christian idea of incarnation, together with the Greek suggestion of the unity of the being as a whole, seems to be decisive for the Hegelian attempt to think of the philosophical unity of opposites, indicating a way that is also religious (as visible union of the community in the cult) and political (as sacrificing of that which is particular and egoistic). In the transition from the Frankfurt to Jena, Christianity is recovered by Hegel as a premise for a new religion that ought to overcome the oppositions of modern intellectualism and rediscover the unity of the popular ethos.

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Salvaguardia dei dati sensibili di natura religiosa e autonomia confessionale. Spunti per un’interpretazione secundum Constitutionem del regolamento europeo n. 2016/679 - ​ Manuel Ganarin

SOMMARIO: 1. Esigenze di uniformazione delle fonti europee di diritto derivato e protezione del principio di favor religionis nella Carta costituzionale italiana. Alla ricerca di un punto di equilibrio - 2. Possibilità e limiti di esenzione dalla normativa europea circa il trattamento dei dati personali intraconfessionali - 3. Ammissibilità di soluzioni normative confessionali ‘complete’ e ‘conformi’ al regolamento europeo ... - 4. … e di un intervento dello Stato volto al ripristino della legalità costituzionale - 5. Gli strumenti di tutela: il ruolo dell’autorità di controllo nazionale e di un’ipotetica authority confessionale nella prospettiva di un coordinamento interordinamentale necessitato.

Protection of sensitive religious data and confessional autonomy. Reflections for an interpretation secundum Constitutionem of the European regulation n. 2016/679

ABSTRACT: The contribution proposes an interpretation in conformity with the Italian Constitution of the European regulation n. 2016/679 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data, which will be applied in the Member States from 25 May 2018. An interpretation that protects the constitutional principle of confessional autonomy and the fundamental rights and freedoms of the person, reconciling them when necessary.

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Alcuni spunti di comparazione tra diritto italiano e diritto ebraico in tema di maternità surrogata - ​ Enrica Martinelli

SOMMARIO: 1. Il divieto di maternità surrogata nell’ordinamento italiano - 2. Diritto ebraico e bioetica - 3. “Crescete e moltiplicatevi”. Il precetto divino di procreare e la maternità surrogata nel diritto ebraico - 4. Conclusioni.

Some starting points for comparison between Italian law and Jewish law on surrogate motherhood

ABSTRACT: Recent scientific progress in reproductive biotechnologies implies significant transformations in terms of the value and culture of the concept of maternity, which is no longer attributable to the legal definition of “mother” offered by Italian civil legislation. Assisted reproductive technologies separate the reproductive aspect and sexual union of the couple, finally leading to the metamorphosis of the relational dynamics underlying the “family identity” and the birth of new types of biolegal contracts. The study sets out to compare the approach that the Italian legal system reserves for the phenomenon of surrogacy with that which has developed at the heart of Jewish law. The interesting variety of opinions of the rabbinical authorities, which express both the Orthodox positions and the more progressive ones, show how Jewish speculation around bioethical reproductive issues has led to a respectful comparison of knowledge and judgements of the minority opinions that enter, with equal dignity, into the legal debate and are enhanced by the absence of a superior interpretation.

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Osservazioni sulla proposta di legge “Norme in materia di libertà di coscienza e di religione” elaborata dal gruppo di lavoro coordinato dalla Fondazione ASTRID - ​ Gianfranco Macrì

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Crisi e persistenza del modello pattizio. Riscrivere la trama della libertà religiosa in Italia - 3. Una proposta “flessibile” orientata alle differenze e all’interazione - 4. I nuovi confini della libertà religiosa della persona - 5. La libertà di coscienze e di religione del minore - 6. Scuola pubblica, libertà religiosa e “nuovi spazi” di confronto per tutti: quello che serve e quello che la proposta non dice - 7. L’integrazione attraverso il lavoro - 8. Assistenza spirituale e libertà di manifestazione del pensiero - 9. Gli spazi della libertà religiosa e i “luoghi della memoria” - 10. Ministri di culto e non solo - 11. Per una libertà religiosa collettiva veramente democratica: rilievi critici - 12. La società cambia, la legge dello Stato arranca, il matrimonio “canonico” resta - 13. Intese per tutti? - 14. Quello che manca nella proposta di legge – 15. Conclusioni.

Remarks on the Bill Proposal "Norms on Freedom of Conscience and Religion" Made by the Working Group Coordinated by the Astrid Association

ABSTRACT: This contribution is a comment on the draft law on religious freedom proposed by some scholars of the ASTRID Foundation. The law is proposed in the context of a national and European political environment, which is constantly changing and evolving. This analysis is focused on some specific aspects of the proposal, by assessing their limits and their potential offers some theoretical reflections with the aim of contributing to a scholarly and intellectual debate, which should offer arguments, aimed at promoting and protecting fundamental freedoms and rights as envisaged by the Constitution.

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La fatale attrazione tra diritto sacro e diritto secolare nel modello israeliano: la giurisdizione dei tribunali rabbinici in materia di matrimonio e divorzio - ​ Livia Saporito

SOMMARIO: 1. La giurisdizione dei tribunali rabbinici in materia di status personale: il matrimonio e il divorzio nel diritto halachico e nei più recenti orientamenti giurisprudenziali - 2. Diritto, stato e religione nel modello giuridico israeliano: religious law vs. secular law? - 3. L’incorporazione diretta del diritto ebraico nel modello israeliano: law as religion, religion as law - 4. Beis Din, identità religiosa e risoluzione alternativa delle controversie.

The fatal attraction between religious law and secular law in the Israeli legal system: the jurisdiction of the rabbinical courts in matters of marriage and divorce

ABSTRACT: This article explores a unique case study of privatized family law in a liberal democratic state in the Western world: Israel. The complex relationship among law, religion and state presents characters quite peculiar in the Israeli experience. Due to historical and cultural reasons, among the systems belonging to western legal tradition, there is no other country that experiences more intensely the problem of religion’s place. In matters of marriage and right to divorce, the Israeli system nominally adheres to exclusive religious law and jurisdiction, by means of rabbinical courts, but religious and civil systems interact profoundly, shaping its family law as a hybrid creature of civil and religious legal elements. Unlike what happens in other countries, such as Canada, United Kingdom or United States, the Supreme Court of Israel has not yet undertaken a detailed policy analysis of the balance between the rights and obligations of the husband and wife in the process of enforcing divorce judgments, but sanctions against recalcitrant spouses in Rabbinical courts in Israel have been addressed in light of the principles of Jewish and constitutional law. The implementation of fundamental rights in family law matters, specifically the one of equality between spouses, is a prerogative of the jurisprudence of secular courts.

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Quando la libertà prevale sulla morale: la pubblicità - ​ Nicola Colaianni

1 - La questione, cruciale nelle società multiculturali, dell’uso della simbologia religiosa è tornata sotto la supervisione della Corte europea dei diritti umani, che già se n’era occupata più volte per i segni portati attraverso o per complemento dell’abbigliamento personale e una volta anche per quelli esposti nei luoghi pubblici. Stavolta si trattava di citazioni, o meglio allusioni, evangeliche utilizzate a scopo di marketing da un'azienda lituana che produce vestiti: tre manifesti, diffusi anche sul web, con la foto di un uomo e una donna con l'aureola, lui tatuato in jeans, lei con un vestito bianco e una collana di perline, che sembra una corona di rosario. L'allusione a Gesù e Maria si trae dalle frasi esclamative: "Gesù, che pantaloni!", "Gesù, Maria! Cosa indossate!", "Cara Maria, che vestito!" (segue).

Sometimes freedom of expression overrides public morals: the case of advertising

ABSTRACT: This article examines the case Sekmadienis v. Lithuania, where the European Court of human rights found that the advertisements by a clothing company, despite using models and captions referring to “Jesus” and “Mary”, did not offend public morals. Nevertheless the balancing in favour, for once, of freedom of expression is due not to a revirement but, essentially, to two factors: the advertisements neither were gratuitously offensive nor incited hatred and, on the other hand, domestic authorities did not provide sufficient justifications for why such use of religious symbols would had been contrary to public morals. Therefore, it’s an assertion not of secularism in front of religion but – the author says quoting Pier Paolo Pasolini - a new laicity, that does not compete with religion: the advertising laicity, born in middle-class entropy.

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Il secolarismo all’ombra dei minareti: il principio costituzionale di laicità nella Turchia moderna e contemporanea - ​ Marco Galimberti

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa introduttiva - 2. La Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tra eredità islamica e legittimazione internazionale - 3. La laicità dello Stato: il fondamento della nuova identità nazionale - 4. Le forze armate e la Corte costituzionale: i ‘custodi’ della laiklik - 5. La parabola dell’AKP: dall’impulso riformista alla recente involuzione autoritaria - 6. Le implicazioni giuridiche del fallito golpe del 2016.

Secularism in the shadow of the minarets: the constitutional principle of secularism in modern and contemporary Turkey

ABSTRACT: The present essay deals with the so-called ‘laiklik’, namely the Kemalist understanding of the constitutional principle of secularism implemented in the Turkish legal framework over the last century. The analysis takes as a starting point the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey and focuses firstly on the staunch protection of secularism by its traditional ‘guardians’ (i.e. the army and the Constitutional Court). In particular, it is argued that the rhetoric of secularism has been exploited by the ruling élites with the aim to curb religious, cultural and political pluralism. Subsequently, the paper investigates the controversial policies adopted by the AKP - the moderate pro-Islamic party in power uninterruptedly since 2002 - and the rule of law crisis recently occurred in the country. In this regard, the author eventually seeks to assess the aftermath of the coup attempt failed in July 2016, by giving special attention to its short and long-term implications in the light of Turkish secularism.

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La libertà religiosa, i diritti delle comunità islamiche. Alcune considerazioni critiche su due progetti di legge in materia di moschee e imam - ​ Gianfranco Macrì

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione: per un pluralismo “ragionevole” di fronte ai mutamenti sociali - 2. Dalla teoria alla pratica: alcuni aspetti della “questione” islamica nelle contraddizioni politiche e giuridiche del presente - 3. Una premessa di metodo: la libertà religiosa nel modello democratico costituzionale. Aporie persistenti e spunti di riforma (ma siamo ancora agli inizi) - 4. Diritto fondamentale alla moschea vs “Registro pubblico delle moschee” - 5. Un Albo per gli imam (e altre cose) - 6. Conclusioni.

Religious Freedom and the right of Muslim communities. Some critical remarks on two recent draft laws on mosques and imams

ABSTRACT: This contribution starts from the proposal of two draft laws on Islam in Italy (one on the legal status of mosques and the other on imams), which deal with concrete issues that the country faces, taking into consideration the multicultural context of Italy. So far, the approach of the Italian political class has been quite conservative and not willing to take into account possible solutions offered by the Constitution, such as the protection of basic human rights. The solutions have been more focused on the potential lack of trust towards Muslim communities and on legal solutions not fully integrated within a wider European approach. The proposed solutions appear therefore to be more the result of ad hoc approaches, influenced by considerations of real politik, than tools fully in line with the requirements of the Constitutional protection of human rights.

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Le proposte di legge Santanchè-Palmizio sul registro delle moschee e l’albo degli imam: un tentativo di refurbishment della legge n. 1159/1929? - ​ Antonello De Oto

SOMMARIO: 1. Il contenuto delle proposte di legge c. 2976 e c. 3421 (Garnero Santanchè e Palmizio) e i profili di incostituzionalità - 2. La necessità politico-normativa di un altro approccio agli Islam. Rivitalizzazione dello strumento delle Intese e legge generale sulla libertà religiosa come antidoti alla lenta deriva del riassetto normativo della legge sui culti ammessi - 3. Allegati.

The law Santanchè-Palmizio proposals about the Mosques and Imams register: a refurbishment attempt of the law n.1159 / 1929?

ABSTRACT: The article examines and comments the contents of the legislative proposals c. 2976 and c. 3421 (Garnero-Santanchè and Palmizio) and their unconstitutionality profiles . At the end of this parliamentary term, this examination is also the basis for thinking about political and normative necessity of another approach to Islam and, at the same time, revitalizing the Agreements instrument and the general law of religious freedom, so that they can constitute a concrete antidote to the slow and creeping drift of the normative reorganization of the law on the admitted cults.

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Le Sharia Court in Gran Bretagna. Storia ed evoluzione dei tribunali islamici nel Regno Unito - ​ Alessandro Negri

SOMMARIO: 1. Le Sharia court: origini, attività e scopi - 2. Alcuni dati statistici - 3. Un’ulteriore evoluzione: l’Arbitration Act e il Muslim Arbitration Tribunal - 4. Il discorso dell’arcivescovo di Canterbury e reazioni - 5. Il Private Members’ Bill della baronessa Cox - 6. La risposta dell’Islamic Sharia Council - 7. Un dibattito ancora in corso: Friend or Foe?

Sharia Courts. History and evolution of Muslim courts in the United Kingdom

ABSTRACT: In the last thirty years the United Kingdom has experienced the formation and surge of so-called Sharia courts or councils, unrecognised Muslim tribunals with purpose of settling disputes using Islamic religious law. Their stated objectives include providing advice and assistance in the operation of Muslim family life, establishing a bench of scholars to operate as a council, making decisions on matters of Muslim family law, and promoting an enlightened practice of the Muslim faith by Muslims living in the UK.

This paper analyses the origins, evolution and functioning of these councils, with emphasis on the lively public debate initiated in 2008 following the Archbishop of Canterbury’s remarks and followed with the bill proposed by Baroness Cox. An overview of the relations between Sharia councils and the State is presented, while providing insight on future scenarios.

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Intendersi sulle intese - ​ Fulvia Abbondante Salvatore Prisco

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: la richiesta di intesa con lo Stato dell’Unione degli Atei, Agnostici e Razionalisti - 2. Le tappe successive di una emblematica vicenda giudiziaria - 3. L’eticizzazione del diritto tra riconoscimento costituzionale dei “valori”, sviluppi della tecnologia, circolazione transnazionale dei diritti e ruolo supplente della giurisprudenza - 4. Dalle religioni tradizionali ai “nuovi culti”: un breve panorama socio-culturale del fenomeno e dei suoi riflessi giuridici - 5. Le confessioni religiose tra politica e diritto: un approccio problematico al caso italiano - 6. Politica e giurisdizione nelle intese di cui all’art. 8, terzo comma, e in quelle di cui all’art. 116, terzo comma, della Carta costituzionale.

The agreements with State of organized religious groups as juridical problem

The paper, starting from the recent decision of Italian Constitutional Court no 52/2016 which denies the obligation of the Government to begin a negotiation with an atheistic group which wanted to reach an agreement with state according to art. 8, 3, of the Italian Constitution, examines the Italian Constitutional jurisprudence and doctrinal debate about the definition of organized religious group and about the political nature of the governmental power in starting agreement with the State.

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Lo Stato laico costituzionale di diritto di fronte all’emergenza del terrorismo islamista - ​ Francesco Alicino

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La lunga tradizione del diritto islamico - 2.1. La norma religiosa nelle impostazioni radicalizzanti - 3. La reazione dei legislatori e il ruolo dei giusdicenti. Brevi considerazioni sul caso degli USA - 3.1. Brevi considerazioni sul caso della Francia - 4. La reazione dei legislatori e il ruolo dei giusdicenti in Italia - 5. Conclusioni.

ABSTRACT: What is the real relationship between the existing forms of (religious) terrorism and Islam? And how do the Western constitutional democracies react in times of emergency and threats of so-called Islamic terrorism? The article tries to answer these questions, focusing the attention on specific issues, such as those referring to the Islamic tradition - and the relative legal system - and some national legal orders, like the USA, France and Italy.

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“Un giogo salutare per l’intelligenza”: dogma religioso e libertà politica nella Democrazia in America di Tocqueville - ​ Carlo Sabbatini

SOMMARIO: 1. In forma di premessa - 2. L’immensa maggioranza degli spiriti -  3. Una forma particolare della speranza: religione e libertà tra dispotismo e repubblica - 4. Dal dogma teologico al dogma della maggioranza -  5. Quale religione? - 6. Contro la patologia del dubbio - 7. Polvere intellettuale: il metodo filosofico tra America ed Europa - 8. Chiesa e Stato tra America e Francia - 9. Democrazia e Cattolicesimo americano - 10. Una democrazia cristiana: Stato e Chiesa nell’ ‘ultimo’ Tocqueville.

“A salutary yoke on the intellect”: Religious Dogma and Political Freedom in Tocqueville’s Democracy in America.

ABSTRACT: The essay examines the relationship between religion and politics in Tocqueville's thinking, with particular attention to the synergy between Christianity and the development of democratic institutions, studied by the author in the United States. In the two volumes of Democracy in America, he observes that the doctrine of Christianity, subject to a process of popularization characteristic of American social dynamism, constitutes an essential connective tissue, through which the principle of equality permeates custom, law and institutions. This stabilization function finds a fundamental premise in the separation between spiritual and temporal sphere, which allows the former not to be bent to the conveniences of the second and, above all, not to be subjected to attacks which, as in the French Revolution, have confused and condemned it with its institutional form under the ancien régime. Such a circumstance, according to Tocqueville, has deprived society of the fundamental ethical background that unites it, neglecting above all the powerful egalitarian message that he identifies as a general character of Christianity and in particular of Catholicism, which he thinks even more appropriate to the democracy as the Protestant faith and which, by acting on custom, would enable the establishment and development of an indigenous democratic model also in France.

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Security and Religious Radicalization. Securitization of Islam in Europe - ​ Agustìn Motilla

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. General measures of the anti-terrorist laws; social surveillance and immigration control - 3. Antiterrorist laws and Islam: the securitization of Muslims in western countries - 4. The enforcement of measures affecting Muslim population not directly related to security: the vague criminalization of Islam - 5. Effects of the measures direct or indirectly justified on security reasons in religious freedom; specially related to Muslim population - 6. Closing remarks; positive statements in the construction of the European Union framework.

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“A ognuno la sua croce”. Notazioni sparse in tema di ostensione istituzionale dei simboli cristiani nella sfera pubblica europea (con particolare riferimento all’art. 28 della legge francese di separazione) - ​ Angelo Licastro

SOMMARIO: 1. Delimitazione del tema d’indagine - 2. Gli epigoni giurisprudenziali del caso Lautsi in una recente sentenza del Tribunale Amministrativo Regionale per la Sardegna - 3. L’art. 28 della legge francese di separazione del 9 dicembre 1905 - 4. Il banco di prova dei monumenti ai caduti edificati dopo la legge del 1905 - 5. Le oscillazioni interpretative della giurisprudenza amministrativa in materia di esposizione dei presepi - 6. I dubbi sulla “riscrittura” dell’art. 28 operata dal Conseil d’État - 7. Le sorti della statua “fuorilegge” di papa Giovanni Paolo II - 8. La “prova di forza” della Slovacchia nella vicenda della moneta commemorativa dei Santi Cirillo e Metodio - 9. Conclusioni: trasfigurazione dei simboli o della laicità?

To each his own cross”. Disparate remarks concerning the public display of Christian symbols in the European public sphere (with specific regard to Article 28 of the French Separation Law)

ABSTRACT: The present essay takes as a starting point some recent case law on the so-called “institutional” display of religious symbols (and in particular Christian symbols), in Italy and other European countries. The analysis focuses on both the French legal system and some recent rulings of the administrative jurisprudence, which seems to mark a shift from the more consolidated and traditional reading keys of the “secularism”.

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La protección de los bienes culturales de la Iglesia católica: la experiencia italiana - ​ Beatrice Serra

SUMARIO: 1. El concepto de bien cultural de interés religioso en el ordenamiento intaliano y el peculiar relieve cuantitativo y cualitativo de los bienes culturales de interés religioso referibles a la Iglesia católica - 2. El recorrido, paralelo y autónomo, del Estado y de la Iglesia hacia una disciplina concordada de los bienes culturales de interés religioso - 3. El art. 12 delAcuerdo de Villa Madama: el principio de cooperación entre el Estado y la Iglesia en su respectivo ordenamiento para la tutela del patrimonio histórico y artístico - 4. La armonización de la aplicacón de la ley italiana en materia de bienes culturales con las exigencias de carácter religioso: el interés nacional - 5. (continuación) Los acuerdos a nivel regional - 6. Breves consideraciones conclusivas.

ABSTRACT: The article reconstructs the evolution of the protection of the historical-artistic heritage of the Catholic Church in Italy as a revealing index of ways of understanding the relationship between temporal dimension and spiritual dimension.

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Lo status di rifugiato religioso nelle fonti del diritto internazionale: le nuove frontiere delle libertà dello spirito - ​ Daniele Ferrari

SOMMARIO: 1. Libertà religiosa e protezione internazionale: note introduttive e di metodo - 2. La nozione di religione perseguitata - 3. I contenuti di tutela della libertà religiosa dei perseguitati - 4. Le condizioni di riconoscimento dello status di rifugiato religioso - 5. La procedura di valutazione delle domande - 6. Conclusioni.

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Misure di prevenzione e de-radicalizzazione religiosa alla prova della laicità (a margine di taluni provvedimenti del Tribunale di Bari) - ​ Vera Valente

SOMMARIO: 1. Terrorismo e fenomeno religioso - 2. Politiche della sicurezza e diritti fondamentali - 3. La legislazione italiana contro il terrorismo nell’interpretazione giurisprudenziale - 4. Misure di prevenzione. Ampliamento delle categorie di pericolosità qualificata e prescrizioni atipiche - 5. Misure di prevenzione e libertà religiosa - 6. Best practice. Il provvedimento del Tribunale di Bari, Misure di Prevenzione, n. 71 del 2017 - 7. Il percorso di de-radicalizzazione.

Religious prevention and de-radicalization measures to the test of secularity (at the margin of some of the Court’s measures of Bari).

ABSTRACT: The article examines how the terrorist emergence of Islamic matrix has reproached the issue of reconciliation between the need for security and the protection of the rights of liberty, in particular religious freedom. It highlights the need to accompany, to purely punitive nature rules, the spread of a novel paradigm, covering preventive interventions, educational and formative, in order to promote intercultural and inter-religious integration. The decree of the court, which, in accordance with the principle of secularism, has prescribed, in view of the social recovery of the subject proposed for the application of the prevention measure, a process of de-radicalization, through the involvement of an intercultural mediator, on the basis of Guide-lines developed by the University of Bari.

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Diritto, religione, cultura: verso una laicità inclusiva - ​ Mario Ferrante

SOMMARIO: 1. Comunicazione interculturale e relazioni interetniche nella società globale - 2. Il precedente storico della Sicilia normanna di Ruggero II - 3. Identità religiosa e convivenza multiculturale - 4. L'esigenza socio-culturale di una legge generale sulla libertà religiosa - 5. Laicità e principio di uguaglianza.

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Challenges of Pluralistic Societies with Dissimilar Cultural Identities and Religious Legal Traditions: ADR and the Role of Religious Mediation and Arbitration - ​ Gloria M. Morán García

Summary: 1. The Challenges of Pluralistic Societies with Dissimilar Cultural Identities and Religious Traditions: from a Melting Pot to a Cultural Mosaic - 2. European Catholic Tradition of Dual Legislation and Jurisdiction: 2.1. The Development of the Religious Jurisdiction: from the Episcopalis Audientia under the Christian Roman Empire to the Homologation of Religious Decisions by a Civil Judge – 2.2. The Development of Secular and Religious Jurisdictions: from the Leges Barbarorum et Romanorum under the Principle of Personality to the Medieval Dual Jurisdiction in Europe – 2.3. Religious Minorities under Christian Rulers – 3. Muslim Legal Tradition of Plural Jurisdictions: 3.1. Muslim Empires and the Dhimma System – 3.2. Islamic Communities in Transition: from the Pre-colonial Era to the Colonial Rule – 3.3. The Exceptionality of Palestine and Israel- 4. Toward a Global World: Legal Pluralism and the Development of ADR. The Role of Religious Mediation and Arbitration: 4.1. The American Experience in Religious Arbitration: the Jewish Beth Din Courts and the Challenge of Islamic Arbitration – 4.2. Confronting the Fear of Islamic Arbitration Tribunals in the UK, Canada, and Australia - 5. Conclusions.

Abstract: Most of juridical systems are historically developed from the interaction of two main legal principles: the principle of personality and the principle of territoriality. Roman Law is one of the best examples of it; its legacy channeled the growth and coexistence of religious and secular jurisdictions in the Germanic kingdoms of Western Europe. Under the principle of personality of laws, bonding individuals to their cultural or religious communities, legal pluralism was the common grounds from the Antiquity to the pre-Modern era. However, as a result of the religious wars in the Holy Roman Empire between Catholics and Protestants in the 16th and the 17th centuries, the Westphalian state model reinforced a territorial religious jurisdiction under the principle cuius regio eius religio, allowing the ruler to impose his religion on his subjects. The Muslim legal tradition developed, as well, plural juridical systems from the Dhimma System. One of them was the Ottoman Millet system that was adapted from the colonial era to the most of Middle East nation-states as a bonding personal religious law applied to non-Muslim communities. The secular paradigm of the Rule of Law, centralizing and reinforcing state and federal legislative powers, is implemented in Europe and her former colonies in the 19th century under the nation-state constitutional model, expanding worldwide the principles of territoriality and citizenship. As a result, religious legal systems are progressively confined to the private sphere. However, the secular paradigm is confronted gradually by a new development of legal pluralism, mainly as an effect of an extensive increment of global migrations; Halakha or Jewish Law, Canon Law or Catholic Law, Sharia or Islamic Law, are gaining strength as formal or informal religious ADR under the principle of Religious Freedom. Religious legal systems are becoming an innovative tool of mediation, conciliation, and arbitration accepted by some secular jurisdictions around the world, although there is a polarized debate about it. In today´s global world, which are the lessons to be learned from legal traditions and contemporary models of legal pluralism? Can religious legal systems become a tool of mediation for restorative justice preventing and exiting from violence? This article addresses this juridical and social challenge from an interdisciplinary comparative analysis.

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Codificazione etica e deontologia nei settori del lavoro, del mercato e della finanza. La libertà di coscienza e la transizione dall’oeconomicus corporativismo professionale alla democratica cooperazione interculturale - ​ Fortunato Freni

SOMMARIO: 1. I gruppi etico-deontologici e il diritto della polis democratica alla luce dei recenti cambiamenti sociali vissuti dalle identità collettive - 2. I codici di autoregolamentazione nel settore del lavoro - 3. Il mercato tra codificazione etica ed eteroregolamentazione - 4. Le recenti opportunità di lavoro socialmente utile offerte dalle tecnologie social alle smart communities - 5. La nuova sensibilità deontologica nel mondo finanziario: le banche etiche e la finanza islamica - 6. La rilevanza nell’ordine della polis dei vari tipi di norme contenute nei codici deontologici: attualità e prospettive inter- e/o trans-culturali.

Codes of ethics and Deontology in the fields of Labor, Market and Finance. Freedom of Conscience and the Transition from Oeconomicus Corporatism to Democratic Intercultural Cooperation

ABSTRACT: The paper analyzes the recent relevance of deontological codes, from which a process of enriching the concept of deontology seems to emerge. This is increasingly understood not only in a corporatist way as an ethics of conduct within the category of reference, but also in a democratic way as the ethics of service made to the polis by professional communities, which now, in the overall world of work, appear ethically inspired in the most varied ways. Following the development that freedom of conscience has experienced in its various forms of collective exercise, we are positively experiencing new patterns of work organization where deontology represents a synthesis between moral and law. Similarly, to churches, even some professional communities have useful, non-utilitarian relationships, and open to democratic intercultural cooperation, with their multiform and typical ways of working in the service of the human person, elected to lifestyles or spiritual missions. In order to encourage and extend this phenomenon of greater ethical accountability of free professions, some legal channels will be analyzed to better harmonize the use of those new deontological standards with legal rules in order to ensure balance and order at a general level, and to avoid the social dissociation in neo-corporatist groups.

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L’odio proibito: la repressione giuridica dello hate speech - ​ Gianmarco Gometz

SOMMARIO: 1. Discorsi odiosi - 2. La repressione giuridica delle idee odiose: vecchie difese, nuovi difesi - 3. Le ragioni del contrasto giuridico ai discorsi d’odio - 4. Due direttrici nella giustificazione della repressione giuridica del discorso d’odio.

Forbidden hate: the legal repression of hate speech

ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is two-folded. First, it offers a general overview of the legal repression of various categories of expressive behaviours ascribed to the notion of hate speech. Especially in Europe, such repression often passes through criminalization, long since used by law to suppress thoughts or points of view for some reason considered harmful. The social groups nowadays protected by such repressive measures, however, are different from the past: weak and/or minoritarian groups rather than strong and/or majoritarian ones. The second aim of this work is to identify the reasons for the legal repression of expressions, beliefs or doctrines certainly in many cases morally deplorable, yet protected by other high-ranking legal reasons: the principles of freedom of thought and speech. It will be noted that especially for untargeted hate speech not connected to a clear and present danger of unlawful actions, there is no general agreement about those reasons. Furthermore, they tend to be structured in justifications showing some typical flaws of, respectively, deontological and teleological reasoning: the former tend to be superficial as apodictic, generic and vacuous; the latter tend to evade the argumentative burdens of factual order from which their validity depends.

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Il governo locale del pluralismo religioso - ​ Letizia Mancini

Sono molto grata all’amico Giuseppe Casuscelli per avermi invitato a partecipare a questo incontro. Stato, Chiese e pluralismo confessionale è una rivista che seguo con grandissimo interesse fin dalla sua fondazione. È uno strumento prezioso, del quale ho sempre apprezzato in particolare la vocazione trasversale e interdisciplinare. Questa qualità non deriva solo dal fatto che il pluralismo è questione che si presta appunto ad analisi trasversali e interdisciplinari, ma è frutto di una precisa scelta editoriale, quella cioè di accogliere punti di vista differenti, approfondimenti e riflessioni di studiosi di discipline e di generazioni diverse. Come sociologa del diritto mi sono occupata di pluralismo culturale e religioso soprattutto in riferimento ai movimenti migratori che di tale pluralismo costituiscono il principale fattore nella società italiana. A partire dal titolo di questo incontro, mi sono allora chiesta se in questi dieci anni abbiamo assistito a un progressivo riconoscimento del pluralismo religioso e, di conseguenza, del godimento di diritti legati alla libertà religiosa e al suo esercizio.

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Laïcité en marche. L’Hexagone à l’épreuve - ​ Sara Domianello

La lecture de l’ouvrage de Philippe Portier, L’État et les religions en France. Une sociologie historique de la laïcité, est particulièrement stimulante pour ceux qui s’intéressent à la recherche des facteurs favorisant l’évolution des formes et des techniques juridiques élaborées par un Etat face au phénomène religieux.

De ce point de vue spécifique, j’apprécie l’effort accompli par Portier pour exposer et argumenter la thèse selon laquelle, à l’intérieur des lignes brisées qui délimitent le polygone correspondant à l’espace géopolitique occupé par la France continentale - et qui ont conduit à calquer la figure géométrique définie dans son emploi originel de “laïcité hexagonale” comme synonyme de laïcité à la française -, se serait en fait inscrit peu à peu, à partir d’un certain moment historique et pour l’avenir, un modèle vivant de laïcité tout autre que dur et rigide, qui aurait progressivement amené la France à s’adoucir par rapport aux religions et mériterait donc d’être représenté par un dessin plus conforme à la réalité actuelle. (continue)

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Religious education in Italian public schools: what room for Islam? - ​ Stella Coglievina

SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction - 2. Religious education in Italian public schools: general framework - 3. Religious education in public schools: the situation of Islam - 3.1. Some data about the Islamic presence in Italy - 3.2. Religious education and Islam - 4. The religious education in plural Italy: challenges and gaps - 5 - Muslims at school and Religious Education: which solutions? - 5.1 Alternative 1: private schools - 5.2 Alternative 1-bis: Homeschooling - 5.3 Alternative 2: introduction of lessons about religion - 5.4 Alternative 3: Muslim pupils and their participation in the Catholic religion lessons - 6. Conclusions: challenges, problems and future perspectives.

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The courts and the code. Legal osmosis between religion and law in the cultural framework of civil law systems - ​ Antonio Fuccillo Ludovica Decimo Francesco Sorvillo

SUMMARY: 1. The value of religious law in modern (and secular) states - 2. Religious rules and individual choices in Europe - 3. Religious law and the fields in which it can operate effectively - 4. The rules of religious courts in civil legal systems - 4.1 ... The direct referral to religious laws - 4.2. The pronounces of religious courts and its importance for faithful - 5. The development of Religious Arbitration Courts in Italy - 6. Does religious jurisdiction another side of religious freedom?

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La codificazione del diritto compromette la sua flessibilità? Il diritto canonico comparato con altri diritti religiosi - ​ Burkhard J. Berkmann

SOMMARIO: 1. Cento anni di codificazione - 2. Il bisogno di flessibilità - 3. Varietà degli strumenti di flessibilizzazione - 4. I motivi della flessibilità - 5. Necessità - 6. Utilità - 7. Motivi teologici - 8. Flessibilità e codificazione - 9. La codificazione porta all’irrigidimento? - 10. La codificazione agevola i cambiamenti? - 11. Varie funzioni della flessibilizzazione - 12. Piano interpretativo, applicativo o legislativo?

Does the Codification of Law affect its Flexibility? The Catholic Canon Law compared to other Religious Laws

ABSTRACT: Epieikeia in Greek philosophy and aequitas in Roman law are ethical principles, which are open to a religious as well as a secular justification. They are part of the instruments of flexibility that make any legal tradition smooth and adaptable. Jewish and Islamic law as well as Catholic and Orthodox Canon Law apply different kinds of such instruments. A comparison of these legal systems leads to multiple observations: Some scholars, such as Max Weber, considered religious laws to be immutable. In fact, however, they ascribe great significance to flexibility, since they give priority to the spiritual development of individuals. Since many religions are unfamiliar with changes of law by means of legislation, they depend on methods of flexibility to adapt to new social situations. Even those religions, which do have legislation and even codifications, put particular emphasis on instruments of flexibility in order to apply general and abstract norms to individual cases in an appropriate manner.

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Medicina di frontiera nel Mediterraneo multietnico, tra pluralismo etico, culturale e normativo - ​ Alberto Marchese

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: flussi migratori e problematiche sanitarie, una nuova sfida per la pacifica convivenza nel Mare nostrum - 2. Tutela della salute e normativa di riferimento: profili etico-giuridici - 3. Stranieri regolari e irregolari - 4. L’assistenza sanitaria per i “richiedenti asilo” - 5. Gli stranieri temporaneamente presenti (S.T.P.) - 6. Gli apolidi e i rifugiati per motivi politici - 7. Alcune notazioni conclusive.

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Il ritorno al Concilio Vaticano II e l’„aggiornamento” del diritto ecclesiale nel tempo di Papa Francesco - ​ Antonino Mantineo

Sommario: 1. Riprendere dal Concilio Vaticano II - 2. Un’ecclesiologia rinnovata e l’„aggiornamento” del diritto ecclesiale - 3. Il Dio-Misericordia, principio ermeneutico del diritto della Chiesa - 4. Collegialità e sinodalità: dalla potestas iurisdictionis al communionis primatus.

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L’educazione religiosa dei figli nei matrimoni misti: l’ordinamento canonico tra diritto e pastorale - ​ Roberta Colombo

SOMMARIO: 1. L’educazione religiosa dei figli nell’ordinamento civile: diritto dei genitori e libertà dei minori - 2. L'educazione religiosa della prole nell’ordinamento canonico: un diritto-dovere dei genitori - 3. Educare religiosamente nei matrimoni misti nel codice di diritto canonico - 4. Diritto canonico particolare e orientamenti pastorali - 5. Riflessioni conclusive.

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La libertà di religione in Italia dieci anni dopo - ​ Nicola Colaianni

SOMMARIO: 1. Indivisibilità delle libertà – 2. Imprescindibilità della giurisdizione – 3. Libertà negativa: a) legislazione – 4. (segue:) b) giurisdizione – 5. Libertà positiva – 6. Pluralismo – 7. Diritto ecclesiastico futuro.

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La formazione dei ministri di culto di recente insediamento in Italia - ​ Federica Botti

SOMMARIO: 1. Nuovi compiti del Diritto ecclesiastico - 2. L’attività dei ministri di culto stranieri in Italia - 3. Un nuovo orientamento nelle politiche governative - 4. Un Corso di formazione e di educazione al rispetto dei valori costituzionali – 5. Caratteristiche e limiti dell’attività di formazione.

ABSTRACT: The article addresses the issue of the formation of religious ministers and members of religious communities as stakeholders and at the same time opinion leaders of migrant communities, placing this activity among the new tasks of Ecclesiastical Law. Considering the rules governing the activity of the foreign religious ministers in Italy, the government policies adopted to promote the inclusion of migrants are re-established, highlighting the new strategies adopted by the Italian Ministry of Interior to educate to an active citizenship the population of the new settlements on national territory. The article explains in detail the didactic methodologies adopted, motivates the use of interdisciplinary and a dialogic didactic to deal with the value themes subject to a training course aimed at education and respect for constitutional values. The article ends with a critical reflection on the characteristics and limits of this training activity.

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Aperture eutanasiche e aporie nel documento del Cortile dei Gentili “Linee propositive per un diritto della relazione di cura e delle decisioni di fine vita” - ​ Tommaso Scandroglio

SOMMARIO: 1. L’oggetto del presente contributo - 2. Bene vita e ordinamento giuridico - 3. Il Cortile dei Gentili apre all’eutanasia - 4. Pianificazione condivisa di cure e Dichiarazioni anticipate - 5. Profili di criticità delle D.a.t.

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Oltre il muro dell’intolleranza. Luci e ombre della benedizione nella scuola tra libertà religiosa e laicità dello Stato - ​ Tiziana Di Iorio

SOMMARIO: - 1. La libertà religiosa: brevi cenni - 2. Libertà di coscienza e libera formazione delle coscienze - 3. Istanze identitarie, libertà religiosa e principio di uguaglianza - 4. Fattore religioso e semantiche radici della laicità dello Stato - 5. Attività religiose e pratiche di culto nella scuola pubblica: il quadro normativo - 6. Il rito di benedizione nella scuola pubblica: revirement giurisprudenziale - 7. La recente sentenza del Consiglio di Stato, 27 marzo 2017, n. 1388 - 8. Atti di culto nello spazio pubblico e finalità formativa della scuola - 9. Conclusioni.

Breaking through the wall of intolerance. Lights and shadows of Easter blessing in State schools between religious freedom and laical nature of the State

ABSTRACT: Religious freedom is a fundamental human right protected by Italian Constitution. Which are the limits to be respected in case of religious practices inside Italian State schools? This paper examines the meaning of “religious freedom” and the essence of State “secular” nature; then focuses on a recent case, which caused a debate on the boundaries between Church and State, about Easter blessing rite in State schools. The Court of first instance argued that blessing is a religious rite and it cannot be held in State schools; the Supreme Administrative Court rejected this ruling, claiming that Easter blessing in State schools is to be permitted, it being an exercise of religious freedom not violating State secular nature. Religious symbols and rites in public places are not to be considered a violation of the State secular nature. The Italian State does not hold any religious belief of any religion, but can create conditions conducive to religions.

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La libertad de enseñanza de las confesiones religiosas entre libertad de expresión y discurso del odio - ​ Adoración Castro Jover

SUMARIO: 1. Introducción - 2. Libertad de enseñanza de las confesiones religiosas, autonomía y límites - 3. Aproximación general a los delitos de odio. Particular referencia al artículo 510 del Código penal español - 4. Libertad de enseñanza de las confesiones religiosas y delitos de odio. Algunos ejemplos -5. Libertad de expresión y discurso del odio en el Consejo de Europa - 6. Libertad de expresión y discurso del odio. Una perspectiva constitucional -7. Conclusiones.

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Vivere la transizione. La fine del monopolio delle scienze ecclesiasticistiche e la difficoltà di gestire le nuove dimensioni del fenomeno religioso - ​ AA. VV. Silvio Ferrari Giovanni B. Varnier Giuseppe Casuscelli Giovanni Cimbalo Daniela Milani Antonio Fuccillo Salvatore Berlingò Domenico Bilotti Luigi Mariano Guzzo Maria Gabriella Belgiorno de Stefano Vittorio Parlato Mario Ricca

L’insegnamento delle scienze ecclesiasticistiche tra mali antichi e mali nuovi: un confronto ma senza scontri*

SOMMARIO: 1. L’insegnamento universitario dellescienze ecclesiasticistiche - 2. Le trasformazioni della società e la regolamentazione giuridica del fenomeno religioso – 3. Le nuove dimensioni della ricerca - 4. La realtà accademica – 5. Le possibili risposte.

* in AA. VV. (Silvio Ferrari e altri), Vivere la transizione ..., pp. 4-11

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La “morte digitale”, le nuove forme di commemorazione del lutto online e il ripensamento delle idee di morte e d’immortalità - ​ Giovanni Ziccardi

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: la “morte digitale” - 2. Le piattaforme tecnologiche, il diritto e la gestione degli utenti defunti - 3. La morte “in diretta” e la condivisione online del lutto - 4. Il fenomeno dei selfie funerari - 5. Le cerimonie funebri trasmesse in live streaming - 6. L’evoluzione del lutto: da offline a online - 7. Il ripensamento collettivo in corso - 8. L’immortalità tecnologica - 9. Il problema della “dipendenza” e della “confusione” - 10. Alcune considerazioni conclusive.

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Lavoro, discriminazioni religiose e politiche d’integrazione - ​ Livia Saporito Francesco Sorvillo Ludovica Decimo

SOMMARIO: 1. La forza sociale delle religioni negli attuali scenari geopolitici - 2. Libertà religiosa, selezione lavorativa e integrazione nel mondo del lavoro - 3. La tutela della libertà religiosa nel rapporto di lavoro -3.1 Le discriminazioni religiose nei rapporti di lavoro nel quadro del diritto primario dell’Unione europea - 3.2 La giurisprudenza comunitaria - 3.3 L’incidenza del precetto religioso sul rapporto di lavoro - 3.4 La “presenza” delle religioni nei luoghi di lavoro: profili simbologici - 4. Istanze religiose e diritto negoziato nelle politiche d’integrazione - 5. Diritto, religione e sfide dell’integrazione.

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Pluralità di etnie, di religioni, di Stati in Medio-oriente; il terrorismo islamico - ​ Vittorio Parlato

SOMMARIO: 1. Le ripartizioni islamiche – 2. La realtà cristiana mediorientale - 3. Gli Yazidi - 4. Chiese etniche e realtà statuali in Medio-oriente – 5. Il sistema degli statuti personali - 6. Valutazione negativa da parte dell'Islam della laicità dello Stato - 7. Irrealizzabilità di uno stato laico in Medio-oriente - 8. Atti terroristici e fondamentalismo islamico. È guerra di religione?

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Sport, religione e pluralismo culturale: le molteplici forme di lotta alla discriminazione etnico-confessionale - ​ Antonello De Oto

SOMMARIO: 1. Identità e alterità nello sport. Religioni, etiche e culture a confronto - 2. L’avvento della pluralità nel diritto sportivo e la (quasi) finita stagione della neutralità - 3. La discriminazione etnico-confessionale nella pratica sportiva. Gli strumenti normativi e istituzionali europei di contrasto alla condotta discriminatoria - 4. Quando il mondo dello sport arriva prima: la nascita del c.d. ius soli sportivo (legge 20 gennaio 2016 n. 12).

Sport, religion and cultural pluralism: the multiple forms of contrast to the ethnic-confessional discrimination

ABSTRACT: The article deals with the theme of recognizing and regulating identity and diversity in sport with a focus on religious element and the recent and gradual change of attitude of sports federations with respect to it, moving slowly from the time of secularity-neutrality in sport to the recognition of the athlete's religious identity. The second part of the paper examines the theme of ethnic-confessional discrimination in sporting practice and analyzes the European normative and institutional instruments for contrasting discriminatory behavior and the prospects for this action coordination, also taking into account the birth of the “c.d. Ius soli sportivo” (Law 20 January 2016 No. 12) in Italy, a great innovation for a Country as ours still argues, at the level of citizenship, in a logic of “ius sanguinis”

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Pluralismo, laicità e crisi della rappresentanza politica - ​ Claudio Luzzati

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Post-confessionismo e laicità - 3. Religioni, morale e istituzioni - 4. La situazione odierna. La sentenza della Corte costituzionale n. 52 del 2016 - 5. Pluralismo buono (o, forse, anche cattivo) e frammentazione sociale. È la fine della politica?

Pluralism, Secular Society and the Crisis of Political Representation

ABSTRACT: How can the value pluralism deal with the problems rising from a split society where many comprehensive doctrines, belongings and religious identities can no more find something in common? This paper tries to focus such a question taking a closer look at Italy.

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On legal and factual grounds of relevance of confessional cemeteries and religious sites of common cemeteries to real estate property objects for religious purposes - ​ Vladislav V. Bagan

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction: formulation of the Problem – 2. The genesis of the legal status of religious cemeteries – 3. The meaning of confessional cemeteries and religious sites of common cemeteries, attached in different religions – 4. The nature of confessional cemeteries from the perspective of the right – 5. The issue of confessional graves in the Russian Federation legislation – 6. The theme of religious burials in the judicial practice of the courts of the Russian Federation – 7. Conclusions.

ABSTRAC: The article is devoted to problems arising in implementation of the provisions of Federal Law from 30.11.2010 № 327-FZ (as amended on 23.06.2014) «On the transfer of property for religious purposes under state or municipal property to religious organizations». The article studies legal and factual grounds of relevance of confessional cemeteries and religious sites of common cemeteries to the category of real estate property objects for religious purposes.

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Alcuni “malintesi” di Wilhelm Röpke sull’ordo iuris ecclesiae - ​ Domenico Bilotti

SOMMARIO: 1. Una giustificazione morale del liberalismo economico – 2. Il rifiuto della coercizione e la riscoperta della buona fede contrattuale – 3. Libertà economica come presupposto delle libertà fondamentali – 4. L’inavveduta equivalenza tra socialismo e socialdemocrazia – 5. Una ricostruzione suggestiva, ancorché limitativa, dei rapporti tra Cristianesimo, antichità classica e diritto occidentale – 6. Contro l’adesione del clero e dei cristiani poveri alle dottrine socialiste – 7. Note sulla dottrina sociale, tra dogmatismo e problemi concreti – 8. Possibili conclusioni: la necessità di un’analisi dei rapporti tra fedi religiose ed economia.

ABSTRACT: In spite of being widely regarded as a typical liberal conservative scholar, Wilhelm Röpke has shown a sincere interest on Canon Law’s history and social doctrine of the Church during his career and studies. The aim of this essay is to consider how Röpke tried to link this cultural and philosophical perspective to a strong adhesion to economics and liberalism. His theses maybe had an apologetic argumentative limit, just in order to justify his devotion to the Christian roots of European Law, but it does not mean that Röpke has not expressed any interesting issues, still useful in current juridical and confessional debate.

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“A chiare lettere” - Transizioni • Nel primo anniversario della “Dichiarazione sui diritti delle minoranze religiose nei Paesi a maggioranza musulmana” (g. c.)* - ​ Giuseppe Casuscelli

Tra pochi giorni sarà trascorso un anno da quel 27 gennaio 2016 in cui 250 eminenti studiosi islamici , riuniti a Marrakech e provenienti da oltre 120 nazioni, hanno sottoscritto una “ Dichiarazione sui diritti delle minoranze religiose nei Paesi a maggioranza musulmana” rivolgendo l’appello a sviluppare una giurisprudenza islamica sul concetto di cittadinanza inclusiva di tutti i gruppi religiosi. L’incontro si era tenuto su invito del Ministero della Promozione e degli Affari Islamici del Regno del Marocco e del Forum per la Promozione della Pace nelle società islamiche , con sede negli Emirati Arabi Uniti. All’evento avevano partecipato cinquanta leader di altre religioni e rappresentanti delle organizzazioni islamiche e internazionali. L’incontro proseguiva lungo il cammino tracciato ad Abu Dhabi nel 2014 con la nascita del Forum for peace , inteso a mostrare al mondo che l’Islam “is a religion of peace and justice”, cui aveva fatto seguito nel 2015 un secondo Forum inteso a ristabilire “ the priorities of Muslim societies by rehabilitating hearts and intellects to a more thorough understanding of the salience of peace in Islam, the shariah, and our tradition”.

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Pubblica sicurezza e tutela dell’autonomia confessionale. Riflessioni a partire dalla negazione delle pubbliche esequie per i mafiosi - ​ Fabio Balsamo

Sommario : 1. La costante applicazione degli artt. 26-27 T.U.L.P.S. alle ipotesi di funerali di mafiosi – 2. Il caso dei funerali pubblici negati al boss Giuseppe Barbaro e la “protesta” del Parroco di Platì. Un’ipotesi di lesione dell’autonomia confessionale? – 3. L’imposizione di funerali in forma privata e la dimensione essenzialmente comunitaria del rito delle esequie nel diritto canonico – 4. La privazione delle esequie ecclesiastiche tra tutela dell’autonomia confessionale e potere di intervento dell’autorità di pubblica sicurezza – 5. La rilettura del dovere di reciproca collaborazione tra Stato e Chiesa alla luce del comune impegno contro le mafie. Alcune attuali criticità – 6. Verso nuovi confini del dovere di collaborazione: l’assunzione di un impegno comune di Stato e confessioni religiose contro il crimine organizzato.

Public safety and protection of confessional autonomy. Reflections from the denial of public funerals for mobsters.

ABSTRACT: Measures taken by Italian Quaestors in order to prohibit public funerals for mobsters have an impact also on decision-making autonomy recognized at the ecclesiastical authority by canon 1184 C.i.c. on the same field. The recent Catholic Church’s commitment against mafias requires that what is decided by public authorities to ensure the public policy and public safety must be observed together to the measures laid down by Canon Law, with the aim to avoid the risk of a conflict between Italian and Canon Law. That’s why it’s necessary to give new meaning to the cooperation principle that State and Catholic Church have decided to carry on since 1984. Lastly, it would be appreciated if a similar principle could be extended to all religious faiths in Italy, in order to improve the potential contribution of all religions in combating and preventing organized crime.

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Laudato si’: per un’ecologia autenticamente cristiana - ​ Laura De Gregorio

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Tra novità e continuità - 3. Laudato si’ e la cura della casa comune - 4. Relazioni fondamentali ed equilibrio ecologico – 5. Il dono della creazione - 6. L’ordine nella creazione e le relazioni tra le creature - 7. L’uomo e la creazione - 8. Crisi ecologica, crisi umana, crisi sociale - 9. Il tempo superiore allo spazio – 10. Il cammino dell’uomo - 11. Linee di orientamento e di azione: la politica - 12. Linee di orientamento e di azione: l’economia - 13. Conclusioni.

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The Question of the Legal Nature and Status of Real Estate Objects for Religious Purposes - ​ Roman V. Tupikin

SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. Degree of the subject study – 3. - Legal framework, empirical, and other source basis of the research – 4. Conclusions.


ABSTRACT: The article is devoted to research of the texts of foreign laws, regulations, and concordats on property relations between the state and religious institutions, on property rights of religious institutions and property relations in religious institutions (regarding property objects for religious purposes), on the status of some property objects for religious purposes. The author of the research analyzed the features of legal and contractual regulation of property relations of religious institutions and the status of property objects for religious purposes. The methodological foundation of the research presented has comparative and legal research method as the basis

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“Amor virtutis” – “timor disciplinae” [Vocazione etica e precettività disciplinare] - ​ Piero Bellini

SOMMARIO: 1. «Deus summus Legislator: summus Iudex» - 2. « Bene facere: bonum facere» - 3. «Lex divina ad hoc ordinat hominem ut sit totaliter subditus Deo» - 4. «Opus operantis: opus operatum» - 5. « Sine dilectione boni nullus Deo placere potest » - 6. «Sollicitudo sacerdotalis: sollicitudo praelatitia» - 7. «A Deo omnia, et in Deum»: «nulla vita est quae non sit a Deo» - 8. «Sine dilectione boni nullus Deo placere potest» - 9. «Voluntas facit opus meritorium, non opus voluntatem» - 10. «Deus agit in homines per homines» - 11. «Homines vident ea quae parent: Deus autem intuetur cor» - 12. «Quodlibet factum vel dictum potest esse scandalum» - 13. «Non sunt mali cogendi ad bonum» - 14. «Animus non est cogendus, sed cogenda est actio» - 15. «Coacta servitia Deo non placent» - 16. «Quicumque ad bonum cogitur solo timore non amore ducitur» - 17. «quies fidelium: ordo constitutus» - 18. «Discrimen soporis animae» .

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Dalla carità alle Caritas: un itinerario giuridico - ​ Nicola Fiorita

SOMMARIO: 1. Nozione di carità - 2. Un breve intermezzo: economia, giustizia e carità nell’Islam - 3. La carità come dovere e come servizio universale - 4. Dalla carità alle attività caritative - 5. L’azione del singolo fedele - 6. L’azione comunitaria: nascita delle Caritas .

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Oltre il diritto. Per un approccio dialogico tra cittadinanza e religione - ​ Gianluca Tracuzzi

SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa – 2. Dallo stato di natura al contratto sociale – 3. Conclusioni: dallo stato di natura (“inter -statale”) alla “trasfigurazione” del Leviatano.

ABSTRACT: This article aims at analyzing the relationship between citizenship and religion, taking its inspiration from the Thomas Hobbes’ thought. The Author try to propose a dialogue-based approach between the two different conceptual categories, also considering the fibrillations of today’s geo-political scenarios, starting from the Mediterranean area. In this perspective, he thinks that we need a necessary "transfiguration" of the Leviathan in order to promote – through a fertile dialogue between aims and values – a deeper revision of both the concept of sovereignty and the role of a constitutional State. Which is even more relevant with the reference to the issues of today’s multicultural society.

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Religions and Ethno-Religious Differences in Bosnia and Herzegovina. From Laboratories of Hate to Peaceful Reconciliation - ​ Francesco Alicino

SUMMARY : 1. Introduction - 2. The Politicization of Religion and the Nationalization of Confessions - 3. The Place of Religion and Religious Confession - 4. The Constituent (Chosen) People and Religious Power-Sharing Mechanism - 5. The Education System and Religious Education - 6. The Legal Status of Churches and the State-Religions Relationship - 7. Conclusion.

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Protezione internazionale e persecuzione per motivi religiosi: la giurisprudenza più recente - ​ Miriam Abu Salem Nicola Fiorita

SOMMARIO: 1. Prime considerazioni su diritto di asilo e protezione internazionale – 2. La giurisprudenza italiana - 3. La nozione di persecuzione religiosa secondo la Corte di Giustizia – 4. La Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo torna sul diritto di asilo: conversione, apostasia, rischio di persecuzione.

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Libertà religiosa e circoncisione in Italia: una questione di specialità confessionale - ​ Antonio Angelucci

SOMMARIO: 1. Note introduttive - 2. La rilevanza sociale del fenomeno - 3. I principi costituzionali di riferimento - 4. La tutela pattizia ( segue ) - 5. ( segue ) e giurisprudenziale - 6. Circoncisione e sanità pubblica - 7. Riflessioni conclusive e prospettive.

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