SOMMARIO: 1. Fenomeno migratorio, istanze di protezione internazionale e risposte degli ordinamenti europei - 2. Riconoscimento dello status di rifugiato e fattore religioso - 3. La recente pronunzia n. 28152 del 2017 della Corte di Cassazione - 4. La valorizzazione della prospettiva di genere nel sistema di protezione internazionale - 5. L’intersezione religione/genere quale pivot di una protezione rafforzata di soggetti particolarmente deboli.
The Intersection between Religion and Gender Protection: Which Impact on the Dynamics of Hospitality? (Preliminary Remarks to Court of Cassation, Section I, 24 November 2017, No. 28152)
ABSTRACT: The intersection between immigration, citizenship, integration in the EU countries is a challenging topic for scholars and religion is becoming a crucial factor. Transnational space allows the development of new meanings, negotiation of identities, interaction of religious actors and practices and integration/participation has an impact on the identity of migrants. The increase of migrations from non-European countries, and the impact of new religious needs underlines the question of whether religious belonging is a factor of either empowerment or disempowerment in the host society. At the same time, migrations in an era of economic crisis emphasize skepticism and hostility towards Islamic groups; refugees and asylum seekers, and the questions connected with international protection have become other controversial issues, contributing to the development of a growing anti-immigrant attitude. Modern democracies are expected to offer answers to increasing demands of international protection; at the same time international protection is becoming a strategic tool to obtain hospitality in European countries, and to avoid the limits connected to access for economic reasons. Recent Italian case law witnesses the development of a gender-sensitive perspective and focuses on the increasing link between religion, gender and international protection.
SOMMARIO: 1. La preminenza della dignità sulla libertà - 2. La dignità di chi non conta niente: i migranti - 3. Ci può essere libertà senza dignità? - 4. La luterana libertà del cristiano e la sua secolarizzazione - 5. Un’Europa infedele alla sua ispirazione - 6. Analogia dei conflitti politici odierni con quelli religiosi passati - 7. I migranti, banco di prova per l’Europa e per le Chiese - 8. L’attuale condizione dei migranti - 9. La libertà dignitosa come fonte dell’unità politica europea.
SOMMARIO: 1. Libertà religiosa e protezione internazionale: note introduttive e di metodo - 2. La nozione di religione perseguitata - 3. I contenuti di tutela della libertà religiosa dei perseguitati - 4. Le condizioni di riconoscimento dello status di rifugiato religioso - 5. La procedura di valutazione delle domande - 6. Conclusioni.
SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa: flussi migratori e problematiche sanitarie, una nuova sfida per la pacifica convivenza nel Mare nostrum - 2. Tutela della salute e normativa di riferimento: profili etico-giuridici - 3. Stranieri regolari e irregolari - 4. L’assistenza sanitaria per i “richiedenti asilo” - 5. Gli stranieri temporaneamente presenti (S.T.P.) - 6. Gli apolidi e i rifugiati per motivi politici - 7. Alcune notazioni conclusive.
SOMMARIO: 1. Prime considerazioni su diritto di asilo e protezione internazionale – 2. La giurisprudenza italiana - 3. La nozione di persecuzione religiosa secondo la Corte di Giustizia – 4. La Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo torna sul diritto di asilo: conversione, apostasia, rischio di persecuzione.
Sommario : 1. Premessa – 2. Breve analisi del problema dei punti di osservazione nell’attività conoscitiva - 3. I punti di osservazione e l’“evento genocidio” – 4. Conclusione: il punto di osservazione giuridico.
The Legal Definition of Genocide and the Problem of the Observation Points : Some Considerations about David Luban’s Perspective
ABSTRACT : This brief paper concerns with the question of the legal definition of genocide , ie, and in more practical terms , with the problem about the opportunity of modifying “The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide” adopted by United Nations General Assembly in 1951 , which is still today the standard legal definition of genocide . What I propose here, is to join and support the conclusions expressed by Professor Luban the 2006 article Calling Genocide by Its Rightful Name , but following a different line of argumentation. To this end, I intend to divide the paper in two parts: 1) in the first one I will carry out some general considerations about the problem of knowledge , as a matter of definition. And in particular I will try to offer some guidance on the complex issue of the “ observation points”, such as central elements of the activity of knowing and defining a particular object of knowledge . 2) In the second part I will try to apply these results to the question of “ genocide” as a possible object of knowledge and definition .
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. Divieto di tortura e persecuzioni religiose nella giurisprudenza della Corte Europea dei Diritti dell’Uomo – 3. La nozione di persecuzione religiosa nella giurisprudenza della Corte di Giustizia dell’Unione europea e divergenza rispetto alla Corte di Strasburgo – 4. Conclusioni.
Religious Persecutions and Asylum Law in the case law of European Supranational Courts
ABSTRACT: The rise of restrictions on religious freedom, resulting in the denial of fundamental rights in many parts of the world, has caused an increase in asylum requests in many European countries. This article compares and contrasts the approaches of the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union, highlighting common approaches and divergences. Part I introduces the topic. Part II discusses the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. Part III compares and contrasts the approach of the Strasbourg Courts with a recent decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Part V concludes arguing for the need of further development of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights in line with the recent developments in EU law.
SOMMAIRE: 1. Introduction - 2. Une issue retentissante: la concrétisation d’une protection conventionnelle contre les persécutions religieuses - 3. Un raisonnement parcellaire: les apories de l’analyse européenne à l’aune de la liberté de religion - 4. Conclusion - 5. Jurisprudence liée - 6. Appendice .
ABSTRACT : By banning deporting of a coptic christian by France to Egypt, where he might suffer persecution, European court of human rights has made an important contribution to the protection of foreigners against measures involving expulsion. The European solution is important because it deals with a complex, but crucial, concept: religious persecution. Unfortunatly, the opportunity offered by this case hase not been fully exploited. Freedom of religion was at the heart of this case, but European court did’nt use it enough.
SOMMAIRE: 1. Introduction – 2. Le contexte factuel et les questions préjudicielles – 3. La réponse apportée par la Cour de justice – 4. La Convention de Genève cède la place à la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme.
SOMMARIO: Directive 2004/83/CE – Normes minimales relatives aux conditions que doivent remplir les ressortissants des pays tiers ou les apatrides pour pouvoir prétendre au statut de réfugié – Conditions de l’octroi du statut de réfugié – Article 9 – Notion d’ «actes de persécution» – Existence d’une crainte fondée d’être persécuté – Atteinte grave à la liberté de religion – Ressortissants pakistanais membres de la communauté religieuse Ahmadiyya – Actes des autorités pakistanaises visant à limiter le droit de manifester sa religion en public.
SOMMARIO: 1. Il diritto umanitario nei conflitti armati - 2. La codificazione del diritto umanitario - 3. Diritto della guerra e diritto della pace - 4. L’articolo 11 della costituzione italiana - 5. La protezione internazionale dei diritti e delle libertà della persona - 6. Conclusioni.
ABSTRACT: The military operators must also assure the peace with the weapons and, above all, the persons responsible of the operations must give test of great sensibility because busy to conjugate laws and rules war with the objectives of pacification. The authorities responsible for the operations at any time they need to know what they can or must do and what orders impart; they must know what it cannot do or what should be avoided. The international humanitarian law, important part of the international law, is constituted by conventional and consuetudinary norms that are applied in the relationships among States with a specific objective: to protect in time of armed conflict the people who do not take part or do not take more part in hostilities and impose bans or limits to the use of means offensive, of sophisticated weapons and methods of warfare in situations of armed conflict in act or to avoid sleepwalking. The codification of the international humanitarian law is initiated in the century XIX, above all when it was tried to introduce with the Declaration of Petersbourg in 1868 a principle that individualized in the contrariety to the laws of the humanity the impassable limit to respect in the armed conflicts. The codification has received then force and importance after the second world conflict that the consciences of the people had struck with the systematic practice of the most merciless violence making to record million of deads. The fundamental importance of the 1949 Geneva four Conventions is unanimously recognized. They are based on ratio of the existence and the responsibilities of the Organization of United Nations; they have properly constituted the central nucleus of the said humanitarian law and they can be also considered as a reaction of the civilization towards the unheard of violences committed toward civil populations, prisoners and deporteds. In this reflection it is normal entirely a reference to the rules of engagement that accompany every military operation. The rules of engagement substantially have an operational content and the busy soldiers on the field set their attention on these rules more and more that in practice they represent a daily vademecum , not only because they individualize the chain of command. Their juridical value depends on the single arrangements that of it therefore responsible. The word "war" in the contemporary age it doesn't boast an uncontested right of citizen anymore in the international relationships. Our constitution in art. 11 among the fundamental principles enact that Italy repudiates the war as an instrument of offense against the freedom of other peoples and as ameans of resolving international disputes. The war, as an instrument normally used in the past in the relationships among States, it is not in our juridical arrangement anymore. In 1948 started a very strong commitment to the universal level and at regional level; so much so that today we can count at least 130 Conventions and agreements for the protection of human rights, in various respects, for different situations. The reference to the international obligations placed to protection of the people led us to remember what has been written recently, i.e the two systems, the traditional humanitarian law and the recent human rights, with different historical training and technical configuration, based on a common philosophical basis, the affirmation of the value of the person, and tend toward the common goal of ensuring a stable and effective protection in every circumstance, that is then condition of world peace.
SOMMARIO: 1. La sentenza di condanna del Tribunale internazionale per il Ruanda - 2. Il conflitto etnico nel Ruanda ed il genocidio dei Tutsi. La costituzione del Tribunale internazionale - 3. L’eccidio nella chiesa di Nyange ed il comportamento del responsabile della parrocchia - 4. Inquadramento giuridico dei crimini commessi e commisurazione della pena - 5. Le perplessità suscitate dalla sentenza e l’originario impianto accusatorio contro il sacerdote - 6. La Chiesa cattolica, il Sinodo dei vescovi per l’Africa ed il cristianesimo nelle popolazioni africane.