SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa introduttiva - 2. La Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tra eredità islamica e legittimazione internazionale - 3. La laicità dello Stato: il fondamento della nuova identità nazionale - 4. Le forze armate e la Corte costituzionale: i ‘custodi’ della laiklik - 5. La parabola dell’AKP: dall’impulso riformista alla recente involuzione autoritaria - 6. Le implicazioni giuridiche del fallito golpe del 2016.
Secularism in the shadow of the minarets: the constitutional principle of secularism in modern and contemporary Turkey
ABSTRACT: The present essay deals with the so-called ‘laiklik’, namely the Kemalist understanding of the constitutional principle of secularism implemented in the Turkish legal framework over the last century. The analysis takes as a starting point the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey and focuses firstly on the staunch protection of secularism by its traditional ‘guardians’ (i.e. the army and the Constitutional Court). In particular, it is argued that the rhetoric of secularism has been exploited by the ruling élites with the aim to curb religious, cultural and political pluralism. Subsequently, the paper investigates the controversial policies adopted by the AKP - the moderate pro-Islamic party in power uninterruptedly since 2002 - and the rule of law crisis recently occurred in the country. In this regard, the author eventually seeks to assess the aftermath of the coup attempt failed in July 2016, by giving special attention to its short and long-term implications in the light of Turkish secularism.
SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione. - 2. La qualificazione “religiosa” dei beni culturali. - 3. La legislazione vigente. - 4. Le pertinenze degli edifici di culto. - 5. Casi pratici di sacrificio dell'interesse religioso. In particolare, il caso della Madonna del parto di Piero della Francesca. - 6. Beni culturali e beni comuni.
The protection of religious interest of cultural heritage: reflections between ius conditum and ius condendum
ABSTRACT: The current perspective, with regard to cultural heritage of religious interest, needs a legislative adjustment on the new person's protection request. The exam of many practical cases shows, in this matter, that national and economic interests take precedence over religious interests. The reason for this is that many cultural goods of religious interest belong to the State, which claims his exclusive right to use and administer them. It is important to analyze the different interests of the State and the Church, but it is very difficult to find a balance between them. To solve this problem, we can connect the category of the cultural heritage of religious interest to the category of "common goods". The latter goods protect fundamental rights and consider person as the major user of these goods, without taking into account the public and private owners of them. In fact, the cultural heritage of religious interest affects different constitutional rights of the individual, such as the rights relating to the personality, the right to freedom of religion and the right to freedom of art. It is therefore important to consider the needs of the individual to design a correct protection of the cultural heritage of religious interest.